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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(13): 361-365, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240124

RESUMO

Approximately 2.8 million nonfatal workplace illnesses and injuries were reported in the United States in 2018 (1). Current surveillance methods might underestimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and illnesses (2,3). One way to obtain more information on occupational morbidity is to assess workers' perceptions about whether they have ever experienced health problems related to work (4). Occupational exposures might directly cause, contribute to, exacerbate, or predispose workers to various health problems (work-related health problems). CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimated the lifetime prevalence of self-reported, work-related health problems for the currently employed population overall and stratified by various demographic and job characteristics using data from the 2018 version of the SummerStyles survey. Overall, 35.1% of employed respondents had ever experienced a work-related health problem (95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.0%-37.3%). The most commonly reported work-related health problem was back pain (19.4%, 95% CI = 17.6%-21.2%). Among industries, construction (48.6%, 95% CI = 36.54%-60.58%) had the highest prevalence of any work-related health problems. Workplace injury and illness prevention programs are needed to reduce the prevalence of work-related health problems, especially in higher-risk industries.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 26(1): 55-70, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595378

RESUMO

Purpose. Handicraft manufacturing appears to be an occupation where work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a major threat to workers. For the multifactorial nature and varying prevalence of WMSDs between different body areas, the current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of WMSDs and associated risk factors among handicraft workers. Methods. This review was based on literature collected from three electronic databases, and the retrieved articles were screened following the inclusion/exclusion criteria. After applying the literature selection criteria to 182 articles, 30 citations were selected and examined in detail. Results. The findings suggest that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among handicraft workers is 38.5-100%, and the most affected body areas were the neck, back, knees and upper limbs. Risk factors including working posture, daily working hours, repetitive and forceful movements, work experience, age, gender and working under stressful conditions were found to be highly associated with the occurrence of WMSDs. However, higher educational qualification of the workers led to a reduction in the odds of developing WMSDs. Conclusion. Handicraft workers are at high risk of developing WMSDs. Further research, preferably longitudinal studies, with more emphasis on work-related factors should now be undertaken to thoroughly investigate WMSDs in this occupational group.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Postura , Adulto , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Safety Res ; 70: 97-103, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848014

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Employers engaged in similar business activities demonstrate a range of workers' compensation claim rates. Workplace injuries and illnesses could be prevented if employers with high claim rates achieved the claim rates of their safer peers. METHODS: We used Washington workers' compensation claims data for years 2013-2015 to calculate rates of compensable claims (eligible for disability or time loss benefits, if unable to work four days after injury) and total accepted claims (compensable plus medical-aid only claims) for each employer. We estimated the number and cost of claims to occur if employers with high claim rates reduced them to the rates of employers at the 25th percentile, adjusted for insurance risk class, employer size, and injury type. To evaluate the impact of setting more or less ambitious goals, we also estimated reductions based on claim rates at the 10th and 50th percentiles. RESULTS: Over 43% of claims and claim costs would be prevented if employers with higher claim rates lowered them to the 25th percentile using either total accepted or compensable claim rates as the benchmark outcome. The estimated claim cost savings from benchmarking to compensable claims was nearly as great as the estimate based on benchmarking to total accepted claims ($308.5 mil annually based on compensable claims vs. $332.4 mil based on total accepted claims). Restaurants and Taverns had the greatest number of potentially prevented compensable claims. Colleges and Universities and Wood Frame and Building Construction had the greatest potential reduction in compensable claim costs among larger and smaller employers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Substantial reductions in workers' compensation claims and costs are possible if employers achieve the injury rates experienced by their safer peers. Practical application: Evaluating the range of workplace injury rates among employers within industry groups identifies opportunities for injury prevention and offers another approach to resource allocation.


Assuntos
Indústrias/classificação , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Washington , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1444, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, about 1000 people die and close to 860,000 people sustain injury at work daily. Injury prevention and control require contextual evidence, although most studies in Uganda have focused on general causes. Factors associated with occupational injuries among building construction workers were assessed in this study. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among building construction workers was conducted in Kampala, Uganda. A standardized semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Three hundred nineteen (319) participants were randomly and proportionately selected from 57 construction sites. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the variables while generalized linear modeling was used to estimate the crude/adjusted prevalence ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of occupational injuries was 32.4%. Most injuries, approximately 70% occurred among nightshift workers. Age of ≤24 years (APR: 2.09 CI: 1.20-3.65, P = 0.009); daily income in or above the second quartile-USD ≥3.2 (APR: 1.72, CI: 1.06-2.80, P = 0.028); job dissatisfaction (APR: 1.63, CI: 1.17-2.27, P = 0.004); job stress (APR: 1.72, CI: 1.22-2.41, P = 0.004); poor safety environment (APR: 1.51, CI: 1.10-2.05, P = 0.009); PPE provision (APR: 1.47, CI: 1.05-2.05, P = 0.02) and routine use of PPE (APR: 0.57, CI: 0.34-0.95, P = 0.03) were significantly associated with occupational injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a relatively high prevalence of injuries mostly resulting from cuts and mostly suffered on night duty. Upper and lower extremities were the most hurt parts of the body during injury leading to loss of a substantial number of productive days. This could affect the health and wellbeing of construction workers. Most of the factors significantly associated with occupational injuries are modifiable thus an opportunity to address the problem. Efforts towards integrating education for behaviour change, advocacy and training workers to demand for their rights to safe and protection at work and legislation enforcement can help reduce occupational injury occurrence.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623104

RESUMO

Firefighters, along with other tactical personnel, are at a high risk of work-related physical injury above that of the private sector. The aim of this critical narrative review was to identify, critically appraise and synthesise key findings from recent literature investigating firefighting musculoskeletal injuries to inform injury reduction programs. The methodological approach (search terms, databases, etc.) was registered with PROSPERO and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist with scores graded according to the Kennelly grading system. Levels of evidence were ranked according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Of the 8231 studies identified, 17 met the criteria for inclusion. The methodological quality of the studies was 'fair' with a level of evidence of III-2. Reported injury rates ranged from 9% to 74% with the lower extremities and back the leading aggregated bodily sites of injury. Sprains and strains were the leading nature of musculoskeletal injury, often caused by slips, trips and falls, although muscle bending, lifting and squatting or muscle stressing were also prevalent. This review may inform injury reduction strategies and given that injuries reported in firefighters are similar to those of other tactical populations, safety processes to mitigate injuries may be of benefit across the tactical spectrum.


Assuntos
Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 60, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental personnel are subject to exposure to a number of occupational factors including needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs). Our study aims to address knowledge gaps on prevalence and associated factors for needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) for the first time in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 450 dental assistants recruited from 40 randomly selected private clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data on demographic characteristics, history of NSIs, nature of work, compliance with infection control protocols, and knowledge of infection control procedures and disease transmission were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with NSIs; unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. RESULTS: About three in ten dental assistants experienced at least one NSI (29.8%, 95% CI 25.6-34.2%) in private dental clinics. Lack of adequate knowledge of infection control procedures and disease transmission, non-compliance with infection control protocol of vaccination against hepatitis B virus, and attending 12 or less number of patients daily were significantly associated with increased risk of NSIs (p ≤ 0.05); adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.87 (1.18-2.97), 1.89 (1.05-3.41), and 1.63 (1.03-2.56), respectively. In addition, dental assistants working in 45.8% of dental clinics that had no infection control unit were positively associated with higher NSI risk (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.45-3.57). CONCLUSION: Our study reported the prevalent nature of NSIs among dental assistants in Saudi Arabia and identified key factors that could be targeted to mitigate this preventable condition. Dental assistants would benefit from proper training on infection control protocols and procedures.


Assuntos
Assistentes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 654, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accidental occupational injuries to health care workers (HCWs) continue to have a significant problem in the healthcare system. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of needle sticks and sharp injury and associated factors among health care workers working in Central Zone Tigray northern Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of needle stick and sharp injury in the past 12 months preceding the study and entire job were 25.9% and 38.5% respectively. Nearly one-third (31%) of the injuries occurred in emergency unit and 122 (71.3%) of the materials caused injury were used on patients. Practice of needle recap, ever used cigarette in last 12 months, training, work hours > 40 per week, job dissatisfaction and work experience less than 5 years were found factors significantly associated with needle stick and sharp injury for health care workers. The magnitude of Needle stick and sharp injury is high in the study area. Policy makers should formulate strategies to improve the working condition for healthcare workers and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105290, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585230

RESUMO

Highway operations are marred with inherent risks of injury or death, making risk management critical for ensuring the adequate safety of the people involved. This paper investigates the interaction between various highway safety risk factors and effective risk mitigation strategies related to such interaction. The Covariate-Balanced Determinant Detector (CBDD) technique is used to estimate the quantity of both individual and combined risks, and their effect on highway operations safety. Through this technique, the most dangerous risk combinations have been identified and corresponding risk mitigation scenarios have been developed. The results illustrate that the most dangerous scenarios probably result from the interactive effect of risk factors rather than individual factors, and the effect of mitigation strategies should be evaluated in response to a risk scenario before it is implemented.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído/normas , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1368, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the potential risk factors for injury, estimate the annual injury rate and examine the safety perceptions, and use of personal protective equipment among small-scale gold miners in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 494 small-scale gold miners from four major mining districts in Ghana. A household-based approach was used to obtain a representative sample of miners. The study was conducted from June 2015 to August 2016. A systematic sampling technique was used to select households and recruit respondents to interview. Miners were asked about any mining related injury that they had sustained in the past year. A logistics regression model was employed to examine the association between risk factors and injury. Data were analyzed with STATA version 14.0. RESULTS: The annual incidence rate of mining-related injury was 289 per 1000 workers. Injuries were mainly caused by machinery/tools 66(46.1%), followed by slip/falls 46(32.2%). The major risk factor for injury was underground work (adjusted odds ratio for injury 3.19; 95% CI = 1.42-7.20) compared with surface work. Higher education levels were protective, with adjusted odds ratios of 0.48 (95% CI = 0.24-0.99) for middle school education and 0.38 (95% CI 0.17-0.83) for secondary school compared with no schooling. Only 15(3.0%) of miners reported to have had safety training in the past year and 105(21.3%) indicated that there were safety regulations at their work place. A moderate number of workers reported using work boots 178(36.0%) and hand gloves 134(27.1%), but less than 10% of workers used other personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: The annual injury incidence rate among small-scale gold miners is high. Potential targets for improving safety include increasing safety training, increasing use of personal protective equipment, and better understanding potential changes that can be made in the machinery and tools used in small-scale mining, which were associated with almost half of all injuries.


Assuntos
Ouro , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621658

RESUMO

Context: Proper use of protective eyewear (PEW) is important in the prevention of occupational eye injury. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the ocular morbidity and utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin Local Government, Lagos, with a view to promoting ocular health and safety in the workplace. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of one hundred and fourteen (114) carpenters that were enrolled into the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on socio-demographics, work-related ocular history, awareness and utilisation of, as well as barriers to utilisation of PEW. Ophthalmic examination was done. In-depth interviews were also carried out to probe the barriers to utilisation of PEW. Quantitative responses were analysed using the IBM SPSS software, and content data analysis was performed for qualitative responses. Results: The prevalence of reported work-related eye injury and complaints were 30.7% and 32.5%, respectively. The prevalence of ocular morbidity among the respondents was 74.6%. Seventy-seven respondents (67.5%) were aware of PEW; only 21.1% owned PEW, whereas the utilisation level was 26.3%. In-depth interviews revealed ignorance, forgetfulness, and unfamiliarity as the key barriers to PEW use. The odds of using PEW were about three-fold with previous eye injury at work and history of eye complaint. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant prevalence of ocular morbidity and poor utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin, Lagos. There was a significant relationship between previous eye injury or complaint and PEW use. Thus, there is a need to create awareness among carpenters and develop occupational safety policies to improve the use of PEW.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Work ; 64(1): 77-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers experience a disproportionately high frequency of workplace assaults. Incidents involving firearms are of particular concern. OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed characterizations of recent hospital shootings to better inform prevention and mitigation strategies. METHODS: Quantitative content analysis of reports involving hospital shootings resulting in casualties derived from web searches for each year from 2012-2016. Data were abstracted independently by two investigators, with differences resolved by consensus. Data were compared between subgroups by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, or Kruskal-Wallis test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Eighty-eight shootings occurred in 86 hospitals resulting in 121 firearms-related casualties, including 54 victims and 67 perpetrators. Case fatality rates were 55.6% (n = 30) and 70.1% (n = 47), respectively. The most frequent sites involved were the emergency department, (n = 27, 30.3%), patient room (n = 19, 21.3%), and parking lot (n = 13, 14.6%). Grudge (n = 17, 19.3%), suicide (n = 14, 15.9%), and mental instability (n = 13, 14.8%) were the most common explanations for these shootings. Four inadvertent discharges occurred and were more likely to involve a female perpetrator (p = 0.03). Shootings were most frequent during summer (p = 0.03) and winter (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Out study findings on location and seasonal patterns can guide the development or improvement of prevention and mitigations strategies for hospital shootings.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Quartos de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade
12.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(5): 585-593, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543518

RESUMO

Lower extremities, especially the knee region, are susceptible to traumatic injuries because of long-lasting hard landings and impacts. Most of the injuries described in the literature are associated with ballet. In this review study, the authors tried to present the traumatic knee injury patterns of the Anatolian folk dance. The Fire of Anatolia dance group consists of 82 dancers (37 males [45.1%] and 45 females [54.9%]) with the mean age of 27.96 (SD = 5.05) years (range: 18-38 years). The major folk dances of the region are Zeybek, Halay, Horon, Teke, Roman, Karsilama, Bar and Lezginka ("the Caucasian"). The dancers suffered from 9 orthopedic injuries requiring surgical treatment (3 meniscus tears, 4 anterior cruciate ligament tears, 1 posterior cruciate ligament tear, 1 patellar dislocation) during a 10-year period. The authors investigated solely the traumatic injuries of these folk dance styles and aimed at revealing the traumatic knee injury patterns in this case series and literature review. On the one hand, the Anatolian folk dancers experienced meniscus tears following frequent squats and twists on single leg stances, typical of Horon and Zeybek. On the other hand, anterior cruciate tears happened after jumps and landings in the Caucasian (Lezginka jump) dance. A posterior cruciate ligament tear was also seen after the Caucasian dance landing. The split figure in the Karsilama dance ended up with patellar dislocation. Certain dance figures seem to be related to specific types of injuries. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(5):585-93.


Assuntos
Dança/lesões , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/etiologia , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 481, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of occupational injury and associated factors among building construction workers in Dessie town, Northeast Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of occupational injury was 32.6% 95% CI (27.8-37.4). Male workers [AOR: 1.775, 95% CI (1.108-2.844)], uneducated [AOR: 3.327, 95% CI (1.262-8.771)], training [AOR: 2.053, 95% CI (1.004-4.195)] and Uses of PPE [AOR: 2.076, 95% CI (1.253-3.439)]. In focus group discussions negligence of the workers and lack of awareness were factors significantly associated with Occupational injury. The occupational injury was high among construction workers. Sex, Educational status, Safety training, Personal protective equipment were statically significantly associated.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 898-906, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thermal working environment can have direct and in-direct effects on health and safety. Ambient temperatures have been associated with an increased risk of occupational injuries but it is unknown how the relationship can vary by weather, location and climate. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between ambient temperatures and work-related injury and illness compensation claims in three Australian cities: Melbourne and Perth (temperate climate) and Brisbane (subtropical climate) in order to determine how hot and cold weather influences the risk of occupational injury in Australia. METHODS: Workers' compensation claims from each city for the period 2005 to 2016 were merged with local daily weather data. A time-stratified case-crossover design combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to quantify the impacts of daily maximum temperature (Tmax) on the risk of work-related injuries and illnesses. RESULTS: Compared to the median maximum temperature (Tmax), extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) were associated with a 14% (95%CI: 3-25%) increase in total workers' compensation claims in Melbourne, but there were no observed effects in Brisbane or Perth, with the exception of traumatic injuries that increased by 17% (95%CI: 3-35%) during extreme heat in Perth. For extremely low temperatures (1st percentile), there was a protective effect in Brisbane (RR 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.98), while no effects were observed in Melbourne or Perth. CONCLUSION: The relationship between injury and ambient temperature appears to be variable depending on location and climate. In general, work-related injuries and illnesses appear to be more common at higher temperatures than lower temperatures. Adopting adaptation and prevention measures could reduce the social and economic burden of injury, and formulating effective measures for dealing with high temperatures should be prioritised given the predicted increase in the frequency and intensity of hot weather.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Austrália , Cidades , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
15.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 52, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health facilities can provide diagnostic, curative, and prognostic services for the community. While providing services, healthcare workers can be exposed to needlestick injuries that can transmit pathogenic organisms through body fluids. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases using a combination of keywords and Boolean functions. All the searched articles were imported into the EndNote X9 software, and then, duplicate data files were removed. Article screening and data extraction were done independently by two authors. Data manipulation and analyses were done using STATA version 15.1 software. RESULTS: The analysis of 23 full-text articles showed that the prevalence of the 12-month and lifetime needlestick injuries among the primary studies ranged from 13.2 to 55.1% and 18.6 to 63.6%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among the Ethiopian healthcare workers was 28.8% (95% CI 23.0-34.5) and 43.6% (95% CI 35.3-52.0) for the 12 months and lifetime, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among Ethiopian healthcare workers was high. Therefore, efforts should be implemented to reduce the occurrence of injuries. Adequate protective equipment and safety-engineered devices should be supplied for the healthcare workers. It could be more effective to reduce the factors contributing to increased exposures through the allocation of adequate numbers of the healthcare workforce and implementing in-service training.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
16.
N Z Med J ; 132(1501): 33-40, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465325

RESUMO

AIM: To describe quad bike injury-related hospitalisations in the Midland region over a six-year period. METHOD: A retrospective review of anonymised, prospectively-collected trauma registry data from 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2018 was undertaken. Cases include patients hospitalised with quad bike-related injuries. Non-major injuries are included to provide a clearer picture of the trauma burden. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-six injuries resulted in hospitalisation with 70.2% of events occurring on a farm. Males outnumbered females 3.7:1. Forty-six children (<16 years) were hospitalised, of which 23 were injured on-farm and seven on a road. Over six years there was an annual average increase of 7.3% for all events occurring on a farm, 2.6% for injuries occurring during a farming activity and 4.7% for off-farm recreational injuries. CONCLUSION: Despite continued public debate and education on the safe use of quad bikes, injuries severe enough to require hospitalisation continue to occur. Children continue to be injured, both as riders and passengers. Ageing farmers are a developing area for concern. While workplace safety garners most of the safety attention, two other areas also deserve injury prevention consideration; injuries that occur on-farm but not during farming activities and those occurring off-farm to recreational riders.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Veículos Off-Road , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Prevenção de Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ciclismo/normas , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
17.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 35(8): 558-566, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462195

RESUMO

The absence of studies that investigate the causes and risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury in Tunisia inhibits the development of effective preventive strategies. The objective of this study was to identify the causes and risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury in the private sector in Tunisia. We used retrospective data derived from the occupational injury reporting forms submitted to the Caisse Nationale d'Assurance Maladie. A sample of 42,293 workers in the private sector for 2014 contains information on sociodemographic variables. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of cause-specific injury with demographic variables. The leading causes of nonfatal occupational injury were "falls" (employee fall and falling objects; 36%) and "struck by objects" (23%). Male employees were at higher risk of "exposure to extreme temperatures" (PR = 12 [7-45]), "asphyxia and poisoning" (PR = 4 [2.4-12]), "transport and handling" (PR = 2.4 [1.9-5]), "falling objects" (PR = 2.3 [1.4-3.7]), and "employee fall" (PR = 1.2 [1.1-1.5]). Although, rural areas were at higher risk to "asphyxia and poisoning" (PR = 3.6 [1.1-11.4]), "transport and handling" (PR = 2.5 [1.3-5.4]), and "burns" (PR = 1.3 [1.1-3]). It is important that effective interventions be developed to minimize the impact of falls and "struck by objects." The most vulnerable categories to occupational injury are less educated men, rural residents aged between 15 years and 24 years, and elderly employees (55 years and over). Thus, our findings can contribute to the planning of prevention intervention programs that should expand to the most vulnerable categories.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Asfixia/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Golpe de Calor/epidemiologia , Golpe de Calor/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Res Health Sci ; 19(2): e00444, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational injury is a cause of premature mortality, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. Occupational injuries estimated to kill more than 300,000 workers worldwide every year. We estimated the years of life lost (YLL) of fatal unintentional occupational injuries in Iran for the five years of 2012-2016. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: To estimate the YLL, registered deaths due to occupational unintentional injury were identified from the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization. Estimated YLL was calculated according to Global Burden of Disease 2010 guideline. Population life expectancy in each corresponding years was retrieved from the national health database. All data collected entered into Excel software for calculations. RESULTS: In 2012-2016, fatal unintentional occupational injuries were the cause of 8,606 deaths in Iran, resulting in 4.6 prematurely lost life yr per 1000 males and 0.3 yr per 1000 females among workers, every year. 98.7% of the deaths occurred in males. Males from 15 to 19 yr of age and females from 10 to 14 yr of age showed the highest YLL rates. The rate of YLLs per 1,000 workers per year was 3.99 overall, 4.6 in males, and 0.4 in females. CONCLUSION: Premature mortality due to occupational injury is still a serious problem in the Iranian population. Our findings may be useful from a health policy perspective for designing and prioritizing interventions focused on the prevention of premature loss of life. Known prevention strategies need to be implemented widely to diminish avoidable injuries in the workplace.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trabalho , Mortalidade Prematura , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
S Afr Med J ; 109(7): 516-518, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993, as amended in 1997 (COIDA), provides payment to healthcare providers for treatment of occupational injuries in South Africa (SA). Patients and employers are often unaware of procedures for claiming, and patients then carry the burden of costs themselves. Additionally, under-billing results in a loss of income for treating hospitals. Hand injuries are common occupational injuries and form the focus of this study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether occupational hand injuries treated at the Martin Singer Hand Unit at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, were accurately captured and allocated correct professional fee coding and billing. Accurate capturing and billing would allow for access to the Compensation Fund and allocation of finances to improve service delivery, as well as avoid unnecessary costs to otherwise uninsured patients. METHODS: All new hand injuries presenting to the hand unit at the hospital in August 2017 were sampled in a retrospective folder review. Injuries on duty (IODs) were identified and analysed further. Coding and billing were compared with independent private quotes. RESULTS: Sixty new hand injuries presented during the month. Fifteen were IODs, but only 6 were recognised by administration. The other 9 were billed at minimum income rates and 5 of these patients also had operations, which were not billed for. A total of ZAR88 871.99 was under-billed in terms of professional fees only. The 9 incorrectly classified patients had to bear costs themselves at a median of ZAR130.00 each. CONCLUSIONS: There were large discrepancies in billing for occupational hand injuries. This resulted in costs to the patients and loss of income for the facility. Access to the Compensation Fund is vital in financing resources in the overburdened public sector. Suggestions for improvement include accessing COIDA funds in order to improve administration at the unit, so improving identification, coding and billing of occupational hand injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Mão/economia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16083, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261521

RESUMO

Vision loss following eye trauma is a serious health problem worldwide. The aim of the study was to report the epidemiology of eye injury that requires hospitalization and surgery at a secondary referral center in a high-income developing country so as to give recommendations regarding its prevention.All patients who had an eye injury that required surgical intervention between 2012 and 2017 at Al-Ain Hospital were retrospectively studied. Demography, cause of injury, and visual acuity before and after treatment were studied.Results revealed that 141 patients were operated, 96 eyes with open globe and 48 with other injuries. The median (IQR) age was 25 (11.5-37) years, 89% were males. Majority of injuries occurred at work (50.4%) followed by home (31.2%). Sharp objects (24.1%) and blunt trauma (16.3%) were the most common mechanism of injury. Eye injury was less during the weekends (Friday and Saturday) and during the summer vacation. Cornea injuries (48.2%) were the most frequent cause for visual acuity deterioration followed by lens/cataract (23.4%). Among injured eyes, 30 eyes (21.3%) retained intraocular foreign bodies. There was significant improvement of the visual acuity after surgery (P < .0001, Wilcoxon signed rank test).Our study has shown that eye injury is a major risk for visual loss of young people which is mainly work-related. Use of personal protective equipment for the eyes and adopting legislative eye safety regulations will reduce the impact of eye injuries in our community.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Traumatismos Oculares/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Emirados Árabes Unidos
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