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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(8): 1007-1012, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741858

RESUMO

We previously showed that increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after ischemic stroke enables extravasation of nano-sized liposomes and accumulation in the ischemic region, and that delivery of neuroprotective agents using liposomal drug delivery systems (DDS) is applicable for treating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, entry of liposomes into the brain parenchyma was limited in the early stages after I/R possibly due to microvascular dysfunction induced by pathological progression. As such, new approaches to overcome the BBB are needed. Leukocytes can pass through inflamed BBB in I/R region due to membrane proteins displayed on their surface. We thus hypothesized that incorporation of leukocyte membrane proteins onto liposomal membranes would impart leukocyte-mimicking functions to liposomes and that leukocyte-mimetic liposomes (LM-Lipo) may pass through inflamed endothelial cells and BBB, similar to leukocytes. LM-Lipo prepared using intermembrane protein transfer from human leukemia cells showed significantly increased association to inflamed human umbilical vein endothelial cells relative to plain liposomes. Moreover, LM-Lipo passed through inflamed endothelial cell layer by regulating intercellular junctions. These results suggest that imparting leukocyte-like properties to liposomes via intermembrane protein transfer would be an effective strategy to overcome inflamed endothelial barriers. In this review, we describe our findings on ischemic stroke treatment using liposomal DDS and the potential of LM-Lipo to overcome inflamed endothelial barriers.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Leucócitos , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Transporte Proteico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
2.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(2): 69-75, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713799

RESUMO

The mechanism of the papaverine (PV) for the treatment of cerebral ischemia remains unclear. A total of 42 mice induced with focal cerebral ischemia were randomly divided into three groups: PV,baicalin (BA)and vehicle group. Both PV and BA could significantly reduce the ischemic infarct volume (P < 0.05). Pathway enrichment analysis was performed on MetaCore™ to search the molecular pathways associated with the gene expression profile of PV, compared with vehicle and BA. Compared with vehicle, we found that 60% of the top 10 pathways in PV group were related to immune response. The top 10 biological processes of the targeted pathways were mainly related to the multiple immunomodulatory process of neuro-vascular inflammation, including immune_Th17-deried cytokins, regulation of angiogenesis, cell adhesion_Leucocyte chemotaxis, antigen presentation, cell adhesion_synaptic contact, and inflammation related to Amphoterin signaling. Moreover, compared with BA, 17 pathways of PV were identified, and 58.82% (10/17) were also related to immune response, especially, half of the top 10 pathways with the lower p-value. In these top 10 pathways, 4 were the cytokine-mediated signaling pathways, which play key role in inflammation, like IL-17 signaling pathways with the activation of G-CSF,IL-23,RANKL, p38MAPK and NF-κB.These findings indicate that PV may be an efficacious pluripotent anti-inflammatory agent against cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury by targeting on multiple immunomodulatory process of neuro-vascular inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Fatores Imunológicos , Papaverina/farmacologia , Papaverina/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Inflamação , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
3.
Life Sci ; 256: 118016, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603817

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the most important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), a clinical syndrome with kidney dysfunction and high mortality rates. New diagnostic biomarkers need to be defined to better illuminate the pathophysiology of AKI. For the first time, we aim to investigate the protective effects of Curcumin which is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and 12/15 lipoxygenase inhibitor LOXblock-1 on I/R induced AKI by modulating inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, apoptosis and semaphorin-plexin pathway. MAIN METHODS: The rats were divided into five groups, with eight animals per group: Sham, I/R, I/R + DMSO (1%, i.p.), I/R + Curcumin (100 mg/kg, i.p.), I/R + LOXblock-1 (2 µg/kg, i.p.). KEY FINDINGS: The renal function biomarkers (BUN, CREA and UA) in serum were significantly increased in the I/R group. The inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1), apoptotic (CYCS and CASP3) and oxidative stress parameters (MDA, MPO, TAS and TOS) measured by ELISA were significantly increased in the I/R group. In histopathological analysis, it was observed that I/R caused serious damage to kidney tissue. SEMA3A was found to increase both serum level and mRNA expression in I/R group. It was observed that curcumin and LOXblock-1 reduce inflammatory processes, oxidative stress and apoptosis via the semaphorin-plexin pathway by both measurements and histopathological analysis. Curcumin was proved more effective than LOXblock-1 with its antioxidant feature in I/R injury. SIGNIFICANCE: The current study reveals the protective effects of Curcumin and LOXblock-1 on acute kidney injury by suppressing SEMA3A as a new biomarker.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Semaforina-3A/sangue , Semaforinas/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109187, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610055

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is not only one of the pathophysiological process involving the liver, but also a complex systemic process affecting multiple tissues and organs. IRI after liver transplant occurs due to in major resections and occlusion of vessels, or during the perioperative period, leads to acute liver failure which shows the dynamic process that involves two interrelated phases of local ischemic insult and inflammation-mediated reperfusion injury and has an impact on morbidity and mortality. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is activated locally in the injured cells by the occurrence of I/R, which plays an essential role in the fate of the damaged tissue. However, a preclinical study explores the protective role of RAAS inhibitor in acute liver injury in a model of inflammation caused by ischemia and reperfusion. In-addition to RAAS blockers in monotherapy does not effectively block the complete pathway. Thus, the present study is designed to explore the effect of combined folic acid with RAAS blockers in combination, produce a synergistic effect. Moreover, in this review, we will describe the understanding of the possible incidence of downregulatory molecular mechanisms associated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the significance & outcome of the combination of folic acid and RAAS blockers in liver injury due to ischemia/reperfusion.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Humanos , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
5.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(8): 547-553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726116

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to compare the protective effects of ambrisentan, a selective endothelin typeA receptor antagonist, and bosentan, a dual endothelin typeA/B receptor antagonist, on experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 21 female rats, which were divided into 3 groups: Control, Ambrisentan and Bosentan. For the ischemia-reperfusion injury model, left­kidney nephrectomy was performed after sacrificing the animals. In the immunohistochemical examination, caspase-3 was examined, and then the apoptotic index was determined. In the biochemical examination, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of nitrite (NOx), TNF-α, and IL-1ß were determined. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of total injury score grade in range of 0‒3 (p=0.001).The glomerular and tubular apoptotic indices were higher in the control group as compared to those of the ambrisentan and bosentan groups (p=0.001).There were no statistically significant differences in terms of SOD, CAT, GPx, MDA, IL-1ß and TNF-α measurements among the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the experimentally created renal ischemia reperfusion model, both ambrisentan and bosentan increased the NOx level, decreased the apoptosis, and protected the kidney from renal ischemia reperfusion injury. However, no significant superiority was found between ambrisentan and bosentan in terms of their protective effects (Tab. 3, Fig. 2, Ref. 31).


Assuntos
Bosentana , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina , Fenilpropionatos , Piridazinas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Bosentana/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Endotelinas , Feminino , Fenilpropionatos/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Receptor de Endotelina A , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas
6.
Gene ; 758: 144973, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707303

RESUMO

Renal ischemia-reperfusion (rI/R) is a risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). Alveolar macrophages (AMs) activation mediated by rI/R-induced ALI is one of the pathogeneses associated with the development of ALI. In rI/R, α2-adrenergic receptor agonists have been indicated to be effective in decreasing urea nitrogen concentrations. In this study, we explored the underlying pathogenesis of the clinically obtainable α2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine (DEX) in protecting against rI/R -mediated AMs activation. We incubated AMs with the serum of sham and rI/R rats in the presence or absence of various concentrations of DEX. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the secretion levels of GSH, LDH, IL-18, IL-1ß, and HMGB1 in the culture supernatant. We employed real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess the expression of NOX-4 mRNA, and western blotting to observe the protein levels of NOX-4, the NLRP3 inflammasome, AMPK, and eNOS. In addition, we used immunofluorescence to analyze ROS and MMP activity. Incubation of AMs with DEX suppressed rI/R-mediated cellular LDH production and ROS release. DEX also abolished the rI/R-mediated decrease in the activity of GSH and increased the levels of the rI/R-related NADPH oxidase protein NOX-4. Furthermore, DEX reduced the amelioration of the mitochondrial potential induced by rI/R. Our study showed that DEX inhibits rI/R-mediated levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome proteins ASC, NLRP3, HMGB1 and p20, and ameliorates rI/R-mediated AMPK signaling inactivation. Therefore, DEX reduces the levels of two mediators that are activated by the NLRP3 inflammasome: IL-18 and IL-1ß. Finally, our study established that DEX mitigates the rI/R-mediated decrease in eNOS, demonstrating its protective functions against AMs activation. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the protective action of DEX in AMs is induced through amelioration of HMGB1-NLRP3 inflammasome-AMPK signaling. Our results suggest that the anesthetic reagent DEX exerts beneficial effects to ameliorate rI/R-induced ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Isquemia/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/biossíntese , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 804-810, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098323

RESUMO

Honey is a natural antioxidant that its protective effects have been proven against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Persian Honey, Apis mellifera meda skorikov, on gastrocnemius muscle IR injury. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. They were divided into ten groups (N=8 per group). The ischemia was conducted with a silk suture 6-0 using the slipknot technique. All groups were rendered in ischemic for 3 h, and reperfused for various times of 3 days (3-day reperfusion), 7 days (7-day reperfusion), 14 days (14-day reperfusion), and 28 days (28-day reperfusion). Half of the groups had experimental honey (5 %) treatment immediately after ischemia. After reperfusion, the rats, based on the grouping, were killed with high doses of anesthetic, and the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and fixed. After the tissue processing, the evaluation of edema and mast cells infiltration was performed with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining, respectively. TNF-α was detected with immunohistochemistry method. The amount of TNF-α as an index of acute inflammatory except the 3rd day significantly decreased on the other day of reperfusion (7th, 147th and 287th days). The mast cells infiltration was significantly decreased on 77th and 147th days. The tissue edema was decreased significantly in honey administrated group in the comparison with placebo groups. Honey administration can reduce damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the rat gastrocnemius muscle.


La miel es un antioxidante natural; sus efectos protectores han sido probados contra la lesión por isquemiareperfusión (IR). El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de mejora de la miel persa Apis mellifera meda skorikov, en la lesión por IR del músculo gastrocnemio. Se utilizaron 80 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho adultas con un peso entre 250 y 300 g divididas en diez grupos (N = 8 por grupo). La isquemia se realizó con una sutura de seda 6-0 utilizando la técnica slipknot permaneciendo isquémicos durante 3 h. La reperfusión se realizó durante varios tiempos de 3 días, 7 días (reperfusión de 7 días), 14 días (reperfusión de 14 días) y 28 días (28 días reperfusión). La mitad de los grupos recibió tratamiento experimental con miel (5 %) inmediatamente después de la isquemia. Después de la reperfusión, las ratas, fueron sacrificadas con altas dosis de anestésico, y los músculos gastrocnemios fueron removidos y fijados. Después de procesar el tejido, se realizó la evaluación del edema y la infiltración de mastocitos se realizó con tinción de hematoxilina-eosina y azul de toluidina, respectivamente. TNF-α se detectó con el método de inmunohistoquímica. La cantidad de TNF-α como índice de inflamación inflamatoria aguda, excepto en el tercer día, disminuyó significativamente al día siguiente de la reperfusión (7, 14 y 28 días). La infiltración de mastocitos disminuyó significativamente a los 7 y 14 días. El edema tisular disminuyó significativamente en el grupo administrado con miel en comparación con los grupos placebo. El tratamiento con miel puede reducir el daño causado por la isquemia-reperfusión en el músculo gastrocnemio de la rata.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Apis mellifica/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Mel , Imuno-Histoquímica , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Apis mellifica/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras
8.
Life Sci ; 256: 117935, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526286

RESUMO

AIMS: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is common in the development of ophthalmic diseases and potentially causes blindness. In present study, the aim is to investigate the possible protective effects of puerarin on retinal I/R. MAIN METHODS: Retinal I/R injury was conducted on the left eyes of male Sprague Dawley rats, which were subsequently received treatment with puerarin. After administration, retinal I/R-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were detected. Meanwhile, we purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from 7-day-old rats. After subjected RGCs to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), apoptosis and TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in RGCs were detected. KEY FINDINGS: Puerarin prominently suppressed apoptosis, alleviated oxidative stress and suppressed TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats with retinal I/R injury. Consistent with our in vivo study, we found puerarin ameliorated retinal I/R injury through suppressing apoptosis and TLR4/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in RGCs. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal that puerarin plays a protective role against retinal I/R injury by alleviating RGC damage, and is beneficial for the treatment of I/R injury-caused ophthalmic diseases.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108411, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450066

RESUMO

The process of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in ischemic stroke often leads to significant cell death and permanent neuronal damage. Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed to mitigate the damage caused by IR injury. The naturally occurring pleiotropic peptide phoenixin 14 (PNX-14) has recently come to light as a potential treatment for IR injury. In the present study, we examined the effects of PNX-14 on several key processes involved in ischemic injury, such as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, oxidative stress, and the related cascade mediated through the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, using BV2 microglia exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Our results demonstrate an acute ability of PNX-14 to regulate the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). PNX-14 also prevented oxidative stress by reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the level of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Importantly, PNX-14 inhibited high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/TLR4/myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, by inhibiting the activation of TLR4 and preventing the nuclear translocation of p65 protein. We further confirmed the cerebroprotective effects of PNX-14 in an MCAO rat model, which resulted in reduced infarct volume and decreased microglia activation. Together, the results of this study implicate a possible protective role of PNX-14 against various aspects of IR injury in vitro.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/uso terapêutico , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Peptídicos/uso terapêutico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
10.
Gene ; 753: 144789, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study determined the possible anti-inflammatory and antioxidant renal protective effect of genistein, a soy isoflavone, against kidney damage and functional disorders following renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were dedicated to five groups (n = 7 per group): Sham, Sham + Geni (genistein, 15 mg/kg in 1 ml 1% DMSO, i.p.), Sham + DMSO (1 ml 1% DMSO, i.p.), I/R (bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min followed by 24 h reperfusion), I/R + Geni (genistein, 15 mg/kg). 24-h urine samples, blood and tissue samples of the kidney were collected at the end of 24 h reperfusion period. RESULTS: Compared to sham, sham + Geni and sham + DMSO groups, IR injury (IRI) ended in kidney dysfunction (decreased creatinine clearance, and increased fractional excretion of sodium), increased levels of malondialdehyde, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, and catalase), increased gene expression levels of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), as well as histological damages in kidney tissue. Genistein administration decreased all the changes. Therefore, genistein apparently protects the kidney against IRI by mitigating both oxidative stress and inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of genistein probably exert important roles in improving functional disorders and offer renal protection against IRI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Genisteína/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Genisteína/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isquemia/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 74-87, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idebenone is a well-appreciated mitochondrial protectant while the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) remain elusive. It has been manifested NLRP3 inflammasom activation contributed to I/R induced damage. It raises questions how exactly NLRP3 inflammasom was activated in microglia and neuron and whether idebenone reverses the process in I/R. METHODS: I/R rat model was utilized and BV2, primary microglia and PC12 cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Then, western-blotting, q-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation analysis were performed. RESULTS: We found ROS-NLRP3 singaling was activated in BV2 cells at OGD/R 24 h. Importantly, microglial NLRP3 activation was essential for NLRP3 activation in PC12 cells under microglial-neuronal co-culture circumstance, which has been confirmed to induced neuronal apoptosis. Further, we found mitochondrial dysfunction in OGD/R led to mt-DNA translocation as well as generation of mt-ROS, resulting cytosolic accumulation of oxidized mt-DNA. Ultimately, oxidized mt-DNA binding to NLRP3 contributed to further activation of NLRP3 and dramatically augmented inflammation in BV2 and PC12 cells. Furthermore, idebenone treatment inhibited the process, thus suppressing the NLRP3-mediated inflammatory injury after OGD/R. In vivo, NLRP3 was activated in microglia of I/R rats and inhibition of NLRP3 was observed in idebenone treatment group, which had less neurological deficit and less infarct volume. INTERPRETATION: Our data revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of idebenone via suppressing activation of NLRP3 and ameliorating NLRP3-mediating damage in I/R, which may provide new insight in therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Encefalite/prevenção & controle , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Encefalite/etiologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células PC12 , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Ubiquinona/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
12.
Life Sci ; 255: 117833, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450167

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oleuropein (OLE), the main phenolic compound present in olive leaves, on kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and to explore the underlying protective mechanism. MAIN METHODS: Rat kidneys were subjected to 60 min of bilateral warm ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. OLE was administered orally 48 h, 24 h and 30 min prior to ischemia at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The creatinine, urea, uric acid concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in plasma were evaluated. Oxidative stress and inflammation parameters were also assessed. Renal expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), inflammatory proteins and apoptotic proteins were evaluated using Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that OLE at 50 mg/kg reduced kidney IRI as revealed by a significant decrease of plasmatic creatinine, urea, uric acid concentrations and LDH activity. In parallel, OLE up-regulated antioxidant capacities. Moreover, OLE diminished the level of CRP and the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Finally, OLE enhanced AMPK phosphorylation as well as eNOS expression whereas MAPK, and cleaved caspase-3 implicated in cellular apoptosis were attenuated in the ischemic kidneys. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, this study shows that OLE could be used as therapeutic agent to reduce IRI through its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Iridoides/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Iridoides/administração & dosagem , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Life Sci ; 255: 117847, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470450

RESUMO

Icariin (ICA), a flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium, has been considered as a potential alternative therapy for ischemic stroke. However, the protective mechanisms of ICA on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are not fully illuminated yet. The effects of ICA on ER stress and inflammatory response which were involved in the pathological process of cerebral I/R were investigated in vitro. Microglia and neurons were subjected to OGD/R. ICA was administrated to microglia 1 h before OGD and maintained 2 h throughout OGD. At 24 h after reoxygenation, the protein expression of IL-1 ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the supernatant of microglia was measured using ELISA assay; neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining; and cell viability was detected using CKK-8 assay; the expression of IRE1α, XBP1u, XBP1s, and cleaved caspase-3 in neurons was examined by western blotting and qRT-PCR; the expression of p-IRE1α in neurons was detected by western blotting. We found that OGD/R induced the expression of IL-1 ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the supernatant of microglia; OGD/R and these proinflammatory cytokines promoted the mRNA as well as protein expression of XBP1u, XBP1s and cleaved caspase-3, increased the ratio of p-IRE1α/IRE1α, as well as apoptosis, and decreased cell viability in primary cortical neurons, while ICA reversed the levels of the above factors. IRE1 overexpression enhanced ER stress as well as apoptosis, and impaired the protective effects of ICA. These results suggested that ICA can inhibit apoptosis in neurons after OGD/R through IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway beside its anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
14.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 120, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astragalin (AG), a flavonoid from many traditional herbs and medicinal plants, has been described to exhibit in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The paper aimed to study the effects of astragalin on anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative ability and apoptosis signaling pathway in brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to explore its possible mechanism. METHODS: The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by suture method. It was randomly divided into 5 groups, sham operation group, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) treatment group, and astragalin treatment I / R group (12.5, 25, 50 mg / kg). After 24 h of reperfusion, the neurological deficits of the rats were analyzed and HE staining was performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and the apoptosis of nerve cells was detected by TUNEL staining. In addition, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) assay and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured in rat brain tissue. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of related proteins. RESULTS: Compared with I/R group, the neurological deficit score and infarct volume of I/R rats were reduced in the astragalin treatment group. In the astragalin treatment group, MDA and NO levels in I/R rats were reduced, antioxidant enzymes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were increased. In the astragalin treatment group, NF-κB (p65) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression levels were down-regulated, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nucleus and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression levels were up-regulated. In addition, the astragalin treatment can inhibit apoptosis, down-regulate Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, up-regulate Bcl-Xl expression. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant properties of astragalin may play an important role in improving cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Life Sci ; 252: 117679, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325134

RESUMO

AIM: The neuronal damage and accompanied functional deficits induced by cerebral ischemia are among the most common causes of disabilities in adults. Activation of subtypes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs); PPAR-α and PPAR-γ have shown neuroprotective effects in different neurodegenerative diseases including stroke. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effects of two different agonists: PPAR-α (fenofibrate) and PPAR-γ (pioglitazone) as well as the effect of their combination in ameliorating post-ischemia behavioral deficits. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were either pretreated with vehicle, fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day p.o), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day p.o) or their combination for 14 days prior to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 24 hoursh. The sensory motor functions of rats were assessed, then rats were sacrificed to determine infarct volume and histopathological changes as well as oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers in the brain tissue. KEY FINDINGS: Pre-treatment with fenofibrate and pioglitazone in addition to their combination improved neurobehavioral dysfunction, reduced cerebral infarct volume, attenuated inflammatory and apoptotic markers and ameliorated histopathological changes in I/R injured rats. The effect of pioglitazone in cerebral cortex was higher than its corresponding effect in fenofibrate while the combined administration of both drugs had additive neuroprotective effect and normalized inflammatory and apoptotic mediators in ischemic rats. SIGNIFICANCE: The study compared the neuroprotective effects of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ agonists, and tested the impact of their combination. We concluded that no additional benefits on the functional outcomes might be gained upon their combination.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Infarto Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fenofibrato/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1142-1148, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237458

RESUMO

Serum metabonomic profiles of the model of focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion is established with the suture-occluded method by Longa to study the effect of ginsenosides. In this study, 48 rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated group, pathological model group, positive drug group(6 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and high, medium, low-dose ginsenosides groups(200, 100, 50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). They are given intragastric administration respectively with same amount of 0.5% CMC-Na,nimodipine and ginsenoside for 5 days. At 2 h after the final administration, the model was established with the suture-occluded method, and free radical-scavenging activity changes of ginsenoside were observed by maillard reaction, and Longa was possible used as a renoprotective agent-occluded method. At the end of 24 h after the reperfusion, the hemolymph of rats in each group was collected, and the ~1H-NMR spectrum was collected after being treated by certain methods, and analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA). Compared with sham-operated group, pathological model group showed significant increases in the levels of lactate, glutamate, taurine, choline, glucose and methionine, but decreases in the levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine in serum. After treatment with ginsenosides, lipid, 3-hydroxybutyrate and phosphocreatine/creatine were increased in the serum of ginsenosides group rats, but with decreases in lactate and glutamate. The results showed that ginsenosides could regulate metabolic disorders in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion, and promote a recovery in the process of metabolism. It's helpful to promote the metabolic changes in rats with focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion via ~1H-NMR, and lay a foundation to develop ginsenosides as a new drug to treat ischemic cerebral paralysis.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Creatina , Hemolinfa , Fosfocreatina , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 251: 117638, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251636

RESUMO

AIMS: Brain edema is a common threat to life in ischaemic brain injury. The NLRP3 inflammasome promotes the inflammatory injury after ischaemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) modulates brain water transport and endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cerebral edema. However, the contribution of the NLRP3 inflammasome to regulation of brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion is elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome by MCC950 on regulation of cerebral edema, BBB disruption and the expression of AQP4 and ET-1 in cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion. MAIN METHODS: The male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the experimental transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with MCC950. Changes in NLRP3, IL-1ß, IL-18, the pyroptosis protein gasdermin D (GSDMD), brain water content, AQP4 and ET-1 in brain tissue were detected. KEY FINDINGS: MCC950 inhibited NLRP3 and GSDMD after tMCAO. MCC950 improved cerebral edema and alleviated the damage of BBB after tMCAO. The levels of AQP4 and ET-1 were decreased by MCC950. In addition, MCC950 regulated the distribution of AQP4 after tMCAO in mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The NLRP3 inflammasome facilitated brain edema and BBB disruption after cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion in mice, and NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition with MCC950 regulated the expression and distribution of AQP4 in the infarct area. Hence, the NLRP3 inflammasome is considered to be an important target for the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, and MCC950 has potential value for ischaemic stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 617-622, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237521

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect and mechanism of anemoside B4 on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. A total of 50 rats were randomly divided into the model group(NS) and anemoside B4 low-dose(1.25 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-dose(2.5 mg·kg~(-1)) and high-dose(5 mg·kg~(-1)) groups after the right kidney was removed and the left kidney was ligated to make the ischemia reperfusion model. Another 10 rats were selected as sham operation group only for normal control group(NS, received normal saline). Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure serum blood urea nitrogen(BUN), creatinine(Cre), cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) and urinemicroalbumin(mALB) levels after 5 days of tail vein injection treament. Total urine protein and total urinary albu-min were calculated and kidney samples were collected. Histopathological changes of renal tissues were observed by PAS staining. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the protein expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB in renal inflammatory factors related to NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. The results showed that the levels of BUN, Cre, urinary total protein and urinary total albumin in the model group were significantly increased(P<0.01), with severe renal tubule injury was serious, manifested by obvious expansion of renal tubules, more serious tubular proteins, and some tubular epithelial cells were exfoliated. At the same time, the expression of inflammatory factors related to NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway increased significantly(P<0.01 or P<0.05). The levels of BUN, Cre were reduced in different doses of anemoside B4(P<0.05). The levels of total urinary protein and total urinary albumin were decreased in the low and high dose groups of anemoside B4.The level of total urinary albumin in the high-dose group of anemoside B4 was significantly reduced(P<0.05).Renal tubular injury was alleviated, tubular epithelial cell exfoliation was reduced, and the expression of related inflammatory factors was reduced in different degrees(P<0.01 or P<0.05). This study showed that anemoside B4 could alleviate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. And its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of inflammatory factors related to response mediated by NLRP3 pathway and TLR4/NF-κB pathway by anemoside B4.


Assuntos
Artéria Renal/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Rim , Ligadura , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0224720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348301

RESUMO

Small intestinal strangulation associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is common in horses. In laboratory animals IRI can be ameliorated by ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and pharmacological preconditioning (PPC) with dexmedetomidine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PPC with dexmedetomidine or IPC in an equine model of small intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). In a randomized controlled experimental trial, 15 horses were assigned to three groups: control (C), IPC, and PPC with dexmedetomidine (DEX). All horses were placed under general anaesthesia and 90% jejunal ischaemia was induced for 90 minutes, followed 30 minutes of reperfusion. In group IPC, three short bouts of ischaemia and reperfusion were implemented, and group DEX received a continuous rate infusion of dexmedetomidine prior to the main ischaemia. Jejunal biopsies were collected before ischaemia (P), and at the end of ischaemia (I) and reperfusion (R). Mucosal injury was assessed by the Chiu-Score, inflammatory cells were stained by cytosolic calprotectin. The degree of apoptosis and cell necrosis was assessed by cleaved-caspase-3 and TUNEL. Parametric data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by Dunnetts t-test. Non parametric data were compared between groups at the different time points by a Kruskal-Wallis-Test and a Wilcoxon-2-Sample-test. The mucosal injury score increased during I in all groups. After reperfusion, IRI further progressed in group C, but not in IPC and DEX. In all groups the number of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells increased from P to I. The number of TUNEL positive cells were lower in group DEX compared to group C after I and R. Infiltration with calprotectin positive cells was less pronounced in group DEX compared to group C, whereas in group IPC more calprotectin positive cells were seen. In conclusion, IPC and DEX exert protective effects in experimental small intestinal ischaemia in horses.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia/terapia , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Jejuno/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/farmacologia , Animais , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Cavalos , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 83-91, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292006

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. In total, 50 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 received no injection (control); however, group 2 was subjected to 2 h of I and 24 h of R. Subsequently, group 3 was subjected to 2 h of 1, and after 1 h of I, 125 mg/kg MgSO4 was injected intraperitoneally followed by 24 h of R. Groups 4 and 5 were subjected to the same process as group 3, whereas the rats were injected with 250 and 500 mg/kg of MgSO4, respectively. After 24 h, the left testes of all rats were removed for histological analysis and antioxidant activities. According to the results, there was a significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) among I/R rats (P&lt;0.05), whereas MgSO4 decreased I/R-induced MDA (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, experimental I/R diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly (P&lt;0.05). Moreover, MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg) increased GPx and SOD activity significantly in I/R rats (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, seminiferous tubules degenerated, and few spermatocytes were observed in the testis tubules of the I/R rats. Regarding pathological parameters, seminiferous tubules and spermatocyte were normal in the testes of MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg)-treated experimental I/R-induced rats. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the beneficial effects of MgSO4 on testicular IR injury in rats.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Magnésio/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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