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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(12): 1576-1582, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prone positioning is deployed as a critical treatment for improving oxygenation in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. This regimen is currently highly prevalent in the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has brought about increased concern about how best to safely avoid brachial plexus injuries when caring for unconscious proned patients. METHODS: A review of the published literature on brachial plexus injuries secondary to proning ventilated patients was performed. This was combined with a review of available international critical care guidelines in order to produce a succinct set of guidelines to aid critical care departments in reducing brachial plexus injuries during these challenging times. DISCUSSION: There is no one manner in which prone positioning an unconscious patient can be made universally safe. This paper provides 6 key steps to reducing the incidence of brachial plexus injuries while proning and suggests a safe and sensible management and referral pathway for the conscious patient in which a brachial plexus injury is identified. CONCLUSION: There is in truth no completely safe position for every patient and certainly there will be anomalies in anatomy that will predispose certain individuals to nerve injury. Thus the injury rate cannot be reduced to zero but an understanding of the principles of protection will inform those undertaking positioning.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Decúbito Ventral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
2.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200465, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783618

RESUMO

Management of musculoskeletal (MSK) tumours has traditionally been delivered by surgeons and medical oncologists. However, in recent years, image-guided interventional oncology (IO) has significantly impacted the clinical management of MSK tumours. With the rapid evolution of relevant technologies and the expanding range of clinical indications, it is likely that the impact of IO will significantly grow and further evolve in the near future.In this narrative review, we describe well-established and new interventional technologies that are currently integrating into the IO armamentarium available to radiologists to treat MSK tumours and illustrate new emerging IO indications for treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias Musculares/terapia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Eletroporação/métodos , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Previsões , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica/prevenção & controle , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/métodos , Masculino , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Terapia por Radiofrequência/métodos , Radiologia Intervencionista/métodos , Radiologia Intervencionista/tendências , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21130, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is well known that foot massage is a very prevalent stress relief method in China. Literatures have reported various massage-inducted peripheral nerve injuries. However, massage-inducted lateral plantar nerve (LPN) injury is very rare. Here, we represent an unusual case of massage-inducted LPN damage, and we also report the diagnostic method of this patient using musculoskeletal ultrasonography combined with electromyography (EMG). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 21-year-old woman presented symptoms of redness, swelling, pain and numbness in the medial right ankle joint for 2 days. DIAGNOSIS: The results of musculoskeletal ultrasonography and EMG provide great help for doctors to make accurate diagnosis. The patient was eventually diagnosed with LPN injury. INTERVENTIONS: No further foot massage was allowed. Vitamin B12 was taken orally for 2 months. Conservative therapy, including electrical stimulation therapy and infrared therapy, was conducted. Besides, active rehabilitation training was also performed. OUTCOMES: The discomfort symptoms were relieved significantly after 2 months conservative treatment. Clinical symptoms and EMG examination illustrated satisfactory result during follow up time. CONCLUSION: The report showed that the masseur should be very careful when doing foot massage to prevent nerve damage. Besides, musculoskeletal ultrasonography combined with EMG can provide important evidence for accurate and effective diagnosis of LPN injury.


Assuntos
Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletromiografia/métodos , Massagem/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Nervo Tibial/lesões , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tornozelo/inervação , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Orthopade ; 49(8): 737-748, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710138

RESUMO

Gluteal insufficiency or hip abductor mechanism deficiency mainly following (revision) total hip replacement is associated with highly painful complaints and severe suffering of patients. It represents a great diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Differentiated conservative treatment pathways, open surgical and endoscopic anatomic repair techniques with intact gluteal musculature and muscle transfer are available as salvage procedures for chronic not anatomically reconstructable mass ruptures. A stepwise diagnostic and therapeutic approach is required for restoration of the quality of life and painless or almost painless mobility of affected patients in occupation and daily life.


Assuntos
Artralgia/etiologia , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Artroplastia de Quadril/psicologia , Nádegas/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/cirurgia , Nádegas/cirurgia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Reoperação , Ruptura , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Tendões/epidemiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 666-669, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683828

RESUMO

Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been advocated as the golden standard of mid-low rectal cancer surgery for nearly 30 years. However, the complication of postoperative urinary and sexual dysfunctions due to intraoperative nerve injury has yet to be improved. Based on the concept of membrane anatomy, we carried out a systematic study on the important membrane anatomical structure anterior to the rectum--Denonvilliers' fascia. From multiple aspects including anatomy, physiology, histochemistry and surgical practice, we verified the importance of Denonvilliers' fascia for TME surgery in prevention of intraoperative nerve injury and postoperative urogenital dysfunction. Moreover, based on anatomical study of the surgical marker line of Denonvilliers' fascia (Wei's line) and surgical plane, we proved that total mesorectal excision with preservation of Denonvilliers' fascia (iTME) was feasible and practical. Therefore, we conducted a large multicentric randomized controlled trial (RCT). The mid-term result demonstrated that compared with traditional TME surgery, iTME was more effective in reducing the incidence of postoperative urinary and sexual dysfunctions in male patients with mid-low rectal cancer, without sacrifice of short-term tumor radical outcome. We believe that the final RCT result of iTME, based on membrane anatomy, will provide solid evidence for the update of concepts of rectal cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Fáscia/anatomia & histologia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Protectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Reto/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Mesentério/anatomia & histologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Peritônio/anatomia & histologia , Reto/anatomia & histologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Urológicas/etiologia , Doenças Urológicas/prevenção & controle
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(7): 670-675, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683829

RESUMO

The introduction of total mesorectal excision and wider use of laparoscopic surgery pushed the field of colorectal surgery into an era of interfasical dissection. The Japanese suggestion of fascial arrangement of the trunk in a multilaminar, symmetrical and parallel way helps in better understanding of fascial relationship and interfascial planes surrounding the colon and the rectum. However, different interpretations of the multilayer retroperitoneal fascial relationship, complexity of fascial structures within the pelvis and dense adhesion between two apposed fasciae at special points make it still challenging for the surgeon to decide on the precise interfascial plane for colorectal mobilization. Small vessels on fasica propria of the rectum and various retroperitoneal fascia, especially ureterohypogastric fascia show distinctive features. The root of small vessels on fascia propria of the rectum helps to identify the anterolateral and posterolateral interfascial plane in the middle and low rectum. The longitudinal trajectory of small vessel on ureterohypogastric fascia and scarcity interfascial vascular communication between mesocolic and retroperitoneal fascia help the surgeon to find and stay in the interfacial plane during colorectal mobilization. More knowledge of fascial and interfascial plane will certainly help achieve better mesocolic mesorectal integrity and reduce the risk of injuries to autonomic nerves. More anatomical, histological and embryological studies are warranted with respect to relationship between small vessels and fasciae.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Fáscia/anatomia & histologia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/métodos , Colo/anatomia & histologia , Colo/cirurgia , Dissecação , Fáscia/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Mesentério/anatomia & histologia , Mesentério/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Peritônio/anatomia & histologia , Peritônio/irrigação sanguínea , Peritônio/cirurgia , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Protectomia/métodos , Reto/anatomia & histologia , Reto/cirurgia
7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(6): 408-411, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538097

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Axillary nerve injury is a major complication of shoulder surgery during glenoid exposure. The aim of this study was to measure the mean distance between the inferior glenoid and the axillary nerve in healthy shoulders and then to compare this distance between osteoarthritic and rotator cuff deficient glenohumeral joints. METHODS: The magnetic resonance images of 50 patients with normal glenohumeral joints were reviewed. The infra-glenoid tubercle was determined as a fixed point and the distance to the axillary nerve was measured. Two separate assessors measured on the same sagittal sections. With a study power of 80%, the sample needed in each comparison group was 28 patients. Measurements were then performed on scans in patients with osteoarthritis and cuff tear arthropathy. The mean distance was compared between groups. RESULTS: The mean distance between the infra-glenoid tubercle and axillary nerve was 12mm (standard deviation, SD, 5.6mm) in normal shoulders, 10.6mm (SD 5.4mm) in shoulders with osteoarthritis and 9.7mm (SD 3.7mm) in those with cuff tear arthropathy. For this sample size of 50 patients with a confidence interval of 95%, the mean range is 12mm (95% CI 10.4-13.6). A comparison between normal shoulder and osteoarthritis showed a p-value of 0.3, and between normal and cuff tear arthropathy a p-value of 0.06. This was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The axillary nerve lies on average 12mm from the infra-glenoid tubercle. The presence of inferior osteophytes in glenohumeral osteoarthritis and the proximal migration of humeral head in cuff tear arthropathy does not seem to alter the course of the nerve significantly in relation to the inferior glenoid tubercle.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Cavidade Glenoide/inervação , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Cavidade Glenoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/inervação , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia
8.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(6): e008580, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulsed field ablation (PFA) is a nonthermal energy that may provide safety advantages over radiofrequency ablation (RFA). One-shot PFA catheters have been developed for pulmonary vein isolation, but they do not permit flexible lesion sets. This study investigated a novel lattice-tip catheter designed for focal RFA or PFA ablation. METHODS: The effects of PFA (biphasic, 24 amperes) were investigated in 25 swine using a lattice-tip catheter and system (Affera Inc). Step 1 (n=14) examined the feasibility to create atrial line of block and described its acute effects on the phrenic nerve and esophagus. Step 2 (n=7) examined the subacute effects of PFA on block durability, phrenic nerve, and esophagus ≥2 weeks. Step 3 compared the effects of PFA and RFA on the esophagus using a mechanical deviation model approximating the esophagus to the right atrium (n=4) and by direct ablation within its lumen (n=4). The effects of endocardial PFA and RFA on the phrenic nerve were also compared (n=10). Histological analysis was performed. RESULTS: PFA produced acute block in 100% of lines, achieved with 2.1 (1.3-3.2) applications/cm line. Histological analysis following (35 [18-37]) days showed 100% transmurality (thickness range 0.4-3.4 mm) with a lesion width of 19.4 (10.9-27.4 mm). PFA selectively affected cardiomyocytes but spared blood vessels and nervous tissue. PFA applied from the posterior atria (23 [21-25] applications) to the approximated esophagus (6 [4.5-14] mm) produced transmural lesions without esophageal injury. PFA (16.5 [15-18] applications) applied inside the esophageal lumen produced mild edema compared with RFA (13 [12-14] applications) which produced epithelial ulcerations. PFA resulted in no or transient stunning of the phrenic nerve (<5 minutes) without histological changes while RFA produced paralysis. CONCLUSIONS: PFA using a lattice-tip ablation catheter for focal ablation produced durable atrial lesions and showed lower vulnerability to esophageal or phrenic nerve damage compared with RFA.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Animais , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Esôfago/lesões , Esôfago/patologia , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Nervo Frênico/lesões , Nervo Frênico/patologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(6): 912-916.e1, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376178

RESUMO

Eight patients who underwent percutaneous cryoablation of mixed and/or motor nerves over a period of 5 years were identified. Distances from the ablation sites to origins of distal musculature were measured, and times to initial clinical recovery were collected. Strength progression over time following muscle activation was also collected and analyzed. All patients demonstrated activation of all muscles distal to the ablation, and the calculated mean rate of nerve regeneration based on distance to the origin of the assessed musculature and time to muscle activation for the group was 1.5 mm/day ± 1.1.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia , Denervação Muscular/métodos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Regeneração Nervosa , Dor/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Denervação Muscular/efeitos adversos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(6): 903-911, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the utility of monitoring transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) for neural thermoprotection during musculoskeletal tumor ablations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of 29 patients (16 male; median age, 46 y; range, 7-77 y) who underwent musculoskeletal tumor radiofrequency ablation (n = 8) or cryoablation (n = 22) with intraprocedural TCeMEP and SSEP monitoring was performed. The most common tumor histologies were osteoid osteoma (n = 6), venous malformation (n = 5), sarcoma (n = 5), renal cell carcinoma (n = 4), and non-small-cell lung cancer (n = 3). The most common tumor sites were spine (n = 22) and lower extremities (n = 4). Abnormal TCeMEP change was defined by 100-V increase above baseline threshold activation for a given myotome; abnormal SSEP change was defined by 60% reduction in baseline amplitude and/or 10% increase in latency. RESULTS: Abnormal changes in TCeMEP (n = 9; 30%) and/or SSEP (n = 5; 17%) occurred in 12 procedures (40%) and did not recover in 5 patients. Patients with unchanged TCeMEP/SSEP activities throughout the procedure (n = 18) did not have motor or sensory symptoms after the procedure; 3 (60%) with unrecovered activity changes and 2 (29%) with transient activity changes had new motor (n = 1) or sensory (n = 4) symptoms. Relative risk for neurologic sequelae for patients with unrecovered TCeMEP/SSEP changes vs those with transient or no changes was 7.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.66-33.9; P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal activity changes of TCeMEP or SSEP during percutaneous ablative procedures correlate with postprocedural neurologic sequelae.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criocirurgia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Neoplasias Musculares/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ablação por Radiofrequência/efeitos adversos , Tempo de Reação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 67: 388-394, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A distal approach in endovascular procedures for revascularization of lowers limbs can be considered in case of no re-entry in subintimal recanalization. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a medial approach to the infrageniculate popliteal artery (IPA) using existing computed tomography (CT) scan simulation and punctures performed on cadavers. METHODS AND RESULTS: CT angiographies of lower extremities were used to simulate IPA puncture and puncture trajectory. Tissues damaged during the trajectory between the puncture site and the access-related injuries were analyzed. Anatomical punctures on cadaverous model were also performed. Corpses were placed in supine position, the hip in slight flexion (40°) and abduction (external rotation of 60°). A 16 G needle was used for the IPA puncture. Twelve CT angiography simulations were made. Of these 12 simulations, 9 revealed an isolated lesion of the popliteal vein and 2 isolated lesions of the tibial nerve. A lesion of the tibial nerve and the popliteal vein on the same simulation was once observed. Damage to the medial gastrocnemius muscle could not be avoided in each case. Ten punctures were performed on cadavers with technical success. There were 6 popliteal vein lesions, 3 tibial nerve lesions, and 1 case without lesion. In all cases, damage to the medial gastrocnemius muscle was seen. CONCLUSIONS: This medial approach was feasible and is accompanied by trauma of elements of the popliteal pedicle. Preoperative CT angiography could anticipate best site of puncture and potential access-related injury.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Artéria Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Cadáver , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Veia Poplítea/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Poplítea/lesões , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Punções , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nervo Tibial/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Tibial/lesões , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia
12.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(7): 1435-1439, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many biceps tenodesis (BT) procedures are described for treating proximal biceps pathology. Axillary nerve injury has been reported during BT using bicortical drilling techniques with variable results depending on the location. In addition, there is a risk of potential articular damage during suprapectoral BT. We sought to determine the distance between the axillary nerve and the posterior passage of a bicortical pin, as well as the risk of articular damage, and to analyze whether a lateral inclination of the pin could avoid the chondral risk during suprapectoral BT with bicortical drilling. METHODS: Ten cadaveric shoulders were divided into 2 groups. In the first group, we determined the axillary nerve distance from the posterior exit point of 3 pins in a suprapectoral position 15 mm distal to the humeral cartilage: perpendicular, 10° caudal, and 20° caudal inclination. We measured 2 distances from the pin: to the axillary nerve and to the cartilage border. In the second group, we set one pin at the same perpendicular position and set the second pin 15° laterally tilted to determine its extra-articular passage. RESULTS: No pin injured the nerve, whereas all pins showed a transchondral direction. The 20° caudal inclination was the nearest to the nerve (18.8 mm [95% confidence interval, 5.5-32 mm]), but the perpendicular position was the safer position (38.8 mm [95% confidence interval, 28-49.6 mm]). Tilting the pin direction 15° laterally prevented cartilage damage (P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: Suprapectoral BT with bicortical drilling performed 15 mm distal to the humeral cartilage is a safe procedure regarding the axillary nerve. A potential humeral chondral injury could be prevented with 15° of lateral inclination of the pin guide.


Assuntos
Pinos Ortopédicos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Tenodese/métodos , Braço , Plexo Braquial , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Úmero/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Tenodese/efeitos adversos , Tenodese/instrumentação
13.
Arthroscopy ; 36(6): 1555-1564, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of axillary nerve palsy after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization and to measure the distance between the nerve and capsule in shoulders with a capsular lesion. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2,027 shoulders (1,909 patients; 1,433 male and 476 female patients; mean age, 32 years [age range, 13-81 years]) subjected to arthroscopic soft-tissue stabilization for recurrent shoulder instability from 2005 to 2017. The exclusion criteria were bone grafting or transfer and preoperative axillary nerve symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed patient records and investigated the incidence and clinical features of axillary nerve palsy. We measured the closest distance between the axillary nerve and capsule on preoperative magnetic resonance images. RESULTS: Postoperative axillary nerve palsy occurred in 4 shoulders (0.2% of all arthroscopic stabilizations). Capsular repair was performed in 2 shoulders (1.2% of 160 capsular repairs); humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) repair, 1 shoulder (2% of 47 HAGL repairs); and isolated Bankart repair, 1 shoulder (0.05% of 1,941 Bankart repairs). The closest distance between the nerve and capsule was 3.4 ± 3.2 mm in shoulders with capsular or HAGL lesions and less than 1 mm in the 3 shoulders with palsy. The common symptoms in axillary nerve palsy cases were shoulder discomfort, delayed recovery of range of motion, and deltoid weakness and atrophy. A definitive diagnosis was made with electromyography in all cases. Nerve injury by a suture was confirmed during revision surgery in 3 shoulders subjected to capsular or HAGL repair during the initial operation. The palsy was transient and fully recovered in 1 shoulder with isolated Bankart repair. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of axillary nerve palsy after arthroscopic soft-tissue shoulder stabilization was low but higher in shoulders subjected to capsular or HAGL repair. We should always consider the possibility of axillary nerve palsy in shoulders that require capsular or HAGL repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, therapeutic case series.


Assuntos
Axila/inervação , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/epidemiologia , Articulação do Ombro/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
EMBO J ; 39(6): e102214, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030804

RESUMO

Spinal cord microglia contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. We have previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling is critical for nerve injury-induced activation of spinal cord microglia, but the responsible endogenous TLR2 agonist has not been identified. Here, we show that nerve injury-induced upregulation of sialyltransferase St3gal2 in sensory neurons leads to an increase in expression of the sialylated glycosphingolipid, GT1b. GT1b ganglioside is axonally transported to the spinal cord dorsal horn and contributes to characteristics of neuropathic pain such as mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Spinal cord GT1b functions as an TLR2 agonist and induces proinflammatory microglia activation and central sensitization. Pharmacological inhibition of GT1b synthesis attenuates nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, the St3gal2-GT1b-TLR2 axis may offer a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Neuralgia/terapia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/agonistas , Animais , Gangliosídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Sialiltransferases/genética , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(3): 225-237, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077972

RESUMO

Lesions of peripheral nerves substantially influence the long-term prognosis and functional outcome. Approximately 70% of peripheral nerval lesions are associated with vascular injuries and occur more frequently with certain fractures and osteosynthesis types. The prognosis and treatment depend on the severity of the injury and the presence of axonal lesions, in particular, determines the further procedure. Treatment as early as possible is associated with a clear improvement in the prognosis. Defects longer than 8 mm in size necessitate a nerve transplantation. Iatrogenic vascular lesions occur particularly in percutaneous interventions and are reported in up to 8% of cases after operations involving the musculoskeletal system. Iatrogenic nerve lesions are almost exclusively the result of surgical procedures and represent up to 17.5% of traumatic nerve injuries. For all lesions the general principles of surgical treatment are valid and the rapid involvement of professional expertise is decisive.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Doenças Neuromusculares , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Extremidades , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Doenças Neuromusculares/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(1): 154-162, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation-induced (RI) plexopathy is a rare peripheral nerve injury after radiation therapy for cancer. No treatment has been shown to slow its progression. A pentoxifylline-vitamin E combination significantly reduced RI fibrosis, and its association with clodronate (PENTOCLO) allowed healing of osteoradionecrosis and reduction of neurologic symptoms in phase 2 trials. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in adults with RI limb plexopathy without cancer recurrence, randomized in 2 arms to PENTOCLO (pentoxifylline 800 mg, tocopherol 1000 mg, clodronate 1600 mg 5 days per week) or triple placebo. The primary outcome measure after 18 months of treatment was the neurologic Subjective Objective Management Analytic (SOMA) score evaluating pain, paresthesia, and motor disability. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2015, 59 patients were included: 1 false inclusion (neoplastic plexopathy), 29 treated with placebo (group P), and 29 treated with the active drugs (group A); 46 patients presented an upper-limb and 12 a lower-limb plexopathy. The mean delay after irradiation was 26 ± 8 years, for patients with neurologic symptoms for 5 ± 5 years. The median global SOMA scores in the P and A groups, respectively, were 9 (range, 6-11) versus 9 (range, 8-11) at M0 and 9 (range, 5-12) versus 10 (range, 6-11) at M18 without any significant difference. Analysis of the secondary outcomes showed that SOMA score subdomains for pain and paresthesia were more affected in group A (not significant). The frequency of adverse events was similar in the 2 groups (81% of patients): slight expected vascular-gastrointestinal symptoms in A, but a large excess of RI complications (arterial stenosis). CONCLUSIONS: This first randomized drug trial in RI plexopathy failed to show a beneficial effect. More studies are needed in patients with less advanced disease and fewer confounding comorbidities and with a more sensitive measure to detect a therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Ácido Clodrônico/uso terapêutico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Tocoferóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Robot Surg ; 14(5): 733-738, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997148

RESUMO

Risk of intraoperative neuropathic injury in minimally invasive surgery has been established as a leading complication. Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM), such as upper extremity somatosensory evoked potentials (ueSSEPs), to decrease peripheral nerve injury due to positional stress has been described. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) requires steep Trendelenberg, which may predispose patients to upper extremity neuropraxia. Subdermal stimulating electrodes were placed on the patients' bilateral wrists over the ulnar nerve and the nerve was stimulated. Realtime waveforms were compared to baseline data to prevent and detect injury to the ulnar nerve. Established intervention criteria, indicating risk for neuropathic damage necessitating intraoperative patient repositioning, was a 50% loss in amplitude or a 10% increase in latency. One hundred and forty three patients received RALP with IONM. 17 of 143 patients (11.8%) met ueSSEP intervention criteria. Only weight was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.04). Mean reduction in amplitude was 79.9% (SE 4.1). Average amplitude loss duration was 22 min (SE 4.0). Weight and BMI were correlated to the degree of amplitude reduction (p = 0.03 and < 0.01), while operative time and DM approached significance (p = 0.09 and p = 0.14). This is the first study to use IONM to reduce the risk of nerve injury during genitourinary surgery. Realtime nerve monitoring using ueSSEP allowed for upper extremity intraoperative monitoring and repositioning. This may decrease the risk of upper extremity neuropraxia due to malpositioning during RALP. Weight and BMI were identified as risk factors for possible nerve injury. Further data collection and analysis to preoperatively stratify patients for application of IONM during RALP is currently ongoing.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(1): 92-95, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958939

RESUMO

Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) has been suggested to potentially improve oncological outcomes in advanced low rectal cancer patients. However, the urogenital function impairment as one of the main complications deteriorates the quality of life in these patients. The key point to prevent urogenital function impairment is to avoid autonomic nerve injury, including the superior and inferior hypogastric nerve plexus and neurovascular bundle. Three areas should be especially focused during surgery, including the posterolateral aspect of the prostate during the separation of the rectum from prostate, the lateral wall of ischioanal fossa and the area in front of anal canal. Previous presumption supposed that extended resection, though promoting oncologic outcomes, might lead to enlarged injury to surrounding vessels and nerves that deteriorated patients' urogenital function. But recent studies show that postoperative urogenital function outcomes of rectal cancer patients who underwent ELAPE are not inferior to conventional APE after the induction of minimal invasive approaches including laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Their quality of life can be comparable with patients who underwent conventional APE, and are even better in some particular area. Moreover, as further improvement of ELAPE procedure has been made, the concept of individualized ELAPE addressed the importance of personalized surgical procedure based on tumor stage and location, dedicating to avoid injury to vessels and nerves through preserving more surrounding tissues. Urogenital function outcomes, as part of postoperative outcomes, get more and more attention in recent years. We review current studies on urogenital function after ELAPE from anatomy to clinical research, in order to raise surgeons' attention of nerve preservation technique and to improve their understanding of ELAPE procedure.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/lesões , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Protectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Sistema Urogenital/inervação , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/cirurgia , Humanos , Diafragma da Pelve/lesões , Diafragma da Pelve/cirurgia , Períneo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Protectomia/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistema Urogenital/lesões , Sistema Urogenital/cirurgia
19.
Anaesthesia ; 75(4): 541-548, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721144

RESUMO

Medicolegal claims for neurological injury following the use of central neuraxial blockade in childbirth represent the second most common claim against obstetric anaesthetists. We present an analysis of 55 cases from a database of 368 obstetric anaesthetic claims. Common themes that emerge from the analysis include: consent; nature of nerve injury (non-anaesthetic; direct; chemical; compressive); recognition; and management. Specific advice arising from these cases includes: the importance of informing patients of the risks of nerve damage; keeping below the conus of the cord for intrathecal procedures; responding appropriately if a patient complains of paraesthesia; and having a high index of suspicion if recovery of normal neurological function is delayed. As ever, principles of good practice, including respect for patient autonomy, early provision of information, good communication and a high standard of record-keeping, will minimise the frustration of patients that can then lead them to seek a legal route to redress if they suffer an injury following central neuraxial blockade.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Obstetrícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
20.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(2): e131-e137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sagittal profile descriptions of supracondylar humerus fractures are limited. We describe a reverse oblique (RO) pattern in which the distal fragment has a prominent anterior spike that is displaced posterior to the proximal fragment. This pattern presents a challenge during closed manipulation utilizing traditional reduction maneuvers. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic characteristics of the RO and non-RO patterns of supracondylar humerus fractures. We hypothesized that the RO pattern would be associated with greater soft tissue trauma. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of operative supracondylar humerus fractures treated at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2014 to 2016. Patients were categorized into RO and non-RO groups for analysis. Associated neurovascular injuries were compared between groups. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine consecutive patients were reviewed. The RO fracture pattern was seen in 12 patients. All displaced RO fractures were able to be closed reduced with a modification to the traditional reduction sequence. Overall cohort rates of preoperative soft tissue injury included antecubital ecchymosis 16.8%, nerve palsies 15%, and vascular compromise 6.4%. Compared with non-RO fractures, the RO fracture group had significantly higher rates of anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) palsies (P=0.013), antecubital ecchymosis (P=0.018), and compartment syndrome (P=0.043). When comparing RO with non-RO type II fractures, there were no differences in soft tissue injury (P=0.439). Compared with non-RO type III fractures, RO type III fractures had higher rates of AIN injury (P=0.047), antecubital ecchymosis (P=0.007), and overall soft tissue injury (P=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This study introduces a previously undescribed supracondylar humerus fracture subtype: the RO fracture. We found increased rates of soft tissue compromise including antecubital ecchymosis and AIN palsy in this fracture type. Further, traditional reduction methods proved to be ineffectual for this fracture pattern. We utilized a simple modification that allowed for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of displaced RO fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III-prognostic.


Assuntos
Síndromes Compartimentais/etiologia , Fraturas do Úmero/complicações , Fraturas do Úmero/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Equimose/etiologia , Antebraço/inervação , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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