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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 399, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long been a major threat associated with needle-stick injuries (NSIs) mainly because no vaccine is available for HCV. Following an NSI, we usually test the source patient for HCV antibody (HCV-Ab). Since HCV-Ab positivity does not necessarily indicate current infection, HCV RNA is further examined in patients positive for HCV-Ab. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have enabled us to treat most HCV-infected patients; therefore, we speculate that the rate of HCV RNA positivity among HCV-Ab-positive patients decreased after the emergence of DAAs. This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the change in the actual HCV RNA positivity rate in source patients before and after the interferon (IFN)-free DAA era. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of NSI source patients at a tertiary academic hospital in Japan from 2009 to 2019. IFN-free DAA regimens were first introduced in Japan in 2014. Accordingly, we compared HCV status of NSI source patients that occurred between 2009 and 2014 (the era before IFN-free DAAs) with those that occurred between 2015 and 2019 (the era of IFN-free DAAs) in a tertiary care hospital in Japan. RESULTS: In total, 1435 NSIs occurred, and 150 HCV-Ab-positive patients were analyzed. The proportion of HCV RNA-positive patients significantly changed from 2009 through 2019 (p = 0.005, Cochran-Armitage test). Between 2009 and 2014, 102 source patients were HCV-Ab-positive, 78 of whom were also positive for HCV RNA (76.5%; 95%CI, 67.4-83.6%). Between 2015 and 2019, 48 patients were HCV-Ab-positive, 23 of whom were also positive for HCV RNA (47.9%; 95%CI, 34.5-61.7%; p = 0.0007 compared with 2009-2014). In the era of IFN-free DAAs, 9 of 23 HCV RNA-negative patients (39.1%) and 2 of 22 HCV RNA-positive patients (9.1%) were treated with an IFN-free combination of DAAs (p = 0.0351). Regarding the departments where NSIs occurred, HCV RNA-negative patients were predominant in departments not related to liver diseases in the era of IFN-free DAAs (p = 0.0078, compared with 2009-2014). CONCLUSIONS: Actual HCV RNA positivity in source patients of NSIs decreased after the emergence of IFN-free DAAs. IFN-free DAAs might have contributed to this reduction, and HCV RNA-negative patients were predominant in departments not related to liver diseases in the era of IFN-free DAAs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/etiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(16): 577-582, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886534

RESUMO

Overexertion is a leading cause of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among construction workers. Nearly 90% of construction jobs require manual handling of materials for approximately one half of the worker's time (1). In 2015, overexertion from lifting and lowering materials caused 30% of WMSDs among construction workers; overexertion involving pushing, pulling, holding, carrying, and catching materials caused an additional 37% of WMSDs (1). This study examined the rate and cost of WMSD claims from overexertion among Ohio construction workers during 2007-2017. Workers' compensation claims related to overexertion that were submitted to the Ohio Bureau of Worker's Compensation (OHBWC) by workers in the construction industry for injuries and illnesses occurring during 2007-2017 were analyzed. Rates and costs of allowed claims were measured by age group. Workers aged 35-44 years experienced the highest claim rate: 63 per 10,000 full-time employees (FTEs) for WMSDs from overexertion. However, claims by workers aged 45-54 years and 55-64 years were more costly on average and resulted in more days away from work. Ergonomic design improvements and interventions are needed to ensure that the majority of construction workers can safely perform jobs throughout their careers. Age-specific WMSD prevention and risk communication efforts also might be helpful.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/economia , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(3): 530-538, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560650

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endoscopy-related injury (ERI) is common in gastroenterologists (GI). The study aim was to assess the prevalence of self-reported ERI, patterns of injury, and endoscopist knowledge of preventative strategies in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: A 38-item electronic survey was sent to 15,868 American College of Gastroenterology physician members. The survey was completed by 1,698 members and was included in analyses. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the likelihood of ERI based on workload parameters and gender. RESULTS: ERI was reported by 75% of respondents. ERI was most common in the thumb (63.3%), neck (59%), hand/finger (56.5%), lower back (52.6%), shoulder (47%), and wrist (45%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of ERI between men and women GI. However, women GI were significantly more likely to report upper extremity ERI while men were more likely to report lower-back pain-related ERI. Significant gender differences were noted in the reported mechanisms attributed to ERI. Most respondents did not discuss ergonomic strategies in their current practice (63%). ERI was less likely to be reported in GI who took breaks during endoscopy (P = 0.002). DISCUSSION: ERI is highly prevalent in GI physicians. Significant gender differences regarding specific sites affected by ERI and the contributing mechanisms were observed. Results strongly support institution of training in ergonomics for all GI as a strategy to prevent its impact on providers of endoscopy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia , Gastroenterologistas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Gastroenterologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041880, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between N95 respirator wearing and device-related pressure injury (DRPI) and to provide a basis for protecting medical staff from skin injuries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, multicentre study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Medical staff of 60 hospitals were selected from 145 designated medical institutions located in the epidemic area where the patients with COVID-19 were treated in China. RESULTS: In total, 1761 respondents wore N95 respirators (use alone 20.8%; combination use 79.2%), and the prevalence of DRPI was 59.2% (95% CI 56.93 to 61.53). A daily wearing time of >4 hours (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.35), wearing a N95 respirator in combination with goggles both with the presence of sweating (OR 13.40, 95% CI 7.34 to 23.16) and without the presence of sweating (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.14) and wearing only a N95 respirator with the presence of sweating (OR 9.60, 95% CI 7.00 to 13.16) were associated with DRPI. A correspondence analysis indicated that if there was no sweating, regardless of whether the N95 respirator was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, single-site DRPI mainly occurred on the nose bridge, cheek and auricle. If there was sweating present, regardless of whether the N95 was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, multiple DRPI sites occurred more often on the face. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DRPI among medical staff caused by N95 respirators was very high, which was mainly associated with a longer daily wearing time and interaction with sweating. The nasal bridge, cheeks and auricles were the primary protection locations found.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressão , Sudorese
5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(3): 221-225, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess impact of personal protective equipment (PPE) on healthcare providers (HCPs) in caring for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted over 50 hospitals in China. Descriptive analyses and Chi-square tests were performed on the collected data. RESULTS: All 104 frontline HCPs report negative impacts of PPE on their clinical performance, 97% of them experienced discomfort and injuries caused by wearing PPE for long hours. Frontline HCPs provided suggestions to alleviate the negative impacts and to enhance communication between healthcare staff and patients. Two hundred eighty two non-frontline HCPs also revealed similar problems; however, we recorded a few discrepancies between answers given by frontline and non-frontline HCPs. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing PPE for long hours degrades health performance. Measures were suggested to improve the design of PPE for protecting HCPs and enhancing their services to COVID patients.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Medicina do Trabalho/instrumentação , Medicina do Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
J Safety Res ; 75: 140-149, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334471

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the rich tradition of research on predictors of workplace injury, most studies rely on cross-sectional, between-person designs. Furthermore, prior research has often overlooked the possibility that factors outside the work domain can influence the occurrence of actual injuries at work. To address these limitations, the current study examined the effects of work and family demands on the occurrence of workplace injury. Drawing on the intuition of the work-home resources model (W-HR), we investigated how within-person level changes in demands and resources from both domains influence work injuries over a 12-year period. METHOD: We used 12 years of longitudinal data (N = 7,820) to study the long-term within-person changes in work and family domains and to capture the event of low frequency incidence such as workplace injury. Specifically, we conducted multilevel analyses to study the links between within-person change in time and energy resources both in work and family domains and within-person change in the likelihood of experiencing a workplace injury. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The findings showed that within-person changes in work hours, spousal work hours, income and number of children, were significantly associated with changes in the likelihood of experiencing a workplace injury. We conclude with a discussion of implications for theory and future research of workplace injuries. Practical application: The research provided useful insights on the intimate association between work and family domains in the context of safety management.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Teóricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Risco
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1204-1209, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881848

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults represent approximately 13% of the U.S. workforce (1). Compared with adult workers, young workers (aged 15-24 years) experience higher rates of job-related injury (2,3). To describe injuries among young workers and inform research and prevention activities, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed national data for 2012-2018 from the occupational supplement to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System* (NEISS-Work) and for 2018 from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII).† During the 7-year period, an estimated 3.2 million (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-3.7) nonfatal, job-related injuries to young workers were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs). From 2012 to 2018, annual rates of work-related injuries§ treated in the ED (ED-treated injuries) declined overall across all age groups but ranged from 1.2 to 2.3 times higher for workers aged 15-24 years compared with those for adults aged 25-44 years. Workers aged 18-19 years had the highest rate of ED-treated injuries. In 2018, among all age groups, workers in service occupations¶ had the highest percentage of injuries requiring at least 1 day away from work. Among workers aged 15-17 years, those in the leisure and hospitality industry had the highest percentage of work-related injuries requiring at least 1 day away from work. Occupational injuries can have long-term impacts on health (4). The disproportionate risk of injury among young workers highlights the need for sustained, targeted public health efforts to prepare this population with essential workplace safety and health competencies before they enter the workforce and to provide high-quality safety training and close supervision on the job. NIOSH and its partners developed a free curriculum to teach adolescents workplace safety and health competencies, which includes identification of workplace hazards and methods for addressing them, how to understand their rights and responsibilities as workers, and how to voice concerns about work safety issues (5).


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21553, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756212

RESUMO

In Taiwan, legal migrant workers and almost all citizens are covered under the National Health Insurance program. Work-related injuries and various traumatic events constitute 2 major reasons for seeking medical care among migrant workers. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective study to delineate the clinical features of migrant workers with trauma and determine differences in trauma management between migrant workers and citizens under the current medical care and insurance system.We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients with trauma who were discharged from adult wards between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. We identified 5854 citizens and 110 migrant workers during the chart review. Data related to the prehospital period, emergency department, hospital course, and prognosis were collected and compared between migrant workers and citizens.More than half of the traumatic events among migrant workers occurred at factory, farm, or mine locations (migrant workers vs all citizens: 57.3% vs 11.5%), whereas most traumatic events among citizens occurred at street and home or dormitory locations (street: migrant workers vs all citizens: 17.3% vs 52.5%; home or dormitory: migrant workers vs all citizens: 0.9% vs 14.3%). Compared with citizens, migrant workers had lower scores in injury severity scores and new injury severity scores, but higher scores in revised trauma score and trauma and injury severity scores. The hospital course and prognosis were similar between migrant workers and citizens.Compared with citizens, migrant workers had a higher incidence of work-related injury and sustained less severe injuries. Under the coverage of the current health care and insurance system in Taiwan, migrant workers with trauma and work-related injuries receive comparable medical care and prognoses to citizens.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 2875297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774391

RESUMO

Introduction: Occupational injuries are occurrences arising out of, or in the course of, work which results in a fatal or nonfatal injury, e.g., a fall from a height or contact with moving machines. They pose psychological, behavioral, social, vocational, and economic problems. No previous studies have been conducted on the prevalence and associated risk factors of occupational injuries among workers in Bahir Dar Textile Share Company (SC). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of occupational injury in Bahir Dar Textile SC, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees of Bahir Dar Textile SC in 2019. Three hundred (195 males and 105 females) employees were selected using proportional simple random sampling from the spinning, weaving, finishing, engineering, and administration sections. Results: The one-year and the two-week occupational injury prevalences were 42.7% and 6.7%, respectively. The one-year report from all the respondents shows that abrasion (10.7%) and eye injury (7.7%) were the two top injuries, hands (12.7%) and eyes (7.7%) were the top injured body parts, and machines (22.7%) and falling/slipping (6.3%) caused most injuries. Statistically significant differences in injuries (p < 0.05) were observed due to variations in gender, job category, exposure to vibration, exposure to rays/welding sparks, and labor-intensive work. The weaving section was positively associated with occupational injuries at AOR = 4.497 and p=0.05. Conclusions: Occupational injuries prevalence is high over the last year. The major causes of injuries were machines and falling/slipping, while the major injuries were abrasions, eye injuries, sprains, and burns. The factors significantly associated with occupational injuries were male gender, job category, use of vibrating tools, high intensive work, and rays/welding sparks. Occupational safety and health training, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and shifting employees from intensive works are recommended.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Athletes and military personnel are both at risk of disabling injuries due to extreme physical activity. A method to predict which individuals might be more susceptible to injury would be valuable, especially in the military where basic recruits may be discharged from service due to injury. We postulate that certain body characteristics may be used to predict risk of injury with physical activity. METHODS: US Army basic training recruits between the ages of 17 and 21 (N = 17,680, 28% female) were scanned for uniform fitting using the 3D body imaging scanner, Human Solutions of North America at Fort Jackson, SC. From the 3D body imaging scans, a database consisting of 161 anthropometric measurements per basic training recruit was used to predict the probability of discharge from the US Army due to injury. Predictions were made using logistic regression, random forest, and artificial neural network (ANN) models. Model comparison was done using the area under the curve (AUC) of a ROC curve. RESULTS: The ANN model outperformed two other models, (ANN, AUC = 0.70, [0.68,0.72], logistic regression AUC = 0.67, [0.62,0.72], random forest AUC = 0.65, [0.61,0.70]). CONCLUSIONS: Body shape profiles generated from a three-dimensional body scanning imaging in military personnel predicted dischargeable physical injury. The ANN model can be programmed into the scanner to deliver instantaneous predictions of risk, which may provide an opportunity to intervene to prevent injury.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Work ; 66(2): 421-435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic instability produced by financial crises can increase employment-related (i.e., job insecurity) and income-related (i.e., financial stress) economic stress. While the detrimental impact of job insecurity on safety outcomes has been extensively investigated, no study has examined the concurrent role of financial stress let alone their emotion-related predictors. OBJECTIVE: The present cross-country research sought to identify the simultaneous effects of affective job insecurity and financial stress in predicting employee safety injuries and accidents under-reporting, and to examine the extent to which emotional contagion of positive/negative emotions at work contribute to the level of experienced economic stress. METHODS: We performed multi-group measurement and structural invariance analyses. RESULTS: Data from employees in the US (N = 498) and Italy (N = 366) suggest that financial stress is the primary mediator between emotional contagion and poor safety outcomes. Moreover, greater anger-contagion predicted higher levels of financial strain and job insecurity whereas greater joy-contagion predicted reduced economic stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the relevance of considering the concurrent role of income-and employment-related stressors as predictors of safety-related outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for safety are discussed in light of the globally increasing emotional pressure and concerns of income- and employment-related economic stress in today's workplace, particularly given the recent pandemic spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).


Assuntos
Emoções , Emprego/psicologia , Renda , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Segurança , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Itália , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585878

RESUMO

Agriculture is one of the most hazardous economic sectors, and it accounts for many accidents and occupational diseases every year. In Italy, about one-third of injuries involve the upper extremity, with long-term consequences for the workers and economic damage for agricultural companies and farms. This systematic review describes upper limb injuries among farmworkers, especially hand injuries, and highlights the main dangerous risk factors. Literature review included articles published in the major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus), using a combination of some relevant keywords. This online search yielded 951 references; after selection, the authors analyzed 53 articles (3 narrative reviews and 50 original articles). From this analysis, it appears that younger male farmers are mostly involved, especially in the harvesting season. The upper limb and hand are often the body parts that sustain most damage as these are mostly involved in driving tractors or tools. The most frequent type of lesions are open wounds, lacerations, fractures, strains, and overexertion lesions. Sometimes, a distracting element (such as mobile phone use, quarrels, working hours load) is present; poor use of protective devices and lack of safety design in tools can also increase the risk of accidents. For these reasons, in the agricultural sector, a system of health promotion and good practices is needed to promote workers' awareness of the sources of risk, highlight more dangerous situations and apply organizational behavioral measures.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Agricultura , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Extremidade Superior , Ferimentos e Lesões , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 794, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a material, device, equipment, or clothing used or worn by workers to reduce their chance of exposure or contact with any harmful material or energy that causes injury, disease, or even death. The use of PPE is a universal legal requirement to reduce occupational injuries and illnesses in the workplace. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess PPE utilization and its associated factors among building construction workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019. METHODS: Institution based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on the selected construction sites of Addis Ababa city from April 1 to May 18, 2019. Data were collected among all (206) building construction workers via interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data were entered into Epi info version 7.1 and exported to SPSS version 25 statistical software for analysis. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.20 in bivariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression. Finally, variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 in multivariate analysis were considered as significantly associated. RESULTS: The utilization of at least one PPE among building construction workers in Addis Ababa was found to be 38%. The majority (41.1%) of the participants' reason for not using PPE were the unavailability of PPE followed by absence of orientation on using PPE (21.3%). The majority (35.3%) and (32.2%) of participants knew abrasion as a type of injury and suffered from abrasion respectively. Factors associated with utilization of PPE were the presence of training on PPE use (AOR = 4.8; 95% CI: 2.3, 10.3), presence of safety training (AOR = 2,8; 95% CI:1.5, 5.2), safety orientation before commencing work (AOR = 4.0; 95% CI:1.9, 9.0) and presence of supervision (AOR = 5.0; 95% CI:1.9,13). CONCLUSIONS: PPE utilization among building construction workers in Addis Ababa was low. The main reasons for non-utilization of PPE were unavailability of the materials and the absence of orientation on using PPE. The presence of PPE use training, presence of safety training, safety orientation, and governmental supervision were factors associated with PPE utilization. There should be continuous supervision of construction sites to assure all workers get material and training on how to use it.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 591, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The agriculture sector consistently ranks among the most hazardous occupational industries globally with high risk of job-related injuries, illnesses, disability, and death. In 2015, the agricultural fatal work injury rate in the United States was 22.8 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers; seven times the all-worker fatal injury rate of 3.4 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers. In this study we identified the factors that are associated with workplace accident and injuries at the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company - a private international agro-industrial palm kernel oil company operating in eastern Sierra Leone. METHODS: This is a descriptive research that made use of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to collect and analyse agro-industrial occupation-related accident and injuries of workers attached to the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company, an international palm kernel oil producing and marketing company in Sierra Leone. We analyzed the responses of 100 workers at the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company that are related to their work safety, adherence to work safety guidelines as well as working habit. RESULTS: Thirty nine (39.0%) of the workers interviewed in this study said they had been involved in some forms of occupational accident; (33.3%) of those involved in some form of occupational-related accidents have been working in the company for 3-5 years, 22.0% have been working at the company for at least 2 years; 7.7% have been working for 6-8 years (X2 = 9.88, p-value = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Workers who have spent few years in the job, and those workers who have confidence that management is committed to addressing health and safety issues, believed that their working tools were in excellent condition, or agreed that they have the rights and responsibilities for an effective workplace health and safety system have decreased odds of experiencing occupational-related accidents or injury at the study site.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Agricultura , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança , Serra Leoa , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235568

RESUMO

In 2018, 1822 incidents relating to death or injury occurred among street cleaners in South Korea. However, South Korea currently lacks comprehensive studies on related injuries based on street cleaners' job characteristics and environments in the country. This study analyzed injuries according to the job characteristics and environment through a survey of 150 Korean street cleaners working in the Seoul and Gyeonggi-do areas. This study assessed three category measures-demographic, job characteristics, and environments-to determine the effects of injuries. The demographic measures consisted of age, gender, and education level. Job characteristic variables consisted of length of time on the job, job contract, monthly income, working hours per day, working start time, overtime per month, and days off per month. For job environments, this survey included job duty, classification, main tasks, work intensity, and safety equipment. The data were analyzed according to descriptive statistics, injury ratio, and Probit regression analysis. The results of the analysis demonstrated that the participants with the highest risk of injury were mostly males with less than a middle school education. Assessment of the job characteristics showed that the most prevalent length of working experience was less than 5 years, with most engaging in contract/day work. A share of 36.67% of the participants reported injuries. The most prevalent reason for injury was overwork (32.73%), and the most frequent injury area was the lower back (49.09%). In summary, injuries among street cleaners were associated with education level, job experience, days off from work, and work intensity. As such, street cleaners should receive more education to decrease the risk of injuries, regardless of the number of employees or their contract status.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Seul
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 578, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blast injury emerged as a primary source of morbidity among US military personnel during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and led to an array of adverse health outcomes. Multimorbidity, or the presence of two or more medical conditions in an individual, can complicate treatment strategies. To date, there is minimal research on the impact of multimorbidity on long-term patient-reported outcomes. We aimed to define multimorbidity patterns in a population of blast-injured military personnel, and to examine these patterns in relation to long-term quality of life (QOL). METHODS: A total of 1972 US military personnel who sustained a blast-related injury during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan were identified from clinical records. Electronic health databases were used to identify medical diagnoses within the first year postinjury, and QOL was measured with a web-based assessment. Hierarchical cluster analysis methods using Ward's minimum variance were employed to identify clusters with related medical diagnosis categories. Duncan's multiple range test was used to group clusters into domains by QOL. RESULTS: Five distinct clusters were identified and grouped into three QOL domains. The lowest QOL domain contained one cluster with a clinical triad reflecting musculoskeletal pain, concussion, and mental health morbidity. The middle QOL domain had two clusters, one with concussion/anxiety predominating and the other with polytrauma. The highest QOL domain had two clusters with little multimorbidity aside from musculoskeletal pain. CONCLUSIONS: The present study described blast-related injury profiles with varying QOL levels that may indicate the need for integrated health services. Implications exist for current multidisciplinary care of wounded active duty and veteran service members, and future research should determine whether multimorbidity denotes distinct post-blast injury syndromes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Multimorbidade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Res ; 186: 109532, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334170

RESUMO

On March 1, 2012, the Chinese government implemented the Administrative Measures on Heatstroke Prevention (AMHP2012) to combat the occupational health impacts of extreme heat, and reducing occupational injury was one of the main purposes. This study aimed at quantifying the intervention effects of the AMHP2012 on extreme heat-related occupational injuries and subsequent insurance payouts in Guangzhou, China. Data on occupational injuries and insurance payouts were collected from March 1, 2011, to February 28, 2013, from the occupational injury insurance system of Guangzhou. A quasi-experimental design with before-after control was adopted. Interrupted time series analysis was performed to quantify the change of occupational injuries and insurance payouts after policy implementation. The distributed lag non-linear model was used to explore whether injury claims and insurance payouts due to extreme heat decreased. A total of 9851 injury claims were included in the analysis. After policy implementation, the risk of occupational injuries and insurance payouts decreased by 13% (RR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.75, 0.99) and 24% (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.94), respectively. The attributable fraction of extreme heat-related occupational injuries decreased from 3.17% (95%eCI: 1.35, 4.69) to 1.52% (95%eCI: -0.36, 3.15), which contributed to 0.86 million USD reduction of insurance payouts. Both males and females, low-educated, young and middle-aged workers, workers at small or medium-sized enterprises, engaging in manufacturing, and with both minor and severe injuries were apparently associated with decreased rates of extreme heat-related occupational injuries. The AMHP2012 policy contributed to the reduction of extreme heat-related occupational injuries and insurance payouts in Guangzhou, China, and this research provided novel evidence for decision-makers to better understand the necessity of implementing health protection policies among laborers under climate change.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Exposição Ocupacional , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229530, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury in the upper extremity is linked to high socioeconomic burden, yet cost-analyses are rare and from small cohorts. The objective of this study was to determine the costs and long-term socioeconomic effects of peripheral nerve injuries in the upper extremity in Germany. METHODS: We analyzed data of 250 patients with 268 work-related upper extremity nerve injuries from acute treatment to long-term follow-up on rehabilitation, sick-leave and disability-pension. RESULTS: Patients were on average 39.9±14.2 years old, male (85%) and mean inpatient treatment was 7±6 days. Location of nerve was 8% (N = 19) proximal to the wrist, 26% (N = 65) at the wrist and metacarpus, and 66% (N = 166) at phalangeal level. Acute in-patient treatment for (single) median nerve injury accounted for 66% with hospital reimbursement of 3.570€, ulnar nerve injury for 24% and 2.650€ and radial nerve injury for 10% and 3.166€, all including finger nerve injuries. The remaining were combined nerve injuries, with significantly higher costs, especially if combined with tendon 5.086€ or vascular injury 4.886€. Based on location, nerve injuries proximal to the wrist averaged 5.360±6.429€, at the wrist and metacarpus 3.534±2.710€ and at the phalangeal level 3.418±3.330€. 16% required rehabilitation with average costs of 5.842€ and stay of 41±21 days. Sick leave was between 11-1109 days with an average of 147 days with socioeconomic costs of 197€/day, equaling on average 17.640€. 30% received a mean yearly disability pension of 3.187€, that would account to 102.167€ per lifetime. CONCLUSION: This large German patient sample indicates that nerve injury has a major impact on function and employment, resulting in significant health care costs. Both proximal and distal nerve injuries led to long-term disability, subsequent sick-leave and in 30% to permanent disability pension. These data are determined to support future studies and health economical work on prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of these often small injuries with great consequences.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Licença Médica/economia
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(13): 361-365, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240124

RESUMO

Approximately 2.8 million nonfatal workplace illnesses and injuries were reported in the United States in 2018 (1). Current surveillance methods might underestimate the prevalence of occupational injuries and illnesses (2,3). One way to obtain more information on occupational morbidity is to assess workers' perceptions about whether they have ever experienced health problems related to work (4). Occupational exposures might directly cause, contribute to, exacerbate, or predispose workers to various health problems (work-related health problems). CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health estimated the lifetime prevalence of self-reported, work-related health problems for the currently employed population overall and stratified by various demographic and job characteristics using data from the 2018 version of the SummerStyles survey. Overall, 35.1% of employed respondents had ever experienced a work-related health problem (95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.0%-37.3%). The most commonly reported work-related health problem was back pain (19.4%, 95% CI = 17.6%-21.2%). Among industries, construction (48.6%, 95% CI = 36.54%-60.58%) had the highest prevalence of any work-related health problems. Workplace injury and illness prevention programs are needed to reduce the prevalence of work-related health problems, especially in higher-risk industries.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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