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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205981

RESUMO

Dietary changes are known to alter the composition of the gut microbiome. However, it is less understood how repeatable and reversible these changes are and how diet switches affect the microbiota in the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, a treatment group of conventionally raised laboratory mice is subjected to two periods of western diet (WD) interrupted by a period of standard diet (SD) of the same duration. Beta-diversity analyses show that diet-induced microbiota changes are largely reversible (q = 0.1501; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of the treatment-SD group to the control-SD group) and repeatable (q = 0.032; PERMANOVA, weighted-UniFrac comparison of both WD treatments). Furthermore, we report that diet switches alter the gut microbiota composition along the length of the intestinal tract in a segment-specific manner, leading to gut segment-specific Firmicutes/Bacteroidota ratios. We identified prevalent and distinct Amplicon Sequencing Variants (ASVs), particularly in genera of the recently described Muribaculaceae, along the gut as well as ASVs that are differentially abundant between segments of treatment and control groups. Overall, this study provides insights into the reversibility of diet-induced microbiota changes and highlights the importance of expanding sampling efforts beyond the collections of fecal samples to characterize diet-dependent and segment-specific microbiome differences.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207032

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with distinct, stratified environments, which leads to different microbial composition in different intestinal segments. The regional heterogeneity of intestinal microbiota complicates the relationship between diet and microbiota. Few studies have focused on the effects of different diets on microbiota in different intestinal segments. This study aimed to investigate the effects of functional fiber on the microbial composition in multiple intestinal segments from a high-fat diet compared with a normal chow diet. We found that the response of microbiota from different intestinal segments to diet was related to the intestinal physiologic function and the physicochemical properties of dietary nutrients. A high-fat diet drove changes in the microbial composition in the hindgut, possibly by affecting the digestive environment of the foregut, and increased the regional heterogeneity of the whole intestinal microbiota. The supplementation of functional fiber promoted the microbial transfer and colonization from the anterior to the posterior intestinal segments, and increased the regional similarity of intestinal microbiota accordingly, particularly within the hindgut. The gut fermentation of the functional fiber, which mainly occurred in the hindgut, resulted in a significant change in the microbial composition and metabolism in the cecum and colon, with richer carbohydrate metabolism-related bacteria, including Mucispirillum, Prevotella, Anaerostipes, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus (Lachnospiraceae), and Allobaculum, and higher production of acetate and butyrate. We concluded that multiple regulatory mechanisms of diets which affect microbiota composition exist, including microbial metabolism, microbial migration, and the regulation of the intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Especificidade de Órgãos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204274

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide, affecting both adults and children and will result, in the near future, as the leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Indeed, its prevalence is rapidly increasing, and NAFLD is becoming a major public health concern. For this reason, great efforts are needed to identify its pathogenetic factors and new therapeutic approaches. In the past decade, enormous advances understanding the gut-liver axis-the complex network of cross-talking between the gut, microbiome and liver through the portal circulation-have elucidated its role as one of the main actors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Indeed, evidence shows that gut microbiota is involved in the development and progression of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis seen in the context of NAFLD, as well as in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. As a result, gut microbiota is currently emerging as a non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of disease and for the assessment of its severity. Additionally, to its enormous diagnostic potential, gut microbiota is currently studied as a therapeutic target in NAFLD: several different approaches targeting the gut homeostasis such as antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, adsorbents, bariatric surgery and fecal microbiota transplantation are emerging as promising therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Gerenciamento Clínico , Metabolismo Energético , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Permeabilidade , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 188-195, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171542

RESUMO

In canine nutrition, the use of goat nutraceutical dairy products is an innovative proposal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prepare fermented goat milk with probiotic potential in dogs in an in vitro model. A total of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species were grown, of which 30 were CAP isolates originally from goat milk and 10 were CAN isolates originally from fecal material of newborn dogs. The isolates were selected based on resistance to the simulated canine gastrointestinal condition and acidifying ability. After this preliminary screening, the analyses were performed regarding ß-galactosidase and exopolysaccharide formation, diacetyl production, adhesion proteins Mub and mapa, hydrophobicity, DPPH assay, virulence and antibiotic resistance. With these evaluations, four LAB isolates were identified using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. These were identified as Enterococcus hirae and were used to produce fermented goat milk. For statistical analysis, the data were analyzed using the Scott-Knott test and also submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). In the evaluation of goat milk fermented with E. hirae and control, over the 36-day storage period there was a reduction in pH and an increase in acidity, and higher levels of LAB were observed in goat milk fermented with E. hirae. Therefore, both these E. hirae isolates and the fermented goat milk produced showed satisfactory results in vitro, demonstrating probiotic efficiency and food safety for dogs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Cães/microbiologia , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia
5.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(6): 566-576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038317

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticide (OP) residues present in food can be metabolized into diethylphosphate (DEP) in vivo. Epidemiological studies of OPs have usually focused on these metabolites, while animal studies mainly assessed the OPs. Here, we compared the health risks of a frequently detected OP, triazophos (TAP), and its major metabolite, DEP, in rats. Levels of serum lipids and, sex hormones were measured using immunoassay kits. Gut hormones and inflammatory cytokines were assessed using a multiplexing kit, and the gut microbiota was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. After a 24-week exposure period, both TAP and DEP significantly decreased serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and IL-6 (p < 0.05). However, DEP exposure had a stronger effect on serum estradiol (p < 0.05) than TAP, whereas only TAP inhibited the secretion of gut hormones. Both TAP and DEP enriched the pathogenic genera Oscillibacter, Peptococcus and Paraprevotella in the gut, and TAP also enriched enteritis-related genera Roseburia and Oscillibacter, which may affect the secretion of gut hormones. These findings indicate that the use of dialkyl phosphates as markers of OPs to examine the correlations of OP exposure with diseases may only provide partial information, especially for diseases related to gut health and the endocrine system.


Assuntos
Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Triazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos Wistar
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 590874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158345

RESUMO

Gut microbiome alterations may play a paramount role in determining the clinical outcome of clinical COVID-19 with underlying comorbid conditions like T2D, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, etc. Research is warranted to manipulate the profile of gut microbiota in COVID-19 by employing combinatorial approaches such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics. Prediction of gut microbiome alterations in SARS-CoV-2 infection may likely permit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Novel and targeted interventions by manipulating gut microbiota indeed represent a promising therapeutic approach against COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and associated co-morbidities. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host innate immune responses associated with gut microbiome profiling is likely to contribute to the development of key strategies for application and has seldom been attempted, especially in the context of symptomatic as well as asymptomatic COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/biossíntese , Obesidade/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1629-1641, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822381

RESUMO

Chocolates can be formulated as a functional food via enrichment with probiotics. However, the added probiotics must overcome the challenges of processing and storage conditions and the harsh gastrointestinal environment. The study aimed to overcome these challenges using two different formulations of cocoa powder as alternative encapsulants along with Na-alginate (A1 ) and Na-alginate and fructooligosaccharides (A2 ). Seven different probiotic strains were encapsulated individually using the new formulations and viabilities of these encapsulated probiotics were assessed prior to and after they were added to chocolates. The highest achieved encapsulation efficiencies were 93.40% for formulation A1 (with Lactobacillus casei) and 95.36% for formulation A2 (with Lactobacillus acidophilus La5). The encapsulated probiotics with the new formulations maintained higher viability than the recommended therapeutic level (107 colony forming unit [CFU]/g) for up to 180 and 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C, respectively. The tested encapsulants improved probiotics survival when subjected to thermal stress and maintained about 9.0 Logs CFU/g at 60 °C. Additionally, the viable numbers of probiotics in fortified chocolates showed higher than 7 Logs CFU/g after 90 days of storage at 25 °C. Both formulations exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) high survivability of probiotics (8.0 Logs CFU/g) during the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. This study demonstrated that cocoa powder along with Na-alginate and FOS has the potential to be used as a probiotic encapsulating material, and chocolates could be an excellent carrier for the development of healthy probiotic chocolate products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The introduction of cocoa powder as an effective encapsulating agent to deliver probiotics could help the chocolate industry to develop healthy and attractive functional snacks for health-conscious consumers.


Assuntos
Alginatos/análise , Cacau/microbiologia , Chocolate/microbiologia , Digestão , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Probióticos/química , Cápsulas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus casei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana
8.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806771

RESUMO

Environmental factors, including nutritional habits or birth mode, are known key determinants for intestinal microbial composition. Investigations of the intestinal microbiome in different species in a multiplicity of studies during recent decades have revealed differential microbial patterns and quantities along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Characterization of the microbial pattern in various aspects is a prerequisite for nutritional interventions. In this 16S rRNA amplicon-based approach, we present a characterization of the mucosa-associated microbiome in comparison with the luminal community of four infants at the time of the closure of ileostomies and perform a systematic characterization of the corresponding luminal and mucosal microbiome from jejunal, ileal and colonic regions, as well as collected feces in mice. The most dominant taxa in infant-derived samples altered due to individual differences, and in the mucosa, Enterococcus, Clostridiumsensustricto1, Veillonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were the most abundant. Two less abundant taxa differed significantly between the mucosa and lumen. In murine samples, relative abundances differed significantly, mainly between the intestinal regions. Significant differences between mouse mucosa- and lumen-derived samples could be found in the observed species with a trend to lower estimated diversity in mucosa-derived samples, as well as in the relative abundance of individual taxa. In this study, we examined the difference between the mucosal and luminal bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in a small sample cohort of preterm infants. Individual differences were characterized and statistical significance was reached in two taxa (Cupriavidus, Ralstonia). The corresponding study on the different murine intestinal regions along the GI tract showed differences all over the intestinal region.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808622

RESUMO

This work aimed to define the microbial consortia that are able to digest gluten into non-toxic and non-immunogenic peptides in the human gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: 131 out of 504 tested Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, specifically Bacillus (64), lactobacilli (63), Pediococcus (1), and Weissella (3), showed strong gastrointestinal resistance and were selected for their PepN, PepI, PepX, PepO, and PepP activities toward synthetic substrates. Based on multivariate analysis, 24 strains were clearly distinct from the other tested strains based on having the highest enzymatic activities. As estimated by RP-HPLC and nano-ESI-MS/MS, 6 cytoplasmic extracts out of 24 selected strains showed the ability to hydrolyze immunogenic epitopes, specifically 57-68 of α9-gliadin, 62-75 of A-gliadin, 134-153 of γ-gliadin, and 57-89 (33-mer) of α2-gliadin. Live and lysed cells of selected strains were combined into different microbial consortia for hydrolyzing gluten under gastrointestinal conditions. Commercial proteolytic enzymes (Aspergillusoryzae E1, Aspergillusniger E2, Bacillussubtilis Veron HPP, and Veron PS proteases) were also added to each microbial consortium. Consortium activity was evaluated by ELISA tests, RP-HPLC-nano-ESI-MS/MS, and duodenal explants from celiac disease patients. RESULTS: two microbial consortia (Consortium 4: Lactiplantibacillus (Lp.) plantarum DSM33363 and DSM33364, Lacticaseibacillus (Lc.) paracasei DSM33373, Bacillussubtilis DSM33298, and Bacilluspumilus DSM33301; and Consortium 16: Lp. plantarum DSM33363 and DSM33364, Lc. paracasei DSM33373, Limosilactobacillusreuteri DSM33374, Bacillusmegaterium DSM33300, B.pumilus DSM33297 and DSM33355), containing commercial enzymes, were able to hydrolyze gluten to non-toxic and non-immunogenic peptides under gastrointestinal conditions. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study provide evidence that selected microbial consortia could potentially improve the digestion of gluten in gluten-sensitive patients by hydrolyzing the immunogenic peptides during gastrointestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Digestão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Bacillus , Bactérias/classificação , Duodeno/metabolismo , Epitopos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Consórcios Microbianos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913805

RESUMO

Two bacterial strains, FWR-8T and CFWR-9T, were isolated from the gut of larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis that were raised at the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju-gun, Republic of Korea. Both strains were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and non-motile. Strain FWR-8T possessed the highest sequence similarity (98.7 %) to that of Protaetiibacter intestinalis 2DFWR-13T and the phylogenetic tree revealed that strain FWR-8T formed a cluster with Ptb. intestinalis 2DFWR-13T. Pseudolysinimonas kribbensis MSL-13T and Lysinimonas yzui N7XX-4T shared a high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.8 %) and formed a cluster adjacent to the cluster that included Ptb. intestinalis 2DFWR-13T. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain CFWR-9T exhibited the highest similarity (97.7 %) to that of Agromyces binzhouensis OAct353T and the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain CFWR-9T formed one independent cluster with A. binzhouensis OAct353T that was within the radius of the genus Agromyces. The peptidoglycan type, major fatty acids, major menaquinones and total polar lipids of strain FWR-8T were characterized as type B1, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0, MK-15, MK-16 and MK-14, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid, respectively. Those from strain CFWR-9T were type B1, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0, MK-11, MK-12 and MK-10, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified lipid, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, strains FWR-8T and CFWR-9T each represent a novel species within the genera Protaetiibacter and Agromyces, respectively. For these species, the names Protaetiibacter larvae sp. nov. and Agromyces intestinalis sp. nov. have been proposed, with the type strains FWR-8T (=KACC 19322T=NBRC 113051T) and CFWR-9T (=KACC 19306T=NBRC 113046T), respectively. Our results also justify a reclassification of Lysinimonas yzui as Pseudolysinimonas yzui comb. nov. and an emended description of the genus Pseudolysinimonas isprovided.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Larva/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
11.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809637

RESUMO

Skin aging occurs inevitably as a natural result of physiological changes over time. In particular, solar exposure of the skin accounts for up to 90% of skin damage. Numerous studies have examined the ability of dietary constituents to prevent skin aging, and recent research has emphasized the role of functional probiotics in intestinal function and skin aging. However, the mechanism of the interactions between aging and probiotics has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 in regulating tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells and increasing moisture retention in human dermal fibroblasts cells. We observed that HY7714 EPS controlled intestinal tight junctions in Caco-2 cells by upregulating the genes encoding occludin-1 (OCL-1) and zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1). In addition, HY7714 EPS effectively improved UVB-induced cytotoxicity and hydration capacity in HS68 cells by downregulating production of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In summary, HY7714 EPS is an effective anti-aging molecule in skin and may have therapeutic potential against skin diseases and UVB-induced damage. Therefore, HY7714 EPS serves as a functional substance in skin-gut axis communication.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Ocludina/metabolismo , Probióticos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 590874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791231

RESUMO

Gut microbiome alterations may play a paramount role in determining the clinical outcome of clinical COVID-19 with underlying comorbid conditions like T2D, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, etc. Research is warranted to manipulate the profile of gut microbiota in COVID-19 by employing combinatorial approaches such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics. Prediction of gut microbiome alterations in SARS-CoV-2 infection may likely permit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Novel and targeted interventions by manipulating gut microbiota indeed represent a promising therapeutic approach against COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and associated co-morbidities. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host innate immune responses associated with gut microbiome profiling is likely to contribute to the development of key strategies for application and has seldom been attempted, especially in the context of symptomatic as well as asymptomatic COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/biossíntese , Obesidade/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(5): 2357-2364, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656587

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, yellow-pigmented rod-shaped and alginate-degrading bacterium, designated B1N29T, was isolated from the gut of the abalone Haliotis rubra obtained in Weihai, China. Strain B1N29T was found to grow at 4-35 ℃ (optimum, 25 ℃), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 0.5-9% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2%). Cells were positive for oxidase and catalase activity. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nearest phylogenetic neighbors of strain B1N29T were Tamlana carrageenivorans KCTC 62451T (98.2%) and Tamlana agarivorans KCTC 22176T (97.7%). Based on the phylogenomic analysis, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain B1N29T and the neighbor strains were 79.2 and 79.0%, respectively; the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain B1N29T and its two closest neighbors were 22.8 and 23.0%, respectively. Menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was detected as the sole respiratory quinone. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, one aminophospholipid, seven aminolipids and five unidentified lipids. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain B1N29T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tamlana, for which the name Tamlana haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B1N29T (= KCTC 72683T = MCCC 1H00394T).


Assuntos
Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gastrópodes/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 620124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679761

RESUMO

In modern medicine, the oral cavity has often been viewed as a passive conduit to the upper airways and gastrointestinal tract; however, its connection to the rest of the body has been increasingly explored over the last 40 years. For several diseases, the periodontium and gingiva are at the center of this oral-systemic link. Over 50 systemic conditions have been specifically associated with gingival and periodontal inflammation, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which have recently been elevated from simple "associations" to elegant, mechanistic investigations. IBD and periodontitis have been reported to impact each other's progression via a bidirectional relationship whereby chronic oral or intestinal inflammation can impact the other; however, the precise mechanisms for how this occurs remain unclear. Classically, the etiology of gingival inflammation (gingivitis) is oral microbial dysbiosis in the subgingival crevice that can lead to destructive periodontal disease (periodontitis); however, the current understanding of gingival involvement in IBD is that it may represent a separate disease entity from classical gingivitis, arising from mechanisms related to systemic inflammatory activation of niche-resident immune cells. Synthesizing available evidence, we hypothesize that once established, IBD can be driven by microbiomial and inflammatory changes originating specifically from the gingival niche through saliva, thereby worsening IBD outcomes and thus perpetuating a vicious cycle. In this review, we introduce the concept of the "gum-gut axis" as a framework for examining this reciprocal relationship between the periodontium and the gastrointestinal tract. To support and explore this gum-gut axis, we 1) provide a narrative review of historical studies reporting gingival and periodontal manifestations in IBD, 2) describe the current understanding and advances for the gum-gut axis, and 3) underscore the importance of collaborative treatment and research plans between oral and GI practitioners to benefit this patient population.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Trato Gastrointestinal , Gengiva , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Gengivite/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Microbiota , Saúde Bucal , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/etiologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669189

RESUMO

Obesity is a chronic disease resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. The growing relevance of this metabolic disease lies in its association with other comorbidities. Obesity is a multifaceted disease where intestinal hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY), produced by enteroendocrine cells (EECs), have a pivotal role as signaling systems. Receptors for these hormones have been identified in the gut and different brain regions, highlighting the interconnection between gut and brain in satiation mechanisms. The intestinal microbiota (IM), directly interacting with EECs, can be modulated by the diet by providing specific nutrients that induce environmental changes in the gut ecosystem. Therefore, macronutrients may trigger the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) through mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors in EECs, inducing the secretion of specific hormones that lead to decreased appetite or increased energy expenditure. Designing drugs/functional foods based in bioactive compounds exploiting these nutrient-sensing mechanisms may offer an alternative treatment for obesity and/or associated metabolic diseases. Organ-on-a-chip technology represents a suitable approach to model multi-organ communication that can provide a robust platform for studying the potential of these compounds as modulators of the MGBA.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 340: 109453, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785314

RESUMO

Gut bacterial ß-glucuronidase (GUS) plays a pivotal role in the metabolism and reactivation of a vast of glucuronide conjugates of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of human, which has been implicated in certain drug-induced gastrointestinal tract (GI) toxicity in clinic. Inhibitors of gut microbial GUS exhibited great potentials in relieving the drug-induced GI toxicity. In this study, Selaginella tamariscina and its major biflavonoid amentoflavone (AMF) were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli GUS. Two selective probe substrates for GUS (a specific fluorescent probe substrate for GUS, DDAOG and a classical drug substrate for GUS, SN38G) were used in parallel for charactering the inhibition behaviors. Both the extract of S. tamariscina and its major biflavonoid AMF displayed evident inhibitory effects on GUS, and the IC50 values of AMF against GUS mediated DDAOG and SN-38G hydrolysis were 0.62 and 0.49 µM, respectively. Inhibition kinetics studies indicated that AMF showed mixed type inhibition for GUS-mediated DDAOG hydrolysis, while displayed competitive type inhibition against GUS-mediated SN-38G hydrolysis, with the Ki values of 0.24 and 1.25 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies and molecular dynamics stimulation results clarified the role of amino acid residues Leu361, Ile363, and Glu413 in the inhibition of AMF on GUS. These results provided some foundations for the potential clinical utility of S. tamariscina and its major biflavonoid AMF for treating drug-induced enteropathy.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Selaginellaceae/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glucuronídeos/metabolismo , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(6): 3127-3138, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677572

RESUMO

Thousands of new phages have recently been discovered thanks to viral metagenomics. These phages are extremely diverse and their genome sequences often do not resemble any known phages. To appreciate their ecological impact, it is important to determine their bacterial hosts. CRISPR spacers can be used to predict hosts of unknown phages, as spacers represent biological records of past phage-bacteria interactions. However, no guidelines have been established to standardize host prediction based on CRISPR spacers. Additionally, there are no tools that use spacers to perform host predictions on large viral datasets. Here, we developed a set of tools that includes all the necessary steps for predicting the hosts of uncharacterized phages. We created a database of >11 million spacers and a program to execute host predictions on large viral datasets. Our host prediction approach uses biological criteria inspired by how CRISPR-Cas naturally work as adaptive immune systems, which make the results easy to interpret. We evaluated the performance using 9484 phages with known hosts and obtained a recall of 49% and a precision of 69%. We also found that this host prediction method yielded higher performance for phages that infect gut-associated bacteria, suggesting it is well suited for gut-virome characterization.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenômica/métodos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Internet , Software
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(5): 2219-2228, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630118

RESUMO

Candida genus comprises several species that can be found in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Under certain conditions, however, they behave as opportunistic pathogens that colonize these tissues, most frequently when the immune system is compromised by a disease or under certain medical treatments. To colonize the human host, these organisms require to express cell wall proteins (CWP) that allowed them to adhere and adapt to the reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species produced in the macrophage during the respiratory burst. The aim of this study was to determine how four Candida species respond to the oxidative stress imposed by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). To this purpose, C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis were exposed to this oxidant which is known to generate ROS in the membrane phospholipids. Accordingly, both mock and CHP-exposed cells were used to extract and analyze CWP and also to measure catalase activity and the levels of protein carbonylation. Results indicated that all four species express different CWP to neutralize ROS. Most relevant among these proteins were the glycolytic enzymes enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, known as moonlight proteins because in addition to participate in glycolysis they play an important role in the cell response to ROS. In addition, a thiol-specific antioxidant enzyme (Tsa) was also found to counteract ROS.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/metabolismo , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Candida/enzimologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Boca/microbiologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia
19.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(6): 774-782, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544912

RESUMO

The study was performed to compare real-time PCR after nucleic acid extraction directly from stool samples as well as from samples stored and transported on Whatman papers or flocked swabs at ambient temperature in the tropics. In addition, the possible suitability for a clear determination of likely aetiological relevance of PCR-based pathogen detections based on cycle threshold (Ct) values was assessed. From 632 Tanzanian children <5 years of age with and without gastrointestinal symptoms, 466 samples were subjected to nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR for gastrointestinal viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens. Equal or even higher frequencies of pathogen detections from Whatman papers or flocked swabs were achieved compared with nucleic acid extraction directly from stool samples. Comparison of the Ct values showed no significant difference according to the nucleic acid extraction strategy. Also, the Ct values did not allow a decision whether a detected pathogen was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Criança , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tanzânia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
20.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(2): 254-273, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576711

RESUMO

Human gut microbiota contributes to host nutrition and metabolism, sustains intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation, and modulates host immune system. The alterations in their composition lead to severe gut disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS). IBD including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are gamut of chronic inflammatory disorders of gut, mediated by complex interrelations among genetic, environmental, and internal factors. IBD has debateable aetiology, however in recent years, exploring the central role of a tri-directional relationship between gut microbiota, mucosal immune system, and intestinal epithelium in pathogenesis is getting the most attention. Increasing incidences and early onset explains the exponential rise in IBD burden on health-care systems. Industrialization, hypersensitivity to allergens, lifestyle, hygiene hypothesis, loss of intestinal worms, and gut microbial composition, explains this shifted rise. Hitherto, the interventions modulating gut microbiota composition, microfluidics-based in vitro gastrointestinal models, non-allergic functional foods, nutraceuticals, and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors are some of the futuristic approaches for the disease management.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia
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