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1.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 51(3): 91-93, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645293

RESUMO

Sports injuries are multifactorial and have a complex web of risk factors. Thus, identifying risk factors plays a central role in designing prevention strategies. Following evidence-based practice principles, clinicians use the best available evidence to guide decisions about injury prevention. Here, we share a scenario familiar to the sports medicine community-risk factors for hamstring strain injury-and highlight some of the pitfalls that clinicians should watch out for when applying research to practice. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(3):91-93. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.0104.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Terapia por Exercício , Músculos Isquiossurais/lesões , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Esportiva
3.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 128-135, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of a futsal-specific warm-up to reduce injuries in amateur teams. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Two futsal centres followed over one season using a specific report card. PARTICIPANTS: 878 teams (Intervention group, n = 458; Control group, n = 420) of both genders and three age groups (U13, U17, adults). INTERVENTION: A futsal-specific warm-up consisting of cardiovascular exercises, dynamic stretches, and game-related skills. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate and severity of all injuries, lower extremity (LE) injuries and contact injuries. A multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to compare between-group rates. RESULTS: The rate of all injuries was lower in the intervention group (rate ratio (RR) = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.59 to 1.06), yet not significant. There was a significantly lower rate of contact injuries in the intervention group (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.98). Subgroup analysis, based on the warm-up adherence of intervention teams (low, intermediate, high), showed a lower rate of all injuries (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.97), and LE injuries (RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.81) in the high compared to low adherence group. CONCLUSION: A futsal-specific warm-up can reduce the rate of contact injuries in amateur players. With high adherence the rate of all injuries and LE injuries may also reduce.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Traumatismos da Perna/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
4.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 12-19, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish beliefs and practices of physical performance coaches regarding sprinting and Hamstring Strain Injury (HSI) in Australian Rules football. DESIGNS: Delphi-validated questionnaire. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen high-performance managers of the Australian Football League. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics were collected to establish experience; central themes were established for the analyses of the beliefs and practices. RESULTS: Nine (50%) physical performance coaches responded to an invitation to complete the questionnaire. Participants held an undergraduate degree and had 9.2 ± 4.3 years of experience. Accelerations (n = 9), maximum speed sprints (n = 9) and running with hip flexion (n = 7) were the most common activities associated with HSI. Coaches believed sprinting, eccentric strength training and proper periodisation were effective strategies to reduce HSI risk. There's a disparity between beliefs and practices when using GPS to monitor sprinting, however, all coaches reported regular exposure to sprint training across both pre and in-season. Overstriding (n = 9) and pelvic instability (n = 6) were identified as key flaws in running mechanics. CONCLUSIONS: This information can be used to improve training strategies, whilst these findings indicate further investigations into sprint training and running mechanics for HSI risk reduction.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Músculos Isquiossurais/lesões , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Corrida/lesões , Aceleração , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Traumatismos da Perna/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tutoria , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 159-171, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187606

RESUMO

Concussion remains a common injury among sports participants. Implementing risk-reduction strategies for sport-related concussion (SRC) should be a priority of medical professionals involved in the care of athletes. Over the past few decades, a multifaceted approach to reducing SRC risk has been developed. Protective equipment, rule and policy change/enforcement, educational programs, behavioral modifications, legislation, physiologic modifications, and sport culture change are a few of the programs implemented to mitigate SRC risk. In this article, the authors critically review current SRC risk-reduction strategies and offer insight into future directions of injury prevention for SRC.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Equipamentos de Proteção , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Equipamentos Esportivos , Medicina Esportiva/organização & administração
6.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 19-38, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187609

RESUMO

As awareness on the short-term and long-term consequences of sports-related concussions and repetitive head impacts continues to grow, so too does the necessity to establish biomechanical measures of risk that inform public policy and risk mitigation strategies. A more precise exposure metric is central to establishing relationships among the traumatic experience, risk, and ultimately clinical outcomes. Accurate exposure metrics provide a means to support evidence-informed decisions accelerating public policy mandating brain trauma management through sport modification and safer play.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Concussão Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisões , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(208): 146-152, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and injury pattern in Spanish football (soccer) referees. METHOD: In this retrospective study, Spanish referees filled out an online survey during a training camp organized by the Referees Technical Committee of the Real Federación Española de Fútbol. The survey included questions on aspects of refereeing qualifications, training and matches, injury patterns (type, location, and circumstances), and absence of the 2018-2019 season. RESULTS: A total of 28 elite referees (24.1%) out of 116 reported having suffered one injury during the season. Significant differences in the frequency of injuries between match (MRs) and assistant referees (ARs) were observed. MRs were 1.90 (95% CI 1.008-3.582) times as likely to suffer an injury compared to ARs. The incidence of match injuries for MRs officiating in the top division of the Spanish Football League was 1.30 (95% CI 0.0-3.82) per 1000 match hours while for ARs was 0.7 (95% CI 0.0-2.1); the incidence of training injuries was considerably lower in both groups (0.4 (95% CI 0.0-0.9) vs. 0.3 (95% CI 0.0-0.6). Hamstring- and calf-related muscle problems were the most common injury diagnoses in elite referees. Injured referees had, on average, 2 weeks of absence from training and competition. CONCLUSION: Elite MRs had a 90% increase in the risk of suffering an injury in comparison with elite ARs. The incidence of match injury or training injury was very low in both groups, despite that, they should continue carrying out preventive programs specially targeted for hamstring- and calf-related muscle problems


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Futebol/lesões , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle
8.
Rev Prat ; 70(5): 548-554, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058646

RESUMO

Prevention of osteo-articular lesions in amateur and leisure sports. Physical exercise and sport are now recognized by the World Health Organisation and the ministry of Health as non-drug therapy/treatment for many pathologies. Its use implies an increase in the number of sportsmen and therefore, statistically, an increase in the risk of osteoarticular lesions. Before starting, it is advisable to carry out a check-up to determine non-contraindication, as well as particularities and patient's preference for one or more sports. To avoid injuries and allow the regularity necessary for an efficient treatment, preventive measures must be taken. Major preventive measures consist in choosing one or several sports practiced in a safe environment and in well-qualified instructors to teach correct technique, advise on the right equipment, manage the intensity and frequency of each session to allow progression, and give precautions to be followed regarding weather and pollution conditions. Others preventive measures are those of competitive sports: warming-up, stretching, active recovery, sleep, hydration and nutrition also apply to every athlete no matter his or her level. Certain preventive measures are specific according to morphology or traumatic pathologies, such as orthosis, and others to age, young and old, or the level of the athlete.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Esportes , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer
9.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 114-116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969014

RESUMO

This is second of a two-part series on the history and effectiveness of mouthguards (MGs) for protection from orofacial injuries. MGs are hypothesized to reduce orofacial injuries by separating the upper and lower dentation, preventing tooth fractures, redistributing and absorbing the force of direct blows to the mouth, and separating teeth from soft tissue which helps prevent lacerations and bruises. The single study on MG use in military training found that when boil-and-bite MGs were required for four training activities, orofacial injury rates were reduced 56% compared with when MGs were required for just one training activity. A recent systematic review on the effectiveness of MGs for prevention of orofacial injuries included 23 studies involving MG users and nonusers and a wide variety of sports. For cohort studies that directly collected injury data, the risk of an orofacial injury was 2.33 times higher among MG nonusers (95% confidence interval, 1.59-3.44). More well-designed studies are needed on the effectiveness of MGs during military training. Despite some methodological limitations, the current data suggest that MGs can substantially reduce the risk of orofacial injuries in sport activities. MGs should be used in activities where there is a significant risk of orofacial injuries.


Assuntos
Militares , Protetores Bucais , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lacerações , Boca/lesões
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1405-1411, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833355

RESUMO

Muscle injuries are one of the most common injuries in professional and recreational sports. Their impact on absence during the games is therefore major. There are many risk factors, the main ones being a previous muscle injury, a lack of strength in the muscle in question, and the age of the athlete. Preventive medicine in this field, although essential, remains perfectible and the various preventive measures are sometimes not fully studied, or present variable evidence. Stretching, neuro-muscular exercises, muscle strengthening, nutrition or genetics can all be part of the most comprehensive preventive possible approach.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Extremidade Inferior , Esportes , Traumatismos em Atletas/genética , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Força Muscular
11.
Sports Health ; 12(5): 478-487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758080

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Shoulder injuries are highly prevalent in sports involving the upper extremity. Some risk factors have been identified in the literature, but consensus is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors of overuse shoulder injury in overhead athletes, as described in the literature. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature from the years 1970 to 2018 was performed using 2 electronic databases: PubMed and Scopus. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective studies, written in English, that described at least 1 risk factor associated with overuse shoulder injuries in overhead sports (volleyball, handball, basketball, swimming, water polo, badminton, baseball, and tennis) were considered for analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted from 25 studies. Study methodology quality was evaluated using the Modified Coleman Methodology Score. RESULTS: Intrinsic factors, previous injury, range of motion (lack or excess), and rotator cuff weakness (isometric and isokinetic) highly increase the risk of future injuries. Additionally, years of athletic practice, body mass index, sex, age, and level of play seem to have modest influence. As for the effect of scapular dysfunction on shoulder injuries, it is still controversial, though these are typically linked. Extrinsic factors, field position, condition of practice (match/training), time of season, and training load also have influence on the occurrence of shoulder injuries. CONCLUSION: Range of motion, rotator cuff muscle weakness, and training load are important modifiable factors associated with shoulder injuries. Scapular dysfunction may also have influence. The preventive approach for shoulder injury should focus on these factors.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ombro/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Manguito Rotador/fisiopatologia , Escápula/fisiopatologia , Lesões do Ombro/prevenção & controle
12.
Arch. med. deporte ; 37(198): 253-258, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198432

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: La educación en salud basada en intervenciones con nuevas tecnologías de la información y comunicación [TIC] son cada vez más utilizadas en la prevención primaria. La fisioterapia en el ámbito del deporte ha demostrado en los últimos años alcances de práctica basada en la evidencia desde sus intervenciones desde ámbito de la salud pública, clínico terapéutico en el esquema de la rehabilitación integral. OBJETIVO: Comparar la eficacia de una intervención educativa de Fisioterapia en futbolistas, en modalidad presencial (conferencia) frente a una intervención mediada por las tecnologías de la información y comunicación [TIC], sobre el riesgo de lesión medido con el Functional Movement Screen [FMS].MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorio [ECA] la población estuvo conformada por 100 participantes distribuidos en dos grupos (TIC n=50) y (Conferencia n=50), con un promedio de edad de 18,2 vs 18,3 años para conferencia y TIC respectivamente. Para la recolección de la información se construyó un cuestionario de evaluación para auto diligenciamiento elaborado a partir de las consideraciones del equipo de ciencias del deporte (médico especialista en deporte, fisioterapeutas, nutricionistas, biomecánico del deporte, entrenadores deportivos, profesional del deporte) del club deportivo. Se establecieron un total de 17 ítems tipo preguntas distribuidas en siete categorías de conocimientos sobre la prevención de lesiones, que debía de abordar el plan de educación para la salud desde Fisioterapia. RESULTADOS: Al realizarse la prueba de T para puntaje de FMS aplicado en relación al grupo de conferencia vs TIC se encontró una significancia bilateral p < 0,001 donde concluye que efectivamente la metodología TIC en relación al aumento de la puntuación en el FMS promedio tras la intervención fue mayor en la metodología que implementó las TIC. CONCLUSIÓN: Una intervención educativa en fisioterapia basada en las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación es más eficaz que una intervención en conferencia (presencial) para aumentar la puntuación en el cuestionario de conocimientos para la prevención de lesiones deportivas en el fútbol


INTRODUCTION: Health education based on interventions with new information and communication technologies are increasingly used in primary prevention. Physiotherapy in the field of sport has demonstrated in recent years scopes of evidence-based practice since its interventions from the field of public health, therapeutic clinical in the scheme of integral rehabilitation. AIM: To compare the effectiveness of an educational physiotherapy intervention in soccer players, in face-to-face mode (conference) versus an intervention mediated by the technologies of the information and communication [TIC], on the risk of injury measured with the Functional Movement Screen [FMS]. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A randomized clinical trial (RCT ) was carried out. The population consisted of 100 participants di-vided into two groups (TIC n = 50) and (Conference n = 50), with an average age of 18.2 vs 18.3 years for a conference and TIC respectively. For the collection of information, an evaluation questionnaire for self-completion was developed based on the considerations of the sports science team (sports specialist, physiotherapists, nutritionists, sports biomechanics, sports trainers, sports professional) of the club sports. A total of 17 question-type items were distributed in seven categories of knowledge about injury prevention, which should be addressed by the health education plan from Physiotherapy. RESULTS: A T test was performed for the FMS score applied in relation to the conference group vs. TIC, a bilateral significance was found p <0.001, which concluded that the TIC methodology in relation to the increase in the score in the average FMS after the intervention was higher in the methodology that implemented TIC. CONCLUSIONS: An educational intervention in physiotherapy based on Information and Communication Technologies is more effective than a conference intervention (in person) to increase the score in the knowledge questionnaire for the prevention of sports injuries in football


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Futebol , Atletas/educação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(4): 296-304, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sports participation is among the leading causes of catastrophic cervical spine injury (CSI) in the United States. Appropriate prehospital care for athletes with suspected CSIs should be available at all levels of sport. The goal of this project was to develop a set of best-practice recommendations appropriate for athletic trainers, emergency responders, sports medicine and emergency physicians, and others engaged in caring for athletes with suspected CSIs. METHODS: A consensus-driven approach (RAND/UCLA method) in combination with a systematic review of the available literature was used to identify key research questions and develop conclusions and recommendations on the prehospital care of the spine-injured athlete. A diverse panel of experts, including members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, and the Sports Institute at UW Medicine participated in 4 Delphi rounds and a 2-day nominal group technique (NGT) meeting. The systematic review involved 2 independent reviewers and 4 rounds of blinded review. RESULTS: The Delphi process identified 8 key questions to be answered by the systematic review. The systematic review comprised 1544 studies, 49 of which were included in the final full-text review. Using the results of the systematic review as a shared evidence base, the NGT meeting created and refined conclusions and recommendations until consensus was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: These conclusions and recommendations represent a pragmatic approach, balancing expert experiences and the available scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Técnica Delfos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Socorristas/educação , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Restrição Física , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Transporte de Pacientes , Estados Unidos
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1953-1974, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698730

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to gather information from scientific literature related to all steps of Van Mechelen's "sequence of prevention" for injuries applied to youth and adult recreational field hockey players. A systematic review was conducted in Medline via Pubmed and in SPORTDiscus via EBSCOhost. Twenty-six original studies were included. Regarding injury incidence (step 1) results showed several overall injury incidence rates (youth: 1.47 per 1,000 Athlete Exposure (AE) time-loss (TL) injury up to 11.32 per 1,000 AE TL ánd non-time loss (NTL) injury, adults: 2.2 NTL injury per 1,000 AE, 15.2 injury per 1,000 hours of sports participation). Considering games and practices, most injuries were sustained in games (youth: 4.9, adults: 7.87 per 1,000 AE). Considering body parts, highest injury incidence rates were found in body parts in the lower extremities (youth: knee injuries in games (0.33 per 1,000 AE), adults: hamstring injuries in pre-season (0.75 per 1,000 AE)) and injuries in the head/face/eye (youth: 0.66 and adults: 0.94 head/face/eye, 0.71 head/face and 0.63 concussion per 1,000 AE). Regarding aetiology (step 2), no studies were found. Regarding the efficacy of available interventions (step 3 and 4), one study was found among youth players, describing a warm-up programme.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Hóquei/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2329-2337, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588750

RESUMO

Adherence is a key implementation outcome that determines the effectiveness of an intervention. This study, an observational design involving coaches and players from 33 high school basketball teams, evaluated the dimensions of adherence to a basketball-specific neuromuscular training (NMT) warm-up program in youth basketball. Coach adherence (daily report of team adherence) was collected prospectively. Adherence measures: cumulative utilization (proportion of total sessions possible), utilization fidelity (average # of exercises completed per NMT session), utilization frequency (average # of NMT sessions completed per week) were calculated and further evaluated for optimal adherence (≥80%, ≥10.4 exercises/session and ≥2 sessions/week, respectively) per coach. Additionally, exercise fidelity (proportion of players performing individual exercises correctly) was assessed. Coach (n = 31; 27-59 years) median cumulative utilization was 80%, utilization fidelity was 12 (of a possible 13 exercises per session) and utilization frequency was 2.3 sessions per week. Optimal adherence ranged from 52% to 71% across measures of adherence. Player exercise fidelity was 48%. Time constraint (47%) was the most frequently reported adherence barrier. While coach adherence to the NMT warm-up program was reasonably high across measures of adherence, a considerable proportion of coaches did not attain optimal adherence levels and player exercise fidelity was low.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Basquetebol/lesões , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2177-2185, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520644

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 20 min neuromuscular training with a programme of 10 min in youth football players. 342 (15.4 ± 1.7 years) male football players from 18 teams were included, and cluster-randomized by team into two intervention groups. Both groups performed an injury prevention programme twice a week over five months using the same exercises but a different duration. The first intervention group (INT10, n = 175) performed the programme for 10 min, the second intervention group (INT20, n = 167) for 20 min. Primary outcomes were lower extremity (LE) injuries. Secondary outcomes were injury type, severity, mechanism and compliance to the intervention. 13 teams with 185 players were included for final analysis. No significant group difference was found between INT10 (6.37 per 1000 h) and INT20 (7.20 per 1000 h) for the incidence rate ratio of the lower extremities (IRR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.59, 1.79), nor for the distribution of injury location, type, severity or mechanism. The results show that performing preventive exercises for 10 min is no less effective than 20 min in youth football players. Shorter training sessions can, therefore, be effectively used for injury prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS00015282.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Antropometria , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573752

RESUMO

This is the first of a two-part series on the history and effectiveness of mouthguards (MGs) for orofacial injury protection. Military studies have shown that approximately 60% of orofacial injuries are associated with military training activities and 20% to 30% with sports. MGs are hypothesized to reduce orofacial injuries by separating the upper and lower dentation, preventing tooth fractures, redistributing and absorbing the force of direct blows to the mouth, and separating teeth from soft tissue, preventing lacerations and bruises. In 1975, CPT Leonard Barber was the first to advocate MGs for military sports activities. In 1998, Army health promotion campaigns promoted MG education and fabrication. A US Army basic training study in 2000-2003 showed that more MG use could reduce orofacial injuries and the Army Training and Doctrine Command subsequently required that basic trainees be issued and use MGs. Army Regulation 600-63 currently directs commanders to enforce MG use during training and sports activities that could involve orofacial injuries. In the civilian sector, MGs were first used by boxers and then were required for football. MGs are currently required nationally for high school and college football, field hockey, ice hockey, and lacrosse, and are recommended for 29 sport and exercise activities.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle , Militares , Protetores Bucais/história , Boca/lesões , História do Século XX , Humanos , Esportes , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
19.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 40(6): 283-287, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lateral ankle injuries are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries sustained by pediatric and adolescent athletes. These injuries can result in significant time lost from competition, affect performance when returning to play, and represent a significant burden on the health care system as a whole. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of acute lateral ankle injuries and their chronic effects in pediatric and adolescent athletes (younger than 19 y). METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines between September and December 2018. PubMed and Google Scholar were systematically searched using the search terms: ("distal fibula fracture" OR "ankle sprain") AND ("youth" OR "pediatric" OR "adolescent"). All authors participated in article review (N=172) for relevance and age restrictions in which 30 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Thirty articles met inclusion criteria [Levels of Evidence I to IV (I: n=4, II: n=16, III: n=9, and IV: n=1)] including distal fibula fracture diagnosis and treatment, and risk factors, prevention, and chronic sequela of lateral ankle injuries in pediatric and adolescent patients. CONCLUSIONS: Low-energy, lateral ankle injuries are common in pediatric and adolescent patients, yet underrepresented in the medical literature. There is a lack of high-quality literature on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes after Salter-Harris I distal fibula fractures. Available literature, however, suggests that there remains over diagnosis and over treatment of presumed Salter-Harris I distal fibula fractures. Adolescent ankle sprains dominate the available literature likely due to the high recurrence rate. Youth athletes and coaches should address risk factors and engage in injury prevention programs to prevent and minimize the effect of acute lateral ankle injuries. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level III-Systematic review.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo , Traumatismos em Atletas , Fraturas Salter-Harris , Adolescente , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/etiologia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Fraturas Salter-Harris/complicações , Fraturas Salter-Harris/etiologia , Fraturas Salter-Harris/terapia
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 783-789, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485776

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during the squat with different hip rotations (neutral, 15, 30, and 45° of internal and external hip rotation) in subjects with and without Genu Varum deformity deformity. Surface electromyography were recorded from 32 men with (n=16) and without (n=16) Genu Varum deformity. In the Genu Varum deformity group, the squats with 30, 45 and 15° of internal rotations of the hip showed significantly greater gluteus medius activation as compared to other positions. Moreover, the tensor fascia lata activity increased with greater external rotation of the hip, and significantly more than hip internal rotations (p<0.05). For vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, both hip internal and external rotation showed a significantly greater activation compared to the neutral hip positions (p<0.05). There were significant differences in the gluteus medius:tensor fascia lata activity ratio (p=0.001) and the vastus medialis: vastus lateralis activity ratio (p=0.001) between the different hip positions in the Genu Varum deformity and healthy groups. These results demonstrate that muscle activation patterns varied significantly with the position of different hip rotation in both groups. Those with Genu Varum deformity may use this information to aid in an injury prevention strategy by choosing squat positioning that favorably alters muscle activation patterns.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Genu Varum/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Rotação , Adulto Jovem
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