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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21488, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy characterized by an aberrant immune response to ingested gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies have pointed to a rising prevalence of celiac disease in recent decades. Changes in diet and use of medication that may impact the gut microbiome have been suggested as potential contributors. Exposure to protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) was recently found to be associated with an increased risk for subsequent diagnosis of celiac disease. We aimed to investigate potential mechanisms for this link by examining the relationship between PPI use and gluten-related immune responses in the context of changes in gut microbiome. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of blood and fecal samples from a recent randomized trial in order to assess the potential association between PPI use and development of celiac disease serology in conjunction with alterations in gastrointestinal microbial composition. The study included 12 healthy participants who were administered a PPI (Omeprazole; 40 mg twice daily) for 4 or 8 weeks. RESULTS: The analysis did not reveal an overall significant change in levels of serologic markers of celiac disease for the study cohort in response to PPI treatment. However, one individual developed a marked increase in the celiac disease-specific autoantibody response to transglutaminase 2 in conjunction with enhanced immune reactivity to gluten during the trial. Genotyping revealed positivity for the celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. Furthermore, the observed elevation in antibody responses was closely associated with a sharp increase in fecal abundance of bacteria of the order Actinomycetales. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory analysis support further investigation of molecular mechanisms involved in the contribution of PPIs to celiac disease risk through the potential enhancement of gluten immunopathology and changes in gut microbial population.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/sangue , Doença Celíaca/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Actinomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Alelos , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Genótipo , Glutens/efeitos adversos , Glutens/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DQ/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Omeprazol/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Transglutaminases/sangue , Transglutaminases/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877228

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
3.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109577, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846611

RESUMO

The year 2020 will be remembered by a never before seen, at least by our generation, global pandemic of COVID-19. While a desperate search for effective vaccines or drug therapies is on the run, nutritional strategies to promote immunity against SARS-CoV-2, are being discussed. Certain fermented foods and probiotics may deliver viable microbes with the potential to promote gut immunity. Prebiotics, on their side, may enhance gut immunity by selectively stimulating certain resident microbes in the gut. Different levels of evidence support the use of fermented foods, probiotics and prebiotics to promote gut and lungs immunity. Without being a promise of efficacy against COVID-19, incorporating them into the diet may help to low down gut inflammation and to enhance mucosal immunity, to possibly better face the infection by contributing to diminishing the severity or the duration of infection episodes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Inflamação , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 578, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gram-positive anaerobic (GPA) bacteria inhabit different parts of the human body as commensals but can also cause bacteremia. In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed GPA bacteremia pathogens before (2013-2015) and after (2016-2018) the introduction of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). METHOD: We conducted a retrospective observational study by searching the microbiology database to identify all positive GPA blood cultures of patients with GPA bacteremia diagnosed using the new technique, MALDI-TOF MS, between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2018; and using a conventional phenotypic method between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 at a single tertiary center in Japan. Parvimonas micra (P. micra) (17.5%) was the second most frequently identified GPA (MALDI-TOF MS); we then retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records for 25 P. micra bacteremia cases at our hospital. We also conducted a literature review of published cases in PubMed from January 1, 1980, until December 31, 2019; 27 cases were retrieved. RESULTS: Most cases of P. micra bacteremia were identified after 2015, both, at our institute and from the literature review. They were of mostly elderly patients and had comorbid conditions (malignancies and diabetes). In our cases, laryngeal pharynx (7/25, 28%) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT; 6/25, 24%) were identified as the most likely sources of bacteremia; however, the infection source was not identified in 9 cases (36%). P. micra bacteremia were frequently associated with spondylodiscitis (29.6%), oropharyngeal infection (25.9%), intra-abdominal abscess (14.8%), infective endocarditis (11.1%), septic pulmonary emboli (11.1%), and GIT infection (11.1%) in the literature review. Almost all cases were treated successfully with antibiotics and by abscess drainage. The 30-day mortalities were 4 and 3.7% for our cases and the literature cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Infection sites of P. micra are predominantly associated with GIT, oropharyngeal, vertebral spine, intra-abdominal region, pulmonary, and heart valves. Patients with P. micra bacteremia could have good prognosis following appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Firmicutes/química , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/química , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/sangue , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Hemocultura , Discite/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4321, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859904

RESUMO

Bacterial colonization of the human intestine requires firm adhesion of bacteria to insoluble substrates under hydrodynamic flow. Here we report the molecular mechanism behind an ultrastable protein complex responsible for resisting shear forces and adhering bacteria to cellulose fibers in the human gut. Using single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), single-molecule FRET (smFRET), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we resolve two binding modes and three unbinding reaction pathways of a mechanically ultrastable R. champanellensis (Rc) Dockerin:Cohesin (Doc:Coh) complex. The complex assembles in two discrete binding modes with significantly different mechanical properties, with one breaking at ~500 pN and the other at ~200 pN at loading rates from 1-100 nN s-1. A neighboring X-module domain allosterically regulates the binding interaction and inhibits one of the low-force pathways at high loading rates, giving rise to a catch bonding mechanism that manifests under force ramp protocols. Multi-state Monte Carlo simulations show strong agreement with experimental results, validating the proposed kinetic scheme. These results explain mechanistically how gut microbes regulate cell adhesion strength at high shear stress through intricate molecular mechanisms including dual-binding modes, mechanical allostery and catch bonds.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Fenômenos Físicos , Bactérias , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Método de Monte Carlo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Estresse Mecânico
6.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(19): 8089-8104, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813065

RESUMO

Interspecies transmissions of viruses between animals and humans may result in unpredictable pathogenic potential and new transmissible diseases. This mechanism has recently been exemplified by the discovery of new pathogenic viruses, such as the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, Middle-East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus epidemic in Saudi Arabia, and the deadly outbreak of Ebola in West Africa. The. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is having a massive global impact in terms of economic disruption, and, above all, human health. The disease is characterized by dry cough, fever, fatigue, myalgia, and dyspnea. Other symptoms include headache, sore throat, rhinorrhea, and gastrointestinal disorders. Pneumonia appears to be the most common and severe manifestation of the infection. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific drug for COVID-19. Further, the development of new antiviral requires a considerable length of time and effort for drug design and validation. Therefore, repurposing the use of natural compounds can provide alternatives and can support therapy against COVID-19. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the prophylactic and supportive therapeutic role of probiotics for the management of COVID-19. In addition, the unique role of probiotics to modulate the gut microbe and assert gut homeostasis and production of interferon as an antiviral mechanism is described. Further, the regulatory role of probiotics on gut-lung axis and mucosal immune system for the potential antiviral mechanisms is reviewed and discussed.Key points• Gut microbiota role in antiviral diseases• Factors influencing the antiviral mechanism• Probiotics and Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Probióticos/metabolismo , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/transmissão , Vitamina D/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo
7.
Cell Rep ; 32(3): 107915, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649864

RESUMO

Coronaviruses cause several human diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome. The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a huge threat to humans. Intensive research on the pathogenic mechanisms used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed-notably to identify potential drug targets. Clinical studies of patients with COVID-19 have shown that gastrointestinal disorders appear to precede or follow the respiratory symptoms. Here, we review gastrointestinal disorders in patients with COVID-19, suggest hypothetical mechanisms leading to gut symptoms, and discuss the potential consequences of gastrointestinal disorders on the outcome of the disease. Lastly, we discuss the role of the gut microbiota during respiratory viral infections and suggest that targeting gut dysbiosis may help to control the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645011

RESUMO

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is highly prevalent and is associated with numerous gastrointestinal disorders, but the microbes involved remain poorly defined. Moreover, existing studies of microbiome alterations in SIBO have utilized stool samples, which are not representative of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we aimed to determine and compare the duodenal microbiome composition in SIBO and non-SIBO subjects, using duodenal aspirates from subjects undergoing standard-of-care esophagogastroduodenoscopy without colon preparation. Using the recently-redefined cutoff for SIBO of >103 colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL), 42 SIBO and 98 non-SIBO subjects were identified. Duodenal samples from SIBO subjects had 4x103-fold higher counts than non-SIBO subjects when plated on MacConkey agar (P<0.0001), and 3.8-fold higher counts when plated on blood agar (P<0.0001). Twenty subjects had also undergone lactulose hydrogen breath tests (LHBTs), of whom 7/20 had SIBO. At the 90-minute timepoint, 4/7 SIBO subjects had positive LHBTs (rise in hydrogen (H2) ≥ 20 ppm above baseline), as compared to 2/13 non-SIBO subjects. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing revealed that SIBO subjects had 4.31-fold higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (FDR P<0.0001) and 1.64-fold lower Firmicutes (P<0.0003) than non-SIBO subjects. This increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria correlated with decreased α-diversity in SIBO subjects (Spearman R = 0.4866, P<0.0001) Specific increases in class Gammaproteobacteria correlated with the area-under-the-curve for H2 for 0-90 mins during LHBT (R = 0.630, P = 0.002). Increases in Gammaproteobacteria resulted primarily from higher relative abundances of the family Enterobacteriaceae (FDR P<0.0001), which correlated with the symptom of bloating (Spearman R = 0.185, 2-tailed P = 0.028). Increases in family Aeromonadaceae correlated with urgency with bowel movement (Spearman R = 0.186, 2-tailed P = 0.028). These results validate the >103 CFU/mL cutoff for the definition of SIBO, and also reveal specific overgrowth of Proteobacteria in SIBO vs. non-SIBO subjects, coupled with an altered Proteobacterial profile that correlates with symptom severity. Future research may elucidate host-microbiome interactions underlying these symptoms in SIBO patients.


Assuntos
Duodeno/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Virus Res ; 286: 198103, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717345

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a major pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has created unprecedented global health emergencies, and emerged as a serious threat due to its strong ability for human-to-human transmission. The reports indicate the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to affect almost any organ due to the presence of a receptor known as angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) across the body. ACE2 receptor is majorly expressed in the brush border of gut enterocytes along with the ciliated cells and alveolar epithelial type II cells in the lungs. The amino acid transport function of ACE2 has been linked to gut microbial ecology in gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby suggesting that COVID-19 may, to some level, be linked to the enteric microbiota. The significant number of COVID-19 patients shows extra-pulmonary symptoms in the GI tract. Many subsequent studies revealed viral RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in fecal samples of COVID-19 patients. This presents a new challenge in the diagnosis and control of COVID-19 infection with a caution for proper sanitation and hygiene. Here, we aim to discuss the immunological co-ordination between gut and lungs that facilitates SARS-CoV-2 to infect and multiply in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and non-IBD patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/microbiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/virologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia
10.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4515-4522, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614762

RESUMO

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated Hs20B0-1T and Hs30E4-3T, were isolated from the gut of the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti. These strains were characterized genetically and phenotypically. Strain Hs20B0-1T was related to Lactococcus piscium DSM 6634T showing 96.3 and 84.2 % sequence similarity in 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequences, respectively. Strain Hs30E4-3T was related to Lactococcus plantarum DSM 20686T showing 94.8 and 82.2 % sequence similarity in 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequences, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains Hs20B0-1T and Hs30E4-3T was 95.7 %. Furthermore, genomic comparisons using pairwise average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) analyses between strain Hs20B0-1T and L. piscium DSM 6634T resulted in values of 73.5 and 20.1 %, respectively. Strain Hs30E4-3T had 72.8 % ANI similarity and 21.3 % DDH similarity to L. plantarum DSM 20686T. Strains Hs20B0-1T and Hs30E4-3T had 75.4 % ANI similarity and 21.1 % DDH similarity to each other. The cell-wall peptidoglycan types of strains Hs20B0-1T and Hs30E4-3T were A4α, Lys-Asp and A3α, Lys-Thr-Ala, respectively. The two strains, Hs20B0-1T and Hs30E4-3T, are distinguishable from each other and other established Lactococcus species phylogenetically and phenotypically. In conclusion, two novel species of the genus Lactococcus are proposed, namely Lactococcus insecticola Hs20B0-1T (=JCM 33485T=DSM 110147T) and Lactococcus hodotermopsidis Hs30E4-3T (=JCM 33486T=DSM 110148T), respectively.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Isópteros/microbiologia , Lactococcus/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Madeira
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008387, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574158

RESUMO

Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is characterized by diffuse villous atrophy of the small bowel. EED is strongly associated with stunting, a major public health problem linked to increased childhood morbidity and mortality. EED and subsequent stunting of linear growth are surmised to have microbial origins. To interrogate this relationship, we defined the comprehensive virome (eukaryotic virus and bacteriophage) and bacterial microbiome of a longitudinal cohort of rural Malawian children with extensive metadata and intestinal permeability testing at each time point. We found thirty bacterial taxa differentially associated with linear growth. We detected many eukaryotic viruses. Neither the total number of eukaryotic families nor a specific viral family was statistically associated with improved linear growth. We identified 3 differentially abundant bacteriophage among growth velocities. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between bacteria and bacteriophage richness in children with subsequent adequate/moderate growth which children with subsequent poor growth lacked. This suggests that a disruption in the equilibrium between bacteria and bacteriophage communities might be associated with subsequent poor growth. Future studies of EED and stunting should include the evaluation of viral communities in addition to bacterial microbiota to understand the complete microbial ecology of these poorly understood entities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/microbiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/virologia , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Intestino Delgado/virologia , Malaui , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Permeabilidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
12.
Anaerobe ; 64: 102233, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593567

RESUMO

COVID-19 dramatically affects the elderly. Due to the large usage of antibiotics during the current pandemic and the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19, the elderly population, hospitalized patients, residents in LTCFs and persons that survived the COVID-19 might be more prone to Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). A renewed attention to CDI is necessary during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4111-4118, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538739

RESUMO

A novel orange to pink coloured bacterial strain designated as CT19T was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio var. specularis (Lacepède, 1803) collected from the Gobind Sagar reservoir at village Lathiani, Una, Himachal Pradesh, India. Cells of the strain were found to be aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and non-spore-forming coccoids. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was closely related to Salinicoccus hispanicus J-82T (=DSM 5352T; 97.4 %), followed by S. sesuvii CC-SPL15-2T (=DSM 23267T; 96.4 %), S. amylolyticus JC304T (=KCTC 33661T; 95.6 %) and S. roseus DSM 5351T (95.4 %). Identity with all other members of the genus were <94.5 %. The draft genome of strain CT19T was assembled to 2.4 Mbp with a G+C content of 47.9 mol%. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CT19T and S. hispanicus J-82T were found to be 85.9 and 31.3% respectively which is far below the threshold for species delineation. Iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 were the major cellular fatty acids of strain CT19T. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylgylcerol and an unidentified glycolipid. Respiratory quinone system was composed of menaquinone-6 and major cell wall amino acid was l-lysine. Based on phylogenomic, physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain CT19T represents a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus for which the name Salinicoccus cyprini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CT19T (=KCTC 43022T =CCM 8886T=MCC 3834T).


Assuntos
Carpas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Filogenia , Staphylococcaceae/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Índia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4193-4198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539910

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium, designated as SH-1T, was isolated from the gut content of a whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei collected in a shrimp farm in South Korea. The bacterial cells were ovoid rod-shaped, non-motile, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative. Growth was observed at 20-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 5.0-9.5 (pH 8.5) and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl (2-3 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositolmannoside, unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified lipids. The G+C content was 66.1 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SH-1T was placed in a distinct clade with Primorskyibacter marinus PX7T (96.97 % sequence similarity), Pontibaca methylaminivorans DSM 21219T (96.03 %) and Pelagivirga sediminicola BH-SD19T (95.02 %) in the family Rhodobacteraceae and distantly related with them to be a new genus. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average nucleotide identity (ANI) and average amino acid identity (AAI) values calculated from whole-genome-sequence comparison between the SH-1T and the close species were in the ranges of 19.0-19.8, 73.8-74.9 and 64.1-65.9 %, respectively. Based on the polyphasic analysis presented in this study, we suggest that strain SH-1T represents a novel genus and species in the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Pukyongiella litopenaei gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pukyongiella litopenaei is SH-1T (=KCTC 62276T=MCCC 1K04072T).


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Rhodobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/química
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107936, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535116

RESUMO

This study evaluated the germination capacity of Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens and its interaction with Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs. Twenty-two domestic chickens were divided in two groups: control group (G1) received shredded corn substrate without VC4; and treatment group (G2) received a single dose of 29 g corn substrate containing 3.3 × 106 conidia/chlamydospores (VC4). Subsequently, chicken fecal samples were collected at intervals of 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h. Petri dishes from fecal samples of the treated group (G2) were subdivided (G2a and G2b), and then replicated in 2% agar-water medium for the microbiological test. After VC4 growth, approximately 200 eggs of A. galli (G2a) and H. gallinarum (G2b) were added to each subgroup to evaluation of ovicidal activity. There was fungal viability after passage through chicken gastrointestinal tract and egg predation of 59.9% and 43.2% for A. galli and H. gallinarum, respectively. The present work demonstrates the ability of the fungus P. chlamydosporia to survive after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens, an extreme environment (low pH, enzymes, microbiota and mechanical action), and still germinate after being excreted with feces.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Animais , Ascaridia/microbiologia , Ascaridíase/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Spirurina/microbiologia
17.
Virus Res ; 285: 198018, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430279

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a major pandemic facing the world today caused by SARS-CoV-2 which has implications on our understanding of infectious diseases. Although, SARS-Cov-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding of ACE2 receptors present on the alveolar epithelial cells, yet it was recently reported that SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in the faeces of infected patients. Interestingly, the intestinal epithelial cells particularly the enterocytes of the small intestine also express ACE2 receptors. Role of the gut microbiota in influencing lung diseases has been well articulated. It is also known that respiratory virus infection causes perturbations in the gut microbiota. Diet, environmental factors and genetics play an important role in shaping gut microbiota which can influence immunity. Gut microbiota diversity is decreased in old age and Covid-19 has been mainly fatal in elderly patients which again points to the role the gut microbiota may play in this disease. Improving gut microbiota profile by personalized nutrition and supplementation known to improve immunity can be one of the prophylactic ways by which the impact of this disease can be minimized in old people and immune-compromised patients. More trials may be initiated to see the effect of co-supplementation of personalized functional food including prebiotics/probiotics along with current therapies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dieta , Disbiose , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunidade , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2097, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350281

RESUMO

Astroviruses are a global cause of pediatric diarrhea, but they are largely understudied, and it is unclear how and where they replicate in the gut. Using an in vivo model, here we report that murine astrovirus preferentially infects actively secreting small intestinal goblet cells, specialized epithelial cells that maintain the mucus barrier. Consequently, virus infection alters mucus production, leading to an increase in mucus-associated bacteria and resistance to enteropathogenic E. coli colonization. These studies establish the main target cell type and region of the gut for productive murine astrovirus infection. They further define a mechanism by which an enteric virus can regulate the mucus barrier, induce functional changes to commensal microbial communities, and alter host susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/patologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Astroviridae/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Células Caliciformes/virologia , Muco/virologia , Animais , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muco/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactose intolerance is a frequent gastrointestinal disease affecting 47% of the Eastern European population. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) leads to carbohydrate malabsorption and therefore to false results during lactose breath and tolerance tests. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the prevalence of lactose maldigestion and intolerance in Hungary and to investigate the role of combined diagnostic method and testing for SIBO in reducing false results. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 264 adult symptomatic patients who underwent 50g lactose breath and tolerance tests in parallel over a one-year period at our center. A ≥20 ppm elevation of H2 or less than 1.1 mmol/l rise of blood glucose was diagnostic for lactose maldigestion. Patients with maldigestion who had symptoms during the test were defined as lactose intolerant. Patients with an early (≤90 min) significant (≥20 ppm) rise of H2 during lactose and/or lactulose breath tests were determined to have SIBO. Patients with slow/rapid oro-cecal transit and inappropriate preparation before the test were excluded. RESULTS: 49.6% of the 264 patients had lactose maldigestion, and 29.5% had lactose intolerance. The most frequent symptom was bloating (22.7%), while 34.8% of the study population and 60% of the symptomatic patients had SIBO. In 9.1% and 9.8% of the patients, the lactose breath and tolerance test alone gave false positive result compared with the combined method. SIBO was present in 75% of the false positives diagnosed with breath test only. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of lactose intolerance is lower in Hungary compared to the Eastern European value (29.5% vs 47%), so it is worth performing a population-based prospective analysis in this area. A combination of lactose breath and tolerance tests and the careful monitoring of results (with early H2 rise, lactulose breath test, etc.) can decrease the false cases caused by e.g. SIBO.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Lactose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Testes Respiratórios , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Hidrogênio , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/patologia , Lactose/administração & dosagem , Intolerância à Lactose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Lactose/microbiologia , Intolerância à Lactose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Gastroenterology ; 159(3): 944-955.e8, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects gastrointestinal tissues, little is known about the roles of gut commensal microbes in susceptibility to and severity of infection. We investigated changes in fecal microbiomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization and associations with severity and fecal shedding of virus. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of fecal samples from 15 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, from February 5 through March 17, 2020. Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care). We compared microbiome data with those from 6 subjects with community-acquired pneumonia and 15 healthy individuals (controls). We assessed gut microbiome profiles in association with disease severity and changes in fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significant alterations in fecal microbiomes compared with controls, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and depletion of beneficial commensals, at time of hospitalization and at all timepoints during hospitalization. Depleted symbionts and gut dysbiosis persisted even after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (determined from throat swabs) and resolution of respiratory symptoms. The baseline abundance of Coprobacillus, Clostridium ramosum, and Clostridium hathewayi correlated with COVID-19 severity; there was an inverse correlation between abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (an anti-inflammatory bacterium) and disease severity. Over the course of hospitalization, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides massiliensis, and Bacteroides ovatus, which downregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in murine gut, correlated inversely with SARS-CoV-2 load in fecal samples from patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study of 15 patients with COVID-19, we found persistent alterations in the fecal microbiome during the time of hospitalization, compared with controls. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal levels of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Strategies to alter the intestinal microbiota might reduce disease severity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto
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