Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 189
Filtrar
1.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 288-303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476999

RESUMO

Is the influence of religiousness on fearful, depressive and somatic symptoms and psychic traumatization overestimated? A representative cross-sectional study Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove if religious faith, spirituality and religious praxis are joined with lower depression, anxiety and physical pain-level and if subjects with traumatic experiences report more spirituality. Methods: In this consecutive study, 2508 adults of a representative sample in Germany were interviewed about religious faith and spirituality in relation to depression, anxiety, physical disorders as well as traumatic experiences. Results: Unlike our hypotheses people who are charged with mental (PHQ-4; Löwe et al. 2010) or physical disorders (GBB_8; Kliem et al. 2017) report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis than people without mental or physical problems. As expected people with traumatic experiences in their childhood (CTS; Grabe et al. 2012) describe significantly more spirituality than people without these experiences. Conclusions: Other than expected people with more mental or physical disorders report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis. It is to discuss if spirituality is less a protective factor for mental or physical disorders than disorders activate to look for spirituality and private religious/spiritual praxis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16631, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review protocol describes the methods that will be used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ear acupuncture for trauma-related disorders after large-scale disasters. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched up to May 2019 without language or publication status restrictions: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycARTICLES. We will also search Korean, Chinese, and Japanese databases. Any clinical studies with original data related to ear acupuncture for trauma-related disorders after large-scale disaster will be included. Traumatic stress-related symptoms will be assessed as primary outcomes. Depression, anxiety, adverse events, and total effective rate will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. Two researchers will independently perform the study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality. Descriptive analyses of the details of participants, interventions, and outcomes for all included studies will be conducted. Data synthesis and analysis will be performed using RevMan version 5.3. The methodological quality of the included studies will be evaluated according to the study design. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because individual patient data are not included. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134658.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Desastres , Saúde Mental , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Acupuntura Auricular/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269746

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the ongoing physical and psychological health vulnerabilities of the readymade garment (RMG) factory workers involved in the Rana Plaza building collapse in 2013, along with their experiences within the current socioeconomic and political contexts of Bangladesh. Seventeen Rana Plaza survivors participated in unstructured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Interviews were thematically analyzed using Haddon's matrix to examine pre-event, event, and post-event injury experiences. The collapse of the Rana Plaza building resulted in significant physical and emotional trauma for those who survived the event. The majority of the participants were forced to attend work on the day of the collapse. Participants reported physical health complaints related to bone injuries/fractures and amputation, severe headache, kidney problems, and functional difficulties. In addition to the reported physical health issues, the participants revealed psychological health issues including trauma, depression and suicidal ideation, sleep disorders, anxiety, and sudden anger. Participants described barriers to their potential for re-employment in the RMG sector and outlined their limited access to free healthcare for follow-up treatment. Those who survived the collapse of the Rana Plaza building continue to experience significant adverse physical and emotional outcomes related to the disaster. Yet, they have little recourse to ensure the availability of adequate health care and rehabilitation. Given the international reliance on the Bangladeshi RMG industry, continued pressure to ensure care is provided for these survivors, and to reduce the risk of future disasters, is necessary.


Assuntos
Desastres , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Colapso Estrutural , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Bangladesh , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(5): 477-483, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246067

RESUMO

Military sexual trauma (MST) is a significant public health issue associated with adverse psychiatric outcomes, including heightened risk for suicide, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance use disorders. Recently, research has begun exploring gender-linked disparities in mental health outcomes for individuals who experience MST. The current study assessed whether women who screened positive for MST were at disproportionately higher risk for diagnoses of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) or drug-use disorder (DUD) relative to men. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinical data were extracted for 435,690 military veterans who separated from the military between 2004 and 2011 and had at least 5 years of follow-up data after their initial VHA visit until the end of fiscal year 2014. Logistic regression models examined the main and interactive effects of gender and screening positively for MST as predictors of AUD and DUD. MST positive screens were associated with increased rates of both AUD and DUD across genders. Although rates of both AUD and DUD were higher among men, the increased rate of diagnosis associated with MST positive screens was proportionally higher for women than men (interaction adjusted odds ratios = 1.43 and 1.17 for AUD and DUD, respectively), indicating the presence of a gender-linked health risk disparity. This disparity was more pronounced for AUD than DUD (p < .01). The current study adds to previous literature documenting increased risk for women exposed to MST. These findings support efforts to reduce the occurrence of MST and continued use of MST screening measures within the VHA. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(2): 229-238, jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183859

RESUMO

No disponible


This study analyzed the prevalence of Borderline Personality Disorder between the mentioned collective and the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and this disorder. A total of 61 participants between 13-17 years old, took part in this study. The results showed a important prevalence of borderline symptomatology as well as a negative correlation between Borderline Personality Disorder and general life satisfaction. Results of this study showed that an important prevalence of Borderline Personality Disorder on institutionalized children in the sample used. Furthermore, there would be a link between child abuses as well as child neglect and Borderline Personality Disorder, which would lead to a great emotional discomfort to the person who suffers it


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Adolescente Institucionalizado/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/classificação , Psicoterapia Racional-Emotiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
6.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(7): 586-595, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in youth are common, have heterogeneous manifestations, and have been shown to be associated with serious psychopathology. While early-life trauma exposure is associated with increased risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), its association with different OCS and its clinical relevance for serious psychopathology is unclear. Here we aimed to evaluate associations among traumatic stressful events (TSE), OCS, and serious psychiatric conditions in community youth. METHODS: We studied nonmental-help seeking youths from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 7054, aged 11-21, 54% females, 52% prepubertal), assessed for lifetime TSE exposure and OCS. Regression models investigated cross-sectional associations of TSEs with OCS, and associations with depression, suicide ideation and psychosis. Models examined sex and puberty effects, controlling for age and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Trauma exposure was associated with higher OCS rates, especially in females (Trauma × Sex interaction Wald = 7.93, p = 0.005) and prepuberty (Trauma × Puberty interaction Wald = 7.68, p = 0.006). TSEs were associated with all OCS manifestations, most prominently with bad intrusive thoughts (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63). Assaultive TSEs, especially sexual assault, showed stronger associations with OCS compared with nonassaultive TSEs. While TSEs and OCS were independently associated with depression, suicide ideation, and psychosis, a significant interaction was observed only in association with increased rates of psychosis (Trauma × OCS interaction Wald = 5.08, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Early-life trauma is associated with OCS in a dose-response manner, more so in females and prepuberty. The trauma-OCS association varied by load, type of trauma, and by OCS subtypes. Trauma-OCS appears a detrimental combination in association with psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(2): 81-89, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood trauma in an important public health concern, and there is a need for brief and easily administered assessment tools. The Early Trauma Inventory (ETI) is one such instrument. The aim of this paper is to test the psychometric properties of the Swedish translation of the short, self-rated version (ETISR-SF), and to further validate the instrument. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 243 psychiatric patients from an open care unit in Sweden and 56 controls were recruited. Participants were interviewed and thereafter completed the ETISR-SF. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed and goodness-of-fit was determined. Intra Class Correlation (ICC) was used to calculate test-retest reliability. Discriminant validity between groups was gauged using the Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.55 and 0.76, with higher values in clinical samples than in controls. Of the four domains, general trauma showed a lower alpha than the other domains. The CFA confirmed the four-factor model previously seen and showed good to acceptable fit. The ICC value was 0.93, indicating good test-retest reliability. According to the Mann-Whitney U-test, the non-clinical sample differed significantly from the clinical sample, as did those with PTSD or borderline diagnosis from those without these diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish translation of the ETISR-SF was found to have similar psychometric properties as both the original version and translations. ETISR-SF scores could also distinguish between different diagnostic groups associated with various degrees of trauma, which supports its discriminant validity.


Assuntos
Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Autorrelato/normas , Traduções , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(3): 192-198, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724832

RESUMO

Alcohol use problems are associated with suicidal desire and may provide an avenue to suicidal ideation and behavior. However, the influence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the nature of the relationship between alcohol use problems and suicide risk is not well understood. In particular, the potential for PTSD to moderate the association between alcohol use problems and suicide risk remains unexplored. The present study investigated the main and interactive effects of alcohol use problems (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5) on suicide risk (Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised) in a sample of 632 trauma-exposed firefighters (93.5% men; Mage = 38.44 years, SD = 8.59). Hierarchical logistic regression analyses evaluated whether the main and interactive effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use disorders were significantly related to suicide risk, above and beyond age and cumulative trauma. The main effects of PTSD symptom severity (odds ratio, 1.76; p < 0.001) and alcohol use problems (odds ratio, 1.37; p = 0.391) significantly positively predicted suicide risk; however, PTSD symptoms did not moderate an association between alcohol use problems and suicide risk after accounting for these main effects (p > 0.05). A secondary, exploratory aim demonstrated that all PTSD symptom clusters significantly positively predicted suicide risk (p's < 0.001), although none of these clusters interacted with alcohol use problems to predict suicide risk (p's > 0.05). Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed as they relate to the importance of screening for PTSD and alcohol use disorder among firefighter populations.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 274: 7-11, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776710

RESUMO

Suicide rates amongst women veterans are significantly higher than rates for their civilian counterparts. However, risk factors for suicide among women veterans remain unclear. The current study examined the impact of exposure to a number of military stressors (e.g., perceived life threat, killing in combat, military sexual trauma) on suicidal ideation (SI) in women veterans. A total of 403 women veterans responded to mailed self-report surveys, 383 (ages 24-70 years) returned fully completed surveys and were included in analyses, and 16% of those included endorsed current SI. Rates of endorsement for military stressors were as follows: 43% being wounded, 34% loss of someone close, 36% perceived life threat, 30% witnessing a killing or injury, 4% seeing injured or dead bodies, 4% killing in combat, 65% military sexual harassment, and 33% military sexual assault. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with all of the military stressors entered simultaneously to determine the effect on SI. Life threat and sexual harassment had the strongest associations with SI compared to other military stressors. These findings suggest that particular military stressors may play an especially important role in SI in women veterans. Implications and future research considerations are discussed.


Assuntos
Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Distúrbios de Guerra/diagnóstico , Distúrbios de Guerra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/tendências , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Serv ; 16(1): 58-66, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714808

RESUMO

Youth are commonly exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Following exposure, approximately 25% develop persistent mental and behavioral health (M/BH) symptoms, yet many go untreated or are misdiagnosed and suffer adverse outcomes. Primary care is an ideal setting for detection of trauma-related symptoms. The current article uses archival data to (1) examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms that are unlikely, possible, and likely to meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the M/BH and physical health concerns that co-occur with PTSD symptoms among adolescents (n = 133, mean age = 15.1 years, 67% female, 60% White) referred for brief, integrated M/BH services within primary care and (2) identify the prevalence of referred adolescents with elevated symptoms of PTSD that would not be identified for services by traditional depression screening. M/BH providers assessed referred patients for PTSD, M/BH, and physical health symptoms as a routine part of services. Fifty-eight percent screened positive for PTSD (PTSD-possible or PTSD-likely range). The subset of adolescents in the PTSD-likely range (29%) reported significantly greater stress, depression, anxiety, anger, and externalizing symptoms than those categorized as PTSD-possible or PTSD-unlikely. Adolescents in the PTSD-possible or PTSD-unlikely ranges did not differ on any M/BH variables; PTSD groups' physical health did not differ. Of note, 15% of adolescents reporting symptoms likely to meet PTSD criteria did not report elevated depressive symptoms and would have been overlooked by depression screening alone. Given the prevalence of PTEs among M/BH patients, trauma-informed care is necessary for quality patient care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
11.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(1): 102-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676889

RESUMO

Current understandings of the effects trauma exposure on women's health are limited because prior research has largely focused on intimate partner and sexual violence in homogenous samples. In this descriptive study, the authors examined the relationships between lifetime trauma exposure and psychological well-being among women across the Pacific Rim. Psychological well-being differed significantly between the four locations and increased trauma exposures were related to poorer psychological well-being across and within locations. The authors report relevant findings on the relationship between trauma exposure and psychological well-being and provide evidence for future research to enhance knowledge on the effects of trauma in women's lives.


Assuntos
Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 201-208, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has well documented the negative effect of exposure to war trauma on refugees' mental health. However, few prior investigations have examined the nature of the traumatic events and the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: This study explored the mediating role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relationship between exposure to different types of war traumas and psychological stress in a community sample of 300 Darfuri asylum seekers living in Israel. RESULTS: A principal component analysis on a set of 17 traumatic experiences identified four trauma dimensions: War-exposure, Life-threat, Torture-Assault and Sexual-violence. Hierarchical regressions showed that only degree of exposure to Life-threat trauma was a significant predictor of PTSD and depressive symptom severity. Mediation analyses further revealed that interpersonal sensitivity partially mediated the association between exposure to life threat and PTSD symptoms and fully mediated the relation between exposure to life threat and depressive symptoms. LIMITATIONS: The current study was limited by the use of self-report measures and cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings stress the importance of taking into account the nature of war events and the presence of negative beliefs about oneself within interpersonal interactions when studying mental health outcomes in traumatized refugees. Implications for theory, clinical practice and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Sudão/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(4): 668-673, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464257

RESUMO

While nausea often develops following exposure to trauma, little is known regarding the relationship between peri-traumatic nausea and prospective risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the association between peri-traumatic nausea and PTSD symptom development in three independent cohorts. Participants were recruited from (1) the Emergency Departments (ED) at Grady Memorial Hospital (GMH) in Atlanta, GA, (2) from multiple other ED sites in the TRYUMPH Research Network, and (3) from the ED during evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome in the REACH cohort. Administration of IV ondansetron, the most predominant antiemetic used at GMH, was used as a surrogate marker for nausea in the initial GMH cohort; nausea was then directly assessed in the internal validation at GMH, and within the replication TRYUMPH Research Network and REACH cohorts. In the GMH cohort (N = 363), ondansetron administration was associated with increased 1- and 3-month posttrauma PTSD symptoms in adjusted models (all p's < 0.05). In the GMH internal validation, nausea significantly predicted 1 month (p = 0.009; n = 68) and 3 month (p = 0.029; n = 54) PTSD symptoms. In the TRYUMPH cohort (N = 1846), patient reported nausea in the ED was significantly associated with increased PTSD symptoms (p = 0.009) in adjusted models. In the REACH cohort (N = 758), peri-traumatic nausea was associated with PTSD symptom severity at the 1-month follow-up in adjusted models (p's ≤ 0.008). The current prospective data from three independent cohorts suggest that peri-traumatic nausea is a prospective predictor of PTSD symptom development. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanistic role of nausea as an intermediate phenotype of PTSD risk.


Assuntos
Náusea , Trauma Psicológico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/epidemiologia , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Trauma Psicológico/complicações , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Child Care Health Dev ; 45(1): 28-35, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2017 political violence against the Rohingya people in the state of Rakhine resulted in a large influx of displaced populations into Bangladesh. Given harsh conditions and experiences in Myanmar, and the harrowing journey to the border, raised levels of child neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and mental health problems were expected. METHODS: A team of child development professionals, physicians, psychologists, and developmental therapists screened 622 children in clinics within the refugee camps using the Developmental Screening Questionnaire (DSQ; 0-<2 years), and the Ten Questions Plus (TQP) for NDDs, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; 2-16 years) for mental health problems. Any child positive on the DSQ or the TQP was assessed for NDDs. RESULTS: Only 4.8% children aged 0-<2 years and 7.3% children aged >2-16 years screened positive for NDDs, comparable with a local Bangladesh population. However, 52% of children were in the abnormal range for emotional symptoms on the SDQ, and 25% abnormal for peer problems. Significant risk factors were being parentless and having lost one or more family members in the recent crisis. CONCLUSIONS: This screening study provides objective evidence of the urgent need for psychosocial support of Rohingya children within camps, with special attention to those without parents, including monitoring of their well-being and counselling of families and other care providers.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Mianmar/etnologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Refugiados/psicologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
15.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(3): 208-212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Western countries, the prevalence of childhood trauma (CT) ranges from 15 to 25%. CT might be indirectly associated with lower parental socioeconomic status and educational attainments. The aims of this cross-sectional study were fourfold: to assess prevalence of CT in a large sample of Iranian children; to compare the Iranian prevalence rates with those of Western countries; to explore gender-specific patterns; and to explore possible socioeconomic predictors. METHOD: The sample comprised 608 children (mean age 11.49 years, 51.5% females). All completed the Farsi version of the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children. Additionally, parents reported on their current employment status and highest educational level. RESULTS: Trauma symptoms were reported by 20 of 295 boys and 23 of 313 girls. The overall prevalence was 7.1%. Child-reported trauma symptoms were not associated with parents' socioeconomic status or highest educational level. Compared to prevalence findings from U.S. national surveys (ranging from 15-25% of children and adolescents), the prevalence among 11- and 12-year-olds in the present study was considerably lower. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of reported trauma symptoms among a large sample of Iranian children was unrelated to parents' socioeconomic status, and was lower than that reported in U.S. surveys.


Assuntos
Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Escolaridade , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pais , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Classe Social
16.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 269(2): 161-170, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712090

RESUMO

Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, many patients still do not benefit. This study investigates whether a history of traumatic event experience is negatively associated with outcomes of CBT for panic disorder. The moderating role of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene and depression symptoms as well as the association between trauma history and fear reactivity as a potential mechanism are further analyzed. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 172 male and 60 female patients with panic disorder treated with CBT in a multi-center study. Treatment outcome was assessed at post-treatment using self-report and clinician rating scales. Fear reactivity before treatment was assessed via heart rate and self-reported anxiety during a behavioral avoidance test. Among females, we did not find any differences in treatment response between traumatized and non-traumatized individuals or any two-way interaction trauma history × MAOA genotype. There was a significant three-way interaction trauma history × MAOA genotype × depression symptoms on all treatment outcomes indicating that in traumatized female patients carrying the low-activity allele, treatment effect sizes decreased with increasing depression symptoms at baseline. No such effects were observed for males. In conclusion, we found no evidence for a differential treatment response in traumatized and non-traumatized individuals. There is preliminary evidence for poorer treatment outcomes in a subgroup of female traumatized individuals carrying the low-active variant of the MAOA gene. These patients also report more symptoms of depression symptomatology and exhibit a dampened fear response before treatment which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/genética , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/genética , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Qual Health Res ; 29(1): 107-123, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066602

RESUMO

In this study, we aim to increase our understanding of the self-reported sources of distress among people who have experienced first-episode psychosis. Following a systematic literature search, 33 relevant studies containing first-person accounts of first-episode psychosis were identified, which were synthesized using thematic analysis. Two interrelated superordinate themes were identified: intrapersonal distress and interpersonal distress. Participants reported multiple, diverse, and multifaceted sources of distress across both themes. These were substantially different from those routinely recognized and targeted in clinical practice. This review suggests that practitioners who maintain a stance of genuine curiosity about the potential sources of distress for this population will be perceived as more helpful. The findings also highlight the importance of being service user-led when planning and delivering mental health care. Additional clinical and research implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
18.
Rev. esp. sanid. penit ; 21(1): 42-51, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184453

RESUMO

Suicide is a public health problem worldwide. Although it affects people of any age, race, gender, nationality or culture, the studies reveal that one of the groups that present high risk are the inmates of a penitentiary institution, with suicide figures higher than those of the general population. In recent years, penitentiary institutions around the world are trying to reduce cases of suicide deaths through prevention and early detection programs. However, in countries such as the United Kingdom, Wales or Spain, the figures are still very high. Researchers and professionals from different disciplines have tried to establish the causes and risk factors that can lead to committing suicide. Among them, suffering traumatic events in childhood (childhood trauma) has been established as one of these factors. Recent studies have shown that childhood trauma has a significant incidence in the prison population, thus assuming an important specific risk factor in this population. The objective of this article is to review the risk factors associated with suicide in the penitentiary institution in order to understand the role of childhood trauma, its emotional impact and its relation to suicidal behavior in the prison environment, thereby contributing to the understanding and management of the cases having repercussions in an improvement in the programs for the prevention of suicide in prisons


El suicidio supone un problema de salud pública en el ámbito mundial. Aunque afecta a personas de cualquier edad, raza, género, nacionalidad o cultura, los estudios revelan que uno de los colectivos que presenta alto riesgo son las personas internas en una institución penitenciaria, siendo las cifras de suicidio superiores a las de la población general. En los últimos años, instituciones penitenciarias de todo el mundo intentan reducir los casos de muertes por suicidio a través de programas de prevención y detección temprana. No obstante, en países como Reino Unido, Gales o España, las cifras siguen siendo muy elevadas. Investigadores y profesionales de distintas disciplinas han intentado establecer las causas y factores de riesgo que pueden conducir a cometer el suicidio. El hecho de sufrir eventos traumáticos en la infancia (trauma infantil) ha sido establecido como uno de estos factores. Recientes estudios han demostrado que el trauma infantil tiene una incidencia significativa en la población penitenciaria, suponiendo así un importante factor de riesgo específico en esta población. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los factores de riesgo asociados al suicidio en la institución penitenciaria para poder entender el papel del trauma infantil, su impacto emocional y su relación con el comportamiento suicida en el entorno penitenciario, contribuyendo con ello al entendimiento y manejo de los casos, lo cual repercute en una mejora en los programas de prevención del suicidio en las prisiones


Assuntos
Humanos , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais
19.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 24(5): 310-316, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported to have high rates of inadequate treatment, to our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate associations between each individual PTSD symptom and treatment-seeking, and the first PTSD help-seeking study to evaluate variables across all-rather than specific-types of trauma. METHODS: This case-control study surveyed a consecutive sample of active duty military outpatients with trauma histories (N=211), comparing those attending voluntary mental health services (help-seeking cases, n=128) or mandatory dental services required for all active duty personnel (general military population controls, n=83). We used logistic regression to estimate associations between help-seeking and demographics, PTSD symptoms, trauma type, suicide attempts, substance use problems, and chronic pain, with each variable adjusted for sex, age, and race. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between help-seeking and PTSD diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio=4.15, P<0.001) and between help-seeking and severities of PTSD symptoms (total, clusters, all individual symptoms except recklessness; each adjusted odds ratio>1, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this clinical sample, a clear positive relationship was found between help-seeking and PTSD symptom severity, but not with trauma type, suicide attempts, substance use problems, or pain, after adjusting for multiple testing. Possible explanations and implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(45): e284, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402049

RESUMO

Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with psychological trauma lead to poor health-related quality of life. Understanding of the relationships among PTSS, anxiety, depression, and illness intrusiveness will guide the development of efficient approaches to enhance subjective well-being in patients with psychological trauma. This study investigated whether anxiety and depression mediate the relationship between PTSS and illness intrusiveness in the hope of providing more comprehensive and effective trauma treatment. Methods: Psychiatric outpatients who visited the trauma clinic of a university hospital (n = 260) participated in this study. Assessments were conducted for PTSS, anxiety, depression, and illness intrusiveness. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were performed to analyze the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between PTSS and illness intrusiveness. Results: PTSS had both direct and indirect exacerbating effects on illness intrusiveness. Anxiety exhibited the largest direct exacerbating effect on illness intrusiveness. The indirect effects of PTSS on illness intrusiveness through anxiety alone and through a depression-to-anxiety pathway were significant, but the indirect effect through depression alone was not. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that anxiety, both independently and as part of an interrelated pathway with depression, partially mediates the relationship between PTSS and illness intrusiveness. Appropriate interventions and a comprehensive approach to alleviate anxiety and depression could mitigate the negative effects of PTSS on illness intrusiveness in patients with psychological trauma.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA