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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418907

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, entire populations were instructed to live in home-confinement to prevent the expansion of the disease. Spain was one of the countries with the strictest conditions, as outdoor physical activity was banned for nearly two months. This study aimed to analyse the changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Spanish university students before and during the confinement by COVID-19 with special focus on gender. We also analysed enjoyment, the tools used and motivation and impediments for doing physical activity. An online questionnaire, which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form and certain "ad hoc" questions, was designed. Students were recruited by distributing an invitation through the administrative channels of 16 universities and a total of 13,754 valid surveys were collected. Overall, university students reduced moderate (-29.5%) and vigorous (-18.3%) physical activity during the confinement and increased sedentary time (+52.7%). However, they spent more time on high intensity interval training (HIIT) (+18.2%) and mind-body activities (e.g., yoga) (+80.0%). Adaptation to the confinement, in terms of physical activity, was handled better by women than by men. These results will help design strategies for each gender to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour during confinement periods.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Ioga , Adulto Jovem
2.
Life Sci ; 264: 118697, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130084

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the influence of intermittent fasting and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on myocardial apoptosis signaling and cardiac morphological characteristics in healthy rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SED-C), intermittent fasting (SED-IF), high-intensity interval training (HIIT-C), and high-intensity interval training plus intermittent fasting (HIIT-IF). SED-C and HIIT-C groups were treated daily with ad libitum chow; SED-IF and HIIT-IF received the same standard chow every other day. HIIT-C and HIIT-IF rats were submitted to an HIIT protocol five times a week for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, functional capacity, cardiac morphology, and expression of apoptosis signaling pathways-related proteins were analyzed. KEY FINDINGS: HIIT increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, collagen interstitial fraction, and the pro-apoptotic proteins AIF and caspase-3 expression, and reduced pro-apoptotic protein CYTC expression and the cleaved-to-non-cleaved PARP-1 ratio in myocardium. Intermittent fasting reduced cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, collagen interstitial fraction, and expression of Bax, CYTC and cleaved PARP-1, and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2. SMAC, ARC, and caspase-8 expression was not changed by HIIT or intermittent fasting. SIGNIFICANCE: HIIT promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, and modulates the apoptosis signaling pathway in healthy rat myocardium. Intermittent fasting reduces pro-apoptotic and increases antiapoptotic signaling, besides attenuating HIIT-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myocardial interstitial fibrosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Jejum , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Miocárdio/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 50(4): 318-324, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After a maximal apnoea, breath-hold divers must restore O2 levels and clear CO2 and lactic acid produced. High intensity interval training (HIIT) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could be employed with the aim of increasing recovery capacity. This study aimed to evaluate the relative effects of IMT versus HIIT on recovery of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and also on pulmonary function, inspiratory muscle strength, lactate and heart rate recovery after a maximal dynamic apnoea in breath-hold divers. METHODS: Fifteen breath-hold divers performed two training interventions (IMT and HIIT) for 20 min, three days per week over four weeks in randomised order with a two week washout period. RESULTS: IMT produced a > 3 s reduction in SpO2 recovery time compared to HIIT. The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) were significantly increased in the IMT group compared to HIIT. The magnitude of these differences in favour of IMT was large in both cases. Neither training intervention was superior to the other for heart rate recovery time, nor in peak- and recovery- lactate. CONCLUSIONS: IMT produced a reduction in SpO2 recovery time compared to HIIT after maximal dynamic apnoea. Even a 3 s improvement in recovery could be important in scenarios like underwater hockey where repetitive apnoeas during high levels of exercise are separated by only seconds. IMT also improved FEV1 and MIP, but no differences in lactate and heart rate recovery were found post-apnoea between HIIT and IMT.


Assuntos
Apneia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Suspensão da Respiração , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Músculos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(47): e23126, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217814

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are the world's most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the population, including Central Europe. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective preventive approach that includes several core components. Physical training is identified as an integral and essential part of CR. Training can positively influence several cardiovascular risk factors in people diagnosed with coronary heart disease and prevent them from clinical events. Our study aims to research the method of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a home environment using telerehabilitation. We assume that the HIIT form of telerehabilitation, using a heart rate monitor as a tool for backing up training data, can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and lead to higher peak oxygen uptake than the traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). METHODS: This study is designed as a monocentral randomized controlled trial at University Hospital Brno in the Czech Republic. After the coronary heart event, the suitable patients will be randomized (1:1 ratio) and separated into 2 groups: the experimental HIIT group and the control MICT group. Both groups undergo a 12-week telerehabilitation with a 1-year follow-up period. Study participants will be telemonitored during physical training in their home environment via a heart rate monitor and a web platform. Once a week, the patients will give their feedback and motivation by a telephone call.The primary outcome observed will be the effect of intervention expressed by changes in cardiorespiratory fitness. Secondary outcomes will be the health-related quality of life, anxiety, training adherence, body composition, safety, and satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The HIIT is widely researched predominantly in a center-based supervised form. Our study differs from others by the use of telemedicine and smart technologies in home-based settings. Previous home-based cardiac telerehabilitation studies have focused primarily on MICT, which has demonstrated feasibility, and results have shown similar improvements as center-based CR. There is a presumption that HIIT may be superior to MICT. However, it can be complicated to self-dose the method in the home environment. Investigators expect that HIIT research will provide insight into the possibilities of telemedicine feasibility, effect, and limitations of coronary heart disease patients' use at low to moderate cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/reabilitação , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Telerreabilitação , República Tcheca , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242439, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186393

RESUMO

Sprint-interval training (SIT) is efficient at improving maximal aerobic capacity and anaerobic fitness at sea-level and may be a feasible training strategy at altitude. Here, it was evaluated if SIT intensity can be maintained in mild to moderate hypoxia. It was hypothesized that 6 x 30 s Wingate sprint performance with 2 min active rest between sprints can be performed in hypoxic conditions corresponding to ~3,000 m of altitude without reducing mean power output (MPO). In a single-blinded, randomized crossover design, ten highly-trained male endurance athletes with a maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max) of 68 ± 5 mL O2 × min-1 × kg-1 completed 6 x 30 s all-out Wingate cycling sprints separated by two-minute active recovery on four separate days in a hypobaric chamber. The ambient pressure within the chamber on each experimental day was 772 mmHg (~0 m), 679 mmHg (~915 m), 585 mmHg (~ 2,150 m), and 522 mmHg (~3,050 m), respectively. MPO was not different at sea-level and up to ~2,150 m (~1% and ~3% non-significant decrements at ~915 and ~2,150 m, respectively), whereas MPO was ~5% lower (P<0.05) at ~3,050 m. Temporal differences between altitudes was not different for peak power output (PPO), despite a main effect of altitude. In conclusion, repeated Wingate exercise can be completed by highly-trained athletes at altitudes up to ~2,150 m without compromising MPO or PPO. In contrast, MPO was compromised in hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to ~3,050 m. Thus, SIT may be an efficient strategy for athletes sojourning to moderate altitude and aiming to maintain training quality.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto , Altitude , Atletas , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Corrida/fisiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30335-30343, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199621

RESUMO

Implementation of regular physical activity helps in the maintenance of a healthy metabolic profile both in humans and mice through molecular mechanisms not yet completely defined. Here, we show that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) modifies the microRNA (miRNA) profile of circulating exosomes in mice, including significant increases in miR-133a and miR-133b Importantly, treatment of sedentary mice with exosomes isolated from the plasma of trained mice improves glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and decreases plasma levels of triglycerides. Moreover, exosomes isolated from the muscle of trained mice display similar changes in miRNA content, and their administration to sedentary mice reproduces the improvement of glucose tolerance. Exosomal miRNAs up-regulated by HIIT target insulin-regulated transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and, accordingly, expression of FoxO1 is decreased in the liver of trained and exosome-treated mice. Treatment with exosomes transfected with a miR-133b mimic or with a specific siRNA targeting FoxO1 recapitulates the metabolic effects observed in trained mice. Overall, our data suggest that circulating exosomes released by the muscle carry a specific miRNA signature that is modified by exercise and induce expression changes in the liver that impact whole-body metabolic profile.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/genética , Exossomos/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal
7.
BMJ ; 371: m3485, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of five years of supervised exercise training compared with recommendations for physical activity on mortality in older adults (70-77 years). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General population of older adults in Trondheim, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 1567 of 6966 individuals born between 1936 and 1942. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to two sessions weekly of high intensity interval training at about 90% of peak heart rate (HIIT, n=400), moderate intensity continuous training at about 70% of peak heart rate (MICT, n=387), or to follow the national guidelines for physical activity (n=780; control group); all for five years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. An exploratory hypothesis was that HIIT lowers mortality more than MICT. RESULTS: Mean age of the 1567 participants (790 women) was 72.8 (SD 2.1) years. Overall, 87.5% of participants reported to have overall good health, with 80% reporting medium or high physical activity levels at baseline. All cause mortality did not differ between the control group and combined MICT and HIIT group. When MICT and HIIT were analysed separately, with the control group as reference (observed mortality of 4.7%), an absolute risk reduction of 1.7 percentage points was observed after HIIT (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.20) and an absolute increased risk of 1.2 percentage points after MICT (1.24, 0.73 to 2.10). When HIIT was compared with MICT as reference group an absolute risk reduction of 2.9 percentage points was observed (0.51, 0.25 to 1.02) for all cause mortality. Control participants chose to perform more of their physical activity as HIIT than the physical activity undertaken by participants in the MICT group. This meant that the controls achieved an exercise dose at an intensity between the MICT and HIIT groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that combined MICT and HIIT has no effect on all cause mortality compared with recommended physical activity levels. However, we observed a lower all cause mortality trend after HIIT compared with controls and MICT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01666340.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Causas de Morte , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aptidão Física , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(6): R712-R723, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074013

RESUMO

The menopausal transition is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, and in time, postmenopausal women (PMW) will exhibit a cardiovascular disease risk score similar to male counterparts. Hypertension is associated with vascular dysfunction, but whether hypertensive (HYP) PMW have blunted nitric oxide (NO)-mediated leg vasodilator responsiveness and whether this is reversible by high-intensity training (HIT) is unknown. To address these questions, we examined the leg vascular conductance (LVC) in response to femoral infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and skeletal muscle markers of oxidative stress and NO bioavailability before and after HIT in PMW [12.9 ± 6.0 (means ± SD) years since last menstrual cycle]. We hypothesized that ACh- and SNP-induced LVC responsiveness was reduced in hypertensive compared with normotensive (NORM) PMW and that 10 wk of HIT would reverse the blunted LVC response and decrease blood pressure (BP). Nine hypertensive (HYP (clinical systolic/diastolic BP, 149 ± 11/91 ± 83 mmHg) and eight normotensive (NORM (122 ± 13/75 ± 8 mmHg) PMW completed 10 wk of biweekly small-sided floorball training (4-5 × 3-5 min interspersed by 1-3-min rest periods). Before training, the SNP-induced change in LVC was lower (P < 0.05) in HYP compared with in NORM. With training, the ACh- and SNP-induced change in LVC at maximal infusion rates, i.e., 100 and 6 µg·min-1·kg leg mass-1, respectively, improved (P < 0.05) in HYP only. Furthermore, training decreased (P < 0.05) clinical systolic/diastolic BP (-15 ± 11/-9 ± 7 mmHg) in HYP and systolic BP (-10 ± 9 mmHg) in NORM. Thus, the SNP-mediated LVC responsiveness was blunted in HYP PMW and reversed by a period of HIT that was associated with a marked decrease in clinical BP.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão/terapia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa , Vasodilatação , Acetilcolina/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Nitroprussiato/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1065-1071, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that acute exercise improves cognitive function. However, less is known about the effects of exercise on motor skill acquisition. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on motor skill acquisition. METHODS: Sixty individuals (27 males, 33 females) between 18 and 40 years of age participated in two testing sessions separated by one week. During visit 1, participants performed one block of a continuous tracking, force control task to establish baseline ability. Participants were then randomized to either an aerobic-only HIIT group (HIIT-A), an aerobic/resistance HIIT group (HIIT-AR), or a resting control group. Both exercise groups performed a 20-minute, digital versatile disc (DVD)-delivered HIIT exercise protocol during visit 2. Following exercise or rest, all participants performed five blocks of the same force control task to assess skill acquisition. RESULTS: On visit 2, the HIIT-A group had a significantly lower total performance error (E) compared to the control group (P<0.05). Both exercise groups (HIIT-A and HIIT-AR) had a significantly lower peak amplitude error (PE) following exercise compared to the control group (P<0.05). No significant group differences were observed for temporal error (TE). Additionally, no significant differences were observed between the exercise groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that acute HIIT-A improves motor skill acquisition compared to rest. Furthermore, improvements in acquisition appeared to be a result of improved spatial accuracy. Therefore, performing HIIT-A prior to practicing a motor task may help reduce total error during the motor skill acquisition phase.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(3): 508-516, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874103

RESUMO

The aim of this investigation was to compare the changes in endurance running performance and physiological variables after a four-week period of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in either running or cycling in female athletes. Fourteen recreational female runners (age = 42 10 yr, height = 1.67 0.06 m, body mass = 61.6 10.4 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 22.2 3.4 kg.m-2) were randomly allocated to one of two HIIT training groups: running (HIITrun) or cycling (HIITbike). Each group performed two HIIT sessions per week for 4 weeks, which consisted of 6 x 2 min at 95% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and 4 x 1 min all out efforts. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in treadmill running increased significantly after the HIITrun (p < 0.01, ES = 0.6) but remained unchanged in HIITbike. However, HIITbike improved average velocity in a 10 km running time trial (TTrun) (p < 0.05, ES = -0.4), whereas, no changes were found for the HIITrun group. Analysing the first and last HIIT sessions, for HIITrun only the average rate of perceived exertion (RPEav) increased significantly, whereas, performance variables such as average heart rate (HRav) and average pace (paceav) remained unchanged. HIITbike enhanced significantly the average speed of HIIT sets (speedav) and the peak power output (PPO) of the session, as well as, the RPEav and delayed onset muscle soreness immediately after HIIT session (DOMSpost) were increased significantly. A regime of HIIT in cycling may evoke increases in female recreational runners' power, which may be related with improvements in a 10 km TTrun independent of changes in aerobic capacity. This may be advantageous in order to avoid overuse running related injuries.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Mialgia/metabolismo , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
11.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 202-215, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114690

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: comparar los efectos de la implementación de un programa de ejercicio continuo de mediana intensidad vs. un programa de ejercicio interválico de alta intensidad sobre los parámetros antropométricos y de condición física en mujeres hipertensas. Materiales y método: estudio experimental con pre y post prueba, realizado en 62 mujeres hipertensas divididas en 3 grupos: el primer grupo realizó ejercicio interválico de alta intensidad, el segundo hizo ejercicio continuo de mediana intensidad y el tercero es el grupo control. La intervención se realizó durante 12 semanas con una frecuencia semanal de 3 repeticiones. En todas las mujeres hipertensas se evaluó su condición física y características antropométricas. Resultados: posterior a la intervención, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo HiiT (high intensity interval training) y el grupo control en cuanto a las variables porcentaje de grasa (p = 0,014), densidad corporal (p = 0,014) e índice de conicidad [IC] (p = 0,003). Adicionalmente, se identificaron diferencias entre los dos grupos de ejercicio y el grupo control en las variables distancia recorrida (p = 0,04), flexibilidad en miembro superior derecho (p = 0,00) y fuerza en miembros inferiores (p = 0,01). Conclusiones: el estudio demostró que el ejercicio es una herramienta efectiva para mejorar la aptitud física de mujeres hipertensas. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en la efectividad entre el entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad y el entrenamiento continuo.


Resumo Objetivo: comparar os efeitos da implementação de um programa de exercício contínuo de média intensidade versus um programa de exercício interválico de alta intensidade nos parâmetros antropométricos e de condição física em mulheres hipertensas. Materiais e método: estudo experimental com pré e pós-teste, realizado em 62 mulheres hipertensas divididas em 3 grupos: um primeiro grupo fez exercício interválico de alta intensidade, o segundo grupo fez exercício contínuo de média intensidade e um grupo controle. A intervenção foi realizada durante 12 semanas com uma frequência semanal de 3 vezes por semana; todas as mulheres hipertensivas foram avaliadas quanto à sua condição física e características antropométricas. Resultados: foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas pós-intervenção entre o grupo HiiT (high intensity interval training) e o grupo controle nas variáveis porcentagem de gordura (p = 0,014), densidade corporal (p=0,014) e índice de conicidade (IC) (p = 0,003). Adicionalmente, foram encontradas diferenças entre os dois grupos de exercícios e o grupo controle nas variáveis distância percorrida (p=0,04), flexibilidade no membro superior direito (p=0,00) e força nos membros inferiores (p=0,01). Conclusões: este estudo mostrou que o exercício físico é uma ferramenta eficaz para melhorar a aptidão física das mulheres hipertensivas. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença na eficácia entre o treinamento em intervalos de alta intensidade e o treinamento contínuo.


Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of medium intensity continuous exercise implementation vs. a program with high intensity interval exercise on the anthropometric parameters and physical condition of hypertensive women. Materials and method: Experimental study with a pre and post-test, conducted in 62 hypertensive women who were divided into 3 groups: the first group performed high-intensity interval exercise, the second group did continuous-medium intensity exercise, and the third acted as the control group. It was a 12-week intervention, with a 3-times-per-week frequency. All hypertensive women were evaluated for physical condition and anthropo-metric characteristics. Results: After the intervention, statistically significant differences were found between the HiiT (high intensity interval training) group and the control group regarding the variables body fat percentage (p = 0.014), body density (p = 0.014), and conicity index [CI] (p = 0.003). Additionally, differences between the two exercise groups and the control group were identified for the variables distance traveled (p = 0.04), flexibility in the upper right limb (p = 0.00), and strength in lower limbs (p = 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that exercise is an effective tool to improve the physical fitness of hypertensive women. However, no differences in terms of effectiveness were found between high intensity interval training and continuous training.


Assuntos
Feminino , Exercício Físico , Antropometria , Aptidão Física , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão , Grupos Controle
12.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 257-270, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753874

RESUMO

Purpose: Our study aimed at determining and comparing the mechanism of cardiovascular protection variables in moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) after coronary stenting. Participants and Methods: This experimental study used the same subject and cross-over design, involving eleven stable CHD patients after coronary stenting. These were randomly divided into two groups; MICT for 29 minutes at 50-60% heart rate reserve and HIIT with 4x4 minute intervals at 60-80% heart rate reserve, each followed by three minutes of active recovery at 40-50% heart rate reserve. These were conducted three times a week for two weeks. The participants' levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) activity assayed, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) were examined before and after treatments were completed. Results: The HIIT significantly increased the levels of noradrenaline and eNOS compared with MICT (p<0.05). Also, HIIT was better in maintaining EC-SOD activity and FMD compared with MICT (p<0.05). Through the noradrenalin pathway, HIIT had a direct and significant effect on eNOS and FMD (p<0.05) but MICT, through the noradrenaline pathways, had a direct and significant effect on eNOS (p<0.05), and through the EC-SOD activity pathways had a direct and significant effect on FMD (p<0.05). MICT reduced EC-SOD activity and also decreased the FMD value. Conclusion: HIIT is superior to MICT in increasing cardiovascular protection by increasing the concentrations of noradrenalin and eNOS, maintaining EC-SOD activity, and FMD in stable CHD patients after coronary stenting.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Stents , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Epinefrina/sangue , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 283, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIT) compared with moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after heart transplantation (HTx) is scarce. No available studies among de novo HTx recipients exists. This study aimed to investigate the effect of HIT vs. MICT on HRQoL in de novo recipients. METHODS: The HITTS study randomized eighty-one de novo HTx recipients to receive either HIT or MICT (1:1). The HIT intervention were performed with 2-4 interval bouts with an intensity of 85-95% of maximal effort. The MICT group exercised at an intensity of 60-80% of their maximal effort with a duration of 25 min. HRQoL was assessed by the Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, mean 11 weeks after surgery and after a nine months' intervention. The participants recorded their subjective effect of the interventions on their general health and well-being on a numeric visual analogue scale. Clinical examinations and physical tests were performed. Differences between groups were investigated with independent Student t-tests and with Mann-Whitney U tests where appropriate. Within-group differences were analyzed with Paired-Sample t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Correlations between SF-36 scores and VO2peak were examined with Pearson's correlations. RESULTS: Seventy-eight participants completed the intervention. Both exercise modes were associated with improved exercise capacity on the physical function scores of HRQoL. Mental health scores remained unchanged. No differences in the change in HRQoL between the groups occurred except for Role Emotional subscale with a larger increase in the HIT arm. Better self-reported physical function was associated with higher VO2peak and muscle strength. CONCLUSION: HIT and MICT resulted in similar mean changes in HRQoL the first year after HTx. Both groups experienced significant improvements in the physical SF-36v2. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01796379 Registered 18 February 2013.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/reabilitação , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Autorrelato , Transplantados/psicologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817652

RESUMO

The effects of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and the relationship of the latter with performance are not well defined. In this work we investigated, by means of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, the relative proportions of fat-, lean soft tissue-, and mineral mass in CrossFit® (CF, a popular mode of HIFT) participants (n = 24; age, 28.2 ± 3.39 y; BMI, 25.3 ± 2.04 kg/m2) with at least 1 year of CF training experience and weekly amount of training > 10 h/w (n = 13; Higher Training, HT) or < 10 h/w (n = 11; Lower Training, LT) as well as age- matched and BMI-matched physically active controls (CHT, CLT). Performance was assessed in the "Fran" workout. Data were analyzed by one-way or repeated measures ANOVA where needed. Association between variables was assessed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Partial correlation was used where needed. Results showed that HT performed better than LT in the "Fran" (P < 0.001) and they had higher whole-body bone mineral density (P = 0.026) and higher lean soft mass (P = 0.002), and borderline lower percent fat mass (P = 0.050). The main difference between CF participants (HT, LT) and their respective controls (CHT, CLT) was a lower adiposity in the former. In CF participants, performance positively correlated with appendicular lean soft tissue mass (P = 0.030). It can be concluded that, in CF participants, a higher amount of weekly training improves most notably lean body mass and increases performance in association with increased skeletal muscle mass. CF participation is especially effective in reducing fat mass vs. age- and BMI-matched physically active controls.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Capilares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13754, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792555

RESUMO

Muscle oxygenation (MO) status is the dynamic balance between O2 utilization and O2 delivery. Low-impact high-intensity interval exercise MO responses in the exercise and recovery stage are still unclear. We compared the differences in MO and physiological parameters between high-intensity interval water-based exercise (WHIIE) and high-intensity interval land bike ergonomic exercise (LBEHIIE) in postmenopausal women. Eleven postmenopausal women completed WHIIE or LBEHIIE in counter-balanced order. Eight sets were performed and each exercise set included high intensity with 80% heart rate reserve (HRR) in 30 s and dynamic recovery with 50% HRR in 90 s. Muscle tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI), total hemoglobin (tHb), oxy-hemoglobin (O2Hb), and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) were recorded. Blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at pre and post-exercise. Under similar exercise intensity, RPE in WHIIE was lower than that in LBEHIIE. The heart rate in WHIIE was lower than that in LBEHIIE at 1 and 2 min post-exercise. During the dynamic recovery, TSI, tHb, and O2Hb in water were higher than on land. A negative correlation was found between the change in TSI and lactate concentration (r = - 0.664). WHIIE produced greater muscle oxygenation during dynamic recovery. Muscle TSI% was inversely related to blood lactate concentration during exercise in water.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13493, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778721

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to test if different intensities of aerobic exercise could influence abdominal fat, isoforms of BDNF and executive function. Twenty obese men (30.0 ± 5.4 years old; 34.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2) were randomized to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n = 10) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT, n = 10) three times a week for 6 weeks, with isoenergetic energetic expenditure for each exercise session (~ 300 kcal) between conditions. Abdominal fat was assessed pre- and post-intervention; executive function (Coding subtest from BETA-III non-verbal intelligence test and Stroop Color and Word Test), concentrations of mBDNF and proBDNF were assessed in response to acute exercise pre- and post-intervention. Abdominal fat did not change in either group. There was a significant increase in mBDNF immediately after acute exercise in both groups before and after intervention. proBDNF did not present changes acutely nor after 6 weeks. Executive function presented a main effect of time at pre- and post-intervention time-points Stroop Word and Stroop Color and Coding subtest presented improved performance from pre- to post-acute exercise session, in both groups. In conclusion, executive function improvements and acute exercise session-induced increases in mBDNF concentration were found from pre- to post-exercise intervention similarly between MICT and HIIT in obese men.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/psicologia
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 425, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise may improve cardiorespiratory fitness in people with schizophrenia, however, possible condition-specific cardiorespiratory disadvantages, a scarcity of methodologically sound studies, and conflicting results raise questions about the effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in this group. The primary aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of high-intensity interval training on VO2max in people with schizophrenia. Second, we sought to determine whether the intervention would have an effect on general physical activity (PA) level and body composition. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to supervised high-intensity interval training or computer gaming skills training, performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Oxygen uptake was measured directly, during a maximum exercise session on a treadmill. PA level were assessed using ActiGraph accelerometer, and body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance using a univariate general linear model. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups on any of the cardiorespiratory variables neither at baseline nor after the program. There were also no significant within-group differences in any of the cardiorespiratory fitness variables between the baseline and post-program time points, despite that 61% of the participants performing high-intensity interval training showed a significant increase in workload on the treadmill. However, 47% of the participants in the high-intensity interval training group had a ≥ 5% increase in VO2max. Participants supervised by mental health care providers with PA competence (e.g. rehabilitation center staff, sport scientist, physical trainer) had a much larger increase in VO2max compared to participants supervised by mental health workers without such competence, and when adding PA competence to the model, the intervention group increased VO2max significantly compared to the comparison group. The intervention had no significant effect on PA level or body composition. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention did not improve VO2max, PA level or body composition but succeeded in increasing workload on the treadmill. With regard to VO2max, approximately half of the patients may be considered responders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ; NCT02205684 , registered July 2014.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Esquizofrenia , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Aptidão Física , Esquizofrenia/terapia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825378

RESUMO

High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is characterized by presenting high volumes and training intensities with constantly varied exercises. The aim of this study was to analyze the internal training load and the effects of high-intensity functional training on physical performance in subjects with different training volumes and frequencies. A total of 31 volunteers involved in high-intensity functional training (14 men and 17 women) were divided according to their training volumes and frequencies (high training-volume and frequency-HTVF; (n = 17) (nine women and eight men; age: 31.0 ± 6.3 years; height: 168.8 ± 8.1 cm, body weight: 73.6 ± 11.9 kg; BMI: 25.96 kg/m2) and moderate training volume and frequency-MTVF; (n = 14) (eight women and six men; age: 26.6 ± 4.7 years; height: 167.2 ± 8.6 cm, body weight: 75.8 ± 18.0 kg; BMI: 27.33 kg/m2)). The internal training load was determined using the session-rating of perceived exertion method. The monotony index (MI) and training strain (TS) were used to determine training variability during the training weeks. Countermovement vertical jump height, 20-m sprinting and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of training. There was a time effect for MI ((F(5, 145) = 5.942; p = 0.0001)), TS ((F(5, 145) = 5.734; p = 0.0001)), weekly internal training load ((F(4.006, 116.87) = 4.188; p = 0.003)) and mean weekly internal training load ((F(4.006, 116.87) = 4.188; p = 0.003)). There was no increase in performance in either group for countermovement vertical jump height ((F(1,29) = 6.081; p = 0.050)), sprinting ((F(1,29) = 1.014; p = 0.322)), right handgrip strength ((F(1,29) = 2.522; p = 0.123)) or left handgrip strength ((F(1,29) = 2.550; p = 0.121)). The current findings suggest that six weeks of high-intensity functional training was not able to increase performance in either group. Therefore, different volumes and frequencies do not seem to influence the increase in physical performance of HIFT practitioners.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Força da Mão , Força Muscular , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Microvasc Res ; 132: 104057, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Physical activity may protect from ocular complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We investigated exercise training effects on the retinal microvasculature using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Twenty T1D patients without clinical signs of DR performed four weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Cycle ergometry was used for determination of physical fitness. OCTA of the macula and optic nerve head was applied to analyze effects on the foveal avascular zone area, vessel density, vessel diameter index and fractal dimension of the superficial plexus, deep plexus and radial peripapillary capillaries. RESULTS: Large effects for improvement of physical fitness in terms of power output at the individual lactate threshold (+10.7 ± 11.3%, p < .001, ES = 0.95) and maximal power output (+8.2 ± 6.4%, p < .001, ES = 1.4) were detected. Participants presented a reduced increase in heart rate (HR) and lactate (LA) at given exercise intensities at follow-up (p ≤ .0176). Baseline OCTA revealed that HbA1c levels were associated with vessel density in the radial peripapillary capillary and the parafoveal superficial region (p ≤ .014). None of the analyzed microvascular parameters changed in response to the intervention. CONCLUSION: Despite favorable effects of HIIT on physical fitness of T1D patients, disease-specific training protocols may be needed to overcome potentially impaired retinal microvascular adaptations.


Assuntos
Angiografia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Retinopatia Diabética/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Microcirculação , Imagem de Perfusão , Aptidão Física , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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