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1.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 12-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747702

RESUMO

In view of the growing amount of (intense) training in competitive sports, quick recovery plays a superior role in performance restoration. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of active versus passive recovery during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) protocols on acute alterations of circulating blood cells. Twelve male triathletes/cyclists performed 1) a HIIT consisting of 4×4 min intervals, 2) a SIT consisting of 4×30s intervals, separated by either active or passive recovery. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 0', 30', 60' and 180' (minutes) post-exercise. Outcomes comprised leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mixed cell count, platelets, cellular inflammation markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte-ratio (PLR)), and the systemic immune-inflammation index (SII). In view of HIIT, passive recovery attenuated the changes in lymphocytes and neutrophils compared to active recovery. In view of SIT, active recovery attenuated the increase in leukocytes, lymphocytes and absolute mixed cell count compared to passive recovery. Both protocols, independent of recovery, significantly increased NLR, PLR and SII up to 3h of recovery compared to pre-exercise values. The mode of recovery influences short-term alterations in the circulating fraction of leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and the mixed cell count, which might be associated with different hormonal and metabolic stress responses due to the mode of recovery.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Inflamação/sangue , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 121-129, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661663

RESUMO

A common barrier to exercise is "lack of time". Accordingly, interest in low-volume, high-intensity training has grown exponentially since this activity is considered time-efficient. However, the high-intensity nature of this exercise may frequently result in feelings of displeasure creating another barrier for many people. The purpose of this study was to compare affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses to three low-volume, high-intensity exercise conditions, including a novel shortened-sprint protocol. Using a within-subjects, randomised crossover experiment, healthy participants (N = 36) undertook a single bout of: 1) traditional reduced-exertion, high-intensity interval training (TREHIT), 2) a novel, shortened-sprint REHIT (SSREHIT) protocol, and 3) sprint continuous training (SCT). Affect and perceived efforts were recorded throughout exercise using the Feeling Scale (FS) and the 15-point Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale, respectively. Enjoyment was recorded 5 min post-exercise using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). Differences were found for FS (condition by time interaction: P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.26), RPE (P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.23), and enjoyment (P < 0.01) with all outcomes favouring SSREHIT. Shortened-sprint protocols may diminish feelings of displeasure and might be a time-efficient yet tolerable exercise choice to help motivate some people to increase their physical activity and fitness.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Prazer , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1435-1441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of coffee ingestion with supplemental caffeine (CAF) on serum testosterone (T) responses to exercise in recreationally strength-trained males. METHODS: Subjects ingested 6 mg/kg body weight of caffeine via 12 ounces of coffee (CAF) supplemented with anhydrous caffeine or decaffeinated (DEC) coffee prior to exercise in a randomized, within-subject, crossover design. The exercise session consisted of 21 minutes of high-intensity interval cycling (alternating intensities at power outputs associated with 2.0 mmol/L lactate for two minutes and 4.0 mmol/L lactate for one minute) followed by resistance exercise (seven exercises, three sets of ten repetitions, 65% 1RM, one-minute rest periods). Subjects also completed repetitions to fatigue tests and soreness scales to determine muscle recovery 24 hours following the exercise. RESULTS: T was elevated immediately and 30-minutes post-exercise by 20.5% and 14.3% respectively (P<0.05). There was no main effect for treatment and no exercise x treatment interaction. There were no differences in repetitions to fatigue or soreness between treatments (P>0.05). No relationships were observed between T and any proxy of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: While past literature suggests caffeine may enhance T post-exercise, data from the current study suggest that augmented T response is not evident following anhydrous caffeine added to coffee. The duration of T elevation indicates that this protocol is beneficial to creating long-lasting increases in serum testosterone.


Assuntos
Cafeína/metabolismo , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 25(3): 248-259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548792

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies in nondisabled individuals have demonstrated that low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve cardiometabolic health similar to moderate-intensity training (MIT) despite requiring 20% of the overall time commitment. To date, there have been no studies assessing the effects of HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health in individuals with SCI. Objectives: The primary purpose of this pilot study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of low-volume HIIT vs MIT using arm crank ergometer exercise to improve body composition, cardiovascular fitness, glucose tolerance, blood lipids, and blood pressure in a cohort of individuals with longstanding SCI. Methods: Participants were randomized to 6 weeks of HIIT or MIT arm crank exercise training. Aerobic capacity, muscular strength, blood lipids, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and body composition were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks post training. Results: Seven individuals (6 male, 1 female; n = 3 in MIT and n = 4 in HIIT; mean age 51.3 ± 10.5 years) with longstanding SCI completed the study. The preliminary findings from this pilot study demonstrated that individuals with SCI randomized to either 6 weeks of HIIT or MIT displayed improvements in (a) insulin sensitivity, (b) cardiovascular fitness, and (c) muscular strength (p < .05). However, MIT led to greater improvements in arm fat percent and chest press strength compared to HIIT (p < .05). Conclusion: No differences between MIT and HIIT were observed. Both conditions led to improvements in insulin sensitivity, aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and blood lipids in individuals with SCI. Future larger cohort studies are needed to determine if the shorter amount of time required from HIIT is preferable to current MIT exercise recommendations.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Colesterol/fisiologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Consumo de Oxigênio , Projetos Piloto
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(9): 1718-1730, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body fat mass and distribution in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent cardiac rehabilitation (CR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively screened 391 consecutive patients with MI enrolled in CR between September 1, 2015, and February 28, 2018. We included 120 patients who completed 36 CR sessions and underwent pretest-posttest dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; 90 engaged in HIIT, and 30 engaged in moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). High-intensity interval training included 4 to 8 alternating intervals of high- (30-60 seconds at a rating of perceived exertion [RPE] of 15-17 [Borg scale range, 6-20]) and low-intensity (1-5 minutes at RPE <14), and MICT performed for 20 to 45 minutes of exercise at an RPE of 12 to 14. Body weight, fat mass, and lean mass were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry with lipid profile measured via clinical procedures. RESULTS: The HIIT and MICT groups were similar in age (67 vs 67 years), sex (26.7% [24 of 90 patients in the HIIT group] vs 26.7% [8 of 30 in the MICT group), and body mass index (30.3 vs 29.5 kg/m2) at baseline. The HIIT group had greater reductions in body fat percentage (P<.001), fat mass (P<.001), abdominal fat percentage (P<.001), waist circumference (P=.01), total cholesterol (P=.002), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001), and triglycerides (P=.006). Improvements in total body mass and body mass index were not different across groups. After matching exercise duration, exercise intensity, and energy expenditure, HIIT-induced improvements in total fat mass (P=.02), body fat percentage (P=.01), and abdominal fat percentage (P=.02) persisted. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that supervised HIIT results in significant reductions in total fat mass (P<.001) and abdominal fat percentage (P<.001) and improved lipid profile in patients with MI who undergo CR.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2583-2593, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exercise training is recently considered as a trend in adjuvant therapies for cancer patients, but its mechanisms need to be scrutinized further. This study is aimed to test the hypothesis that the patients who perform the high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) during hormone therapy would show improvements in low-grade inflammation and HSP70 compared to the controls receiving standard care. METHODS: Fifty two non-metastatic and hormone-responsive breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) (n = 26) and usual care (n = 26) groups. The HIIT groups participated in a high-intensity interval training protocol on a treadmill 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The training intensity was determined according to the predicted maximal heart rate. Demographic characteristics and medical history were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire at the baseline visit. Body fat was estimated based on skinfold thickness measured with calipers on the participant's nonsurgery side at the triceps, suprailiac crest. [Formula: see text] was estimated by 1-Mile Rockport Walk Test. Blood samples were collected 48 h before starting the exercise protocol and 48 h after the last exercise session. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10, and HSP70 levels in serum were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method according to the manufacture's instruction. Supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by ELISA for IL-4 and IFN-γ. The data were analyzed by ANCOVA test that the pretest values were considered as covariate at P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: HIIT improved [Formula: see text] in the HIIT group compared to the usual care group (P = 0.002). The serum levels of TNF-α (P = 0.001), IL-6 (P = 0.007), and IL-10 (P = 0.001) were lower in the HIIT group. The level of IL-4 (P = 0.050) in the stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells significantly increased in the HIIT group compared to the usual care group. Furthermore, the serum level of the HSP70 was significantly higher in the HIIT group in comparison to the usual care group (P = 0.050). The TNF-α/IL-10 (P = 0.050) and IL-6/IL-10 (P = 0.042) ratios were lower in the HIIT group. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that HIIT has positive impacts on the cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory cytokines in the breast cancer patients undergoing hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo
7.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(9): 712-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of surgery in deconditioned patients can be improved through prehabilitation. This study examined the effect of prehabilitation in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. METHODS: Candidates for lung cancer resection were assigned to high-intensity interval training (n = 74) or usual care (n = 77). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-min walk test were performed before and after training. High-intensity interval training consisted of 2-3-weekly, 2 × 10-min series of cycling at peak power, measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to training, with a 15-s on-off duty cycle, preceded by a 5-min warm-up and followed by a 5-min cool-down. Work-rate, heart-rate, saturation, dyspnoea and leg effort were monitored. RESULTS: Waiting time (median 25 days) allowed a median of 8 high-intensity interval training sessions to be performed. Adherence to mean high-intensity interval training was 87% (18% standard deviation; SD). High-intensity interval training power increased (23 watt, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 20-26 watt), as did heart rate (14 bpm, 95% CI 11-16 bpm). Resting heart rate (-6 bpm, 95% CI -4 to -7 bpm) and heart rate 1 min post-cool-down decreased (-5 bpm, 95% CI -4 to -7 bpm). Aerobic capacity increased after high-intensity interval training (14%, 95% CI 3-26%), as did peak power output (median 7%, 95% CI 2-13%), but not after usual care. Six-min walk test score increased after high-intensity interval training (median 20%, 95% CI 14-26%), but not after usual care. CONCLUSION: Short-term high-intensity interval training is feasible in deconditioned patients and increases cardio-respiratory fitness and walking capacity.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 639-644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378863

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects induced by 8 weeks of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols, 10-20-30 and 30-30 concepts, characterized by significantly different training volume and intensity, on physiological parameters, running performance, body composition and psychophysiological stress of recreational divided into two groups: the 10-20-30 group performed two 10-20-30 sessions/wk and one continuous training (CT)/wk, whilst the 30-30 group performed two 30-30 sessions/wk and one CT session/wk. VO2max, 1 km time, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and body composition were evaluated before and after intervention. Internal load was measured through rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Both groups significantly improved running performance (1 km time: p=0.04; MAS: p=0.000001), aerobic fitness (VO2max: p=0.000002) and body composition (lean mass (kg) p=0.0001; fat mass (%) p=0.00005). RPE resulted significantly lower in the 10-20-30 group than in 30-30 group (10-20-30: 13.36±0.28; 30-30:15.55±0.21; p=0.0002). Thus, the 10-20-30 group improved physiological parameters, performance and body composition, similar to 30-30 with significantly lower RPE values. These results suggest that in recreational runners the 10-20-30 training is effective in improving aerobic fitness and performance, with a lower subjective perception of effort, thus enhancing individual compliance and adherence to the prescribed training program.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Carga de Trabalho
9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1359-1364, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on indices of cardio-metabolic health: (HDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, heart ratio, and phase angle/PhA) in physically active men. METHODS: Twenty active men were randomly allocated to HIIT (n = 10), or MICT (n = 10) for 5 weeks, three times per week. HIIT consisted of running 5 km with 1-min at 100% of maximal aerobic speed interspersed by 1-min passive recovery while subjects in MICT group ran continuously the same 5 km at 70% of maximal aerobic speed. Blood samples were collected at different moments during the first and last exercise session. Before and after 5 weeks of both exercise training protocols, heart ratio (during exercise session) and PhA were measured pre and post-exercise training. RESULTS: Fasting HDL-c levels did not change after 5 weeks of HIIT or MICT. Perceptual variation of HDL pre and post training (fed state) tended to differ between HIIT and MICT (p = 0.09). All lipoproteins parameters (HDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and non-HDL) were increased in post-acute exercise session compared to pre-exercise during the first and last training session, these being observed after both training protocols. PhA and heart rate measured at different times during the first and last training session were not affected in both training protocols. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that HIIT and MICT modify the post-exercise lipoprotein profile acutely. On the other hand, only HIIT tended to increase HDL-c levels chronically.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 503-510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288289

RESUMO

To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with different work-to-rest ratios on athletic performance in athletes. Forty-seven male Taekwondo athletes (aged 15-18 yrs) were randomly assigned into 3 HIIT groups and a control group. Each group performed 6 and 8 bouts of HIIT: 1) 1:2 (30:60 s), 2) 1:4 (30:120 s), and 3) 1:8 (30:240 s) groups while the control group performed only Taekwondo training program. All HIIT groups completed 10 sessions over 4 weeks. Athletic performance tests including VO2max test, Wingate anaerobic test, vertical jump, and agility T-test were measured at both pre- and post-tests. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied to examine the performance changes between protocols. VO2max improved significantly in all HIIT groups (p<0.01), and the post-hoc test indicated that the only 1:4 group showed significant improvement compared to the control group. The HIIT with 1:4 ratio showed the effective protocol for enhancing anaerobic capacity including relative peak and mean power compared to control (p<0.01). Ten sessions of HIIT involving the 1:4 group, lasting over a brief 4-week period revealed the effective protocol for enhancing both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Our findings provide practical implications to develop a performance-enhancing program specialized for adolescent Taekwondo athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Descanso
11.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(8): 1819-1828, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to compare changes in peripheral and cerebral oxygenation, as well as metabolic and performance responses during conditions of blood flow restriction (BFR, bilateral vascular occlusion at 0% vs. 45% of resting pulse elimination pressure) and systemic hypoxia (~ 400 m, FIO2 20.9% vs. ~ 3800 m normobaric hypoxia, FIO2 13.1 ± 0.1%) during repeated sprint tests to exhaustion (RST) between leg- and arm-cycling exercises. METHODS: Seven participants (26.6 ± 2.9 years old; 74.0 ± 13.1 kg; 1.76 ± 0.09 m) performed four sessions of RST (10-s maximal sprints with 20-s recovery until exhaustion) during both leg and arm cycling to measure power output and metabolic equivalents as well as oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) of the muscle tissue and prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Mean power output was lower in arms than legs (316 ± 118 vs. 543 ± 127 W; p < 0.001) and there were no differences between conditions for a given limb. Arms demonstrated greater changes in concentration of deoxyhemoglobin (∆[HHb], - 9.1 ± 6.1 vs. - 6.5 ± 5.6 µm) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆[tHb], 15.0 ± 10.8 vs. 11.9 ± 7.9 µm), as well as the absolute maximum tissue saturation index (TSI, 62.0 ± 8.3 vs. 59.3 ± 8.1%) than legs, respectively (p < 0.001), demonstrating a greater capacity for oxygen extraction. Further, there were greater changes in tissue blood volume [tHb] during BFR only compared to all other conditions (p < 0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of BFR and/or hypoxia led to increased changes in [HHb] and [tHb] likely due to greater vascular resistance, to which arms were more responsive than legs.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Consumo de Oxigênio , Córtex Pré-Frontal/irrigação sanguínea , Reperfusão/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(8): 1701-1709, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187282

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity training (CONT), matched for total work, on cardiorespiratory coordination and aerobic fitness. METHODS: This is a two-arm parallel group single-blind randomised study. Twenty adults were assigned to 6 weeks of HIIT or volume-matched CONT. Participants completed a progressive maximal cycling test before and after the training period. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed on the series of cardiorespiratory variables to evaluate dimensionality of cardiorespiratory coordination, before and after lactate turnpoint. PC1 eigenvalues were compared. RESULTS: Both HIIT and CONT improved aerobic fitness (main effects of time, p < 0.001, [Formula: see text] ≥ 0.580), with no differences between groups. CONT decreased the number of PCs from two to one at intensities both below and above the lactate turnpoint; PC1 eigenvalues increased after CONT both below (Z = 2.08; p = 0.04; d = 0.94) and above the lactate turnpoint (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 1.37). HIIT decreased the number of PCs from two to one after the lactate turnpoint only; PC1 eigenvalues increased after HIIT above the lactate turnpoint (Z = 2.31; p = 0.02; d = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Although CONT and HIIT improved aerobic fitness to a similar extent, there were different patterns of change for cardiorespiratory coordination. These changes appear training-intensity specific and could be sensitive to investigate the individual response to endurance training.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Limiar Anaeróbio , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino
13.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1413-1419, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210647

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Menopause is accompanied by body composition changes that include a decrease in lean mass and aerobic fitness and an increase in fat mass. Sprint interval training (SIT) may be able to reverse these changes. PURPOSE: To examine the effect of an 8-wk SIT program on body composition and aerobic fitness of overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Forty postmenopausal women were randomized into SIT (n = 20) or control (n = 20) groups. The SIT group completed three SIT sessions a week for 8 wk with each session consisting of 20 min of alternating 8-s sprints and 12-s of light pedaling. Total mass, regional lean mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) was predicted using a submaximal test. RESULTS: Total lean mass was significantly increased from pretest (48.1 ± 5.81 kg) to posttest (48.8 ± 5.96 kg) and fat mass was significantly reduced (pre, 29.5 ± 7.29 kg; post, 29.1 ± 7.61 kg) for the SIT group. Lean mass was mostly increased in the trunk (pre, 24.4 ± 2.79 kg; post, 24.8 ± 2.93 kg) and legs (pre, 15.6 ± 2.31 kg; post, 15.9 ± 2.34 kg). V˙O2max was significantly increased from pretest (21.7 ± 4.89 mL⋅kg⋅min) to posttest (24.4 ± 5.96 mL⋅kg⋅min) for the SIT group only. CONCLUSIONS: The SIT intervention increased total lean mass, decreased fat mass, and increased aerobic fitness of postmenopausal women after only 8 h of actual exercise over 8 wk.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2175-2183, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164040

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different training modalities on the soluble Klotho (S-Klotho) plasma levels in sedentary middle-aged adults. A total of 74 middle-aged adults (53.4 ± 5.0 years old; 52.7% women) were enrolled in the FIT-AGEING study. We conducted a 12-week randomised controlled trial. The participants were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: (i) a control group (no exercise), (ii) a physical activity recommendation from the World Health Organization group (PAR), (iii) a high intensity interval training group (HIIT), and (iv) a high intensity interval training group adding whole-body electromyostimulation training group (HIIT-EMS). S-Klotho plasma levels, anthropometric measurements, and body composition variables were measured before and after the intervention programme. All exercise training modalities induced an increase in the S-Klotho plasma levels (all P ≤ 0.019) without statistical differences between them (all P ≥ 0.696). We found a positive association between changes in lean mass index and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels, whereas a negative association was reported between changes in fat mass outcomes and changes in the S-Klotho plasma levels after our intervention study. In conclusion, our results suggest that the link between exercise training and the increase in S-Klotho plasma levels could be mediated by a decrease of fat mass and an increase of lean mass.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica , Exercício/fisiologia , Glucuronidase/sangue , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(2): 477-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention on vascular endothelial function, measured as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (baFMD), and vascular wall thickness measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Thirty women were randomized to either HIIT or non-exercise control groups (CON). The HIIT group participated in an 8-week HIIT intervention occurring three times per week on a cycle ergometer. The CON group was offered the HIIT intervention after 8 weeks. baFMD was measured from the brachial artery diameter at baseline (D0) and 1 min after cuff deflation (D1); percent change was calculated by measuring brachial artery diameter after cuff deflation relative to the baseline [baFMD = (D1 - D0)/D0 × 100]. The cIMT was obtained from the posterior wall of common carotid artery 10 mm below the carotid bulb. Paired t test and repeated measures ANCOVA were performed to assess changes in baFMD and cIMT. RESULTS: At baseline, the HIIT (n = 15) and CON (n = 15) groups did not differ by age (46.9 ± 9.8 years), BMI (31.0 ± 7.5 kg/m2), and blood pressure (123.4 ± 16.8/72.3.9 ± 5.6 mmHg). Post-exercise, baFMD significantly increased [4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.5, 7.0), p = 0.005] in HIIT versus CON group. cIMT did not significantly change [0.003, 95% CI - 0.004, 0.009), p = 0.40] in HIIT group, while IMT significantly increased from baseline to post-intervention (0.009, 95% CI 0.004, 0.010, p = 0.003) in CON group. CONCLUSION: This study may suggest that HIIT improved vascular endothelial function and maintained wall thickness in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02454777.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Adulto , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Terapia Combinada , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(6): 859­867, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146621

RESUMO

Purpose: Over recent years, multiple studies have tried to optimize the exercise intensity and duration of work intervals in high-intensity-interval training (HIIT) protocols. Although an optimal work interval is of major importance to facilitate training adaptations, an optimal HIIT protocol can only be achieved with an adequate recovery interval separating work bouts. Surprisingly, little research has focused on the acute responses and long-term impact of manipulating recovery intervals in HIIT sessions. This invited commentary therefore aimed to review and discuss the current literature and increase the understanding of the moderating role of recovery durations in HIIT protocols. Conclusion: The acute responses to manipulations in recovery durations in repeated-sprint training (RST), sprint interval training (SIT), and aerobic interval training (AIT) protocols have recently begun to receive scientific interest. However, limited studies have manipulated only the recovery duration in RST, SIT, or AIT protocols to analyze the role of recovery durations on long-term training adaptations. In RST and SIT, longer recovery intervals (≥80 s) facilitate higher workloads in subsequent work intervals (compared with short recovery intervals), while potentially lowering the aerobic stimulus of the training session. In AIT, the total physiological strain endured per training protocol appears not to be moderated by the recovery intervals, unless the recovery duration is too short. This invited commentary highlights that further empirical evidence on a variety of RST, SIT, and AIT protocols and in exercise modalities other than cycling is needed.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Descanso , Fatores de Tempo , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio
17.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 425-432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise may modify disease progression in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine factors that predict motor, activity, and participation-based outcomes over two years in exercisers with PD. METHODS: A convenience sample with idiopathic PD was included in the analysis [n = 74; mean age 66.7(8.4) years; male 54%; median months post diagnosis 69.0(76.0), median Hoehn and Yahr score 1.0(2.0)]. Exercise behaviors (minutes of exercise/week, peak rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and mode of exercise) and outcomes of impairment [grip strength], activity [10-meter walk test, functional reach test, activity specific balance confidence scale] and participation [Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39] were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: Using generalized estimating equations at least one exercise behavior was a significant predictor across most of the models (p≤0.026), with higher RPE predicting better outcomes in all activity and participation domains. Younger age, male gender and lower disease severity also significantly predicted better outcomes over time (p≤0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise behaviors contributed to activity and participation-based outcomes over two years in exercisers with PD. Participation in high-intensity exercise programs may enhance maintenance of health and function over time in individuals with PD.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/tendências , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(9): 1951-1958, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mechanisms underlying the efficacy of sprint interval training (SIT) remain to be understood. We previously reported that an acute bout of SIT disrupts the integrity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), in recreationally active human subjects. We here hypothesize that in addition to improving the exercise performance of recreationally active humans, a period of repeated SIT sessions would make the RyR1 protein less vulnerable and accelerate recovery of contractile function after a SIT session. METHODS: Eight recreationally active males participated in a 3-week SIT program consisting of nine sessions of four-six 30-s all-out cycling bouts with 4 min of rest between bouts. RESULTS: Total work performed during a SIT session and maximal power (Wmax) reached during an incremental cycling test were both increased by ~ 7.5% at the end of the training period (P < 0.05). Western blots performed on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies taken before, 1 h, 24 h and 72 h after SIT sessions in the untrained and trained state showed some protection against SIT-induced reduction of full-length RyR1 protein expression in the trained state. SIT-induced knee extensor force deficits were similar in the untrained and trained states, with a major reduction in voluntary and electrically evoked forces immediately and 1 h after SIT (P < 0.05), and recovery after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: Three weeks of SIT improves exercise performance and provides some protection against RyR1 modification, whereas it does not accelerate recovery of contractile function.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(8): 1885-1899, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of combined cooling and lower body heat maintenance during half-time on second-half intermittent sprint performances. METHODS: In a repeated measures design, nine males completed four intermittent cycling trials (32.1 ± 0.3 °C and 55.3 ± 3.7% relative humidity), with either one of the following half-time recovery interventions; mixed-method cooling (ice vest, ice slushy and hand cooling; COOL), lower body passive heating (HEAT), combined HEAT and COOL (COMB) and control (CON). Peak and mean power output (PPO and MPO), rectal (Tre), estimated muscle (Tes-Mus) and skin (TSK) temperatures were monitored throughout exercise. RESULTS: During half-time, the decrease in Tre was substantially greater in COOL and COMB compared with CON and HEAT, whereas declines in Tes-Mus within HEAT and COMB were substantially attenuated compared with CON and COOL. The decrease in TSK was most pronounced in COOL compared with CON, HEAT and COMB. During second-half, COMB and HEAT resulted in a larger decrease in PPO and MPO during the initial stages of the second-half when compared to CON. In addition, COOL resulted in an attenuated decrease in PPO and MPO compared to COMB in the latter stages of second-half. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of Tes-Mus following half-time was detrimental to prolonged intermittent sprint performance in the heat, even when used together with cooling.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Temperatura Cutânea
20.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 12(2): 103-107, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184507

RESUMO

Objetivo: Comparar cómo afectan dos modelos de distribución de la intensidad del entrenamiento diferentes (modelo polarizado y modelo piramidal) sobre la composición corporal de triatletas amateur de larga distancia. Método: Después de un periodo de entrenamiento de base de seis semanas, 14 triatletas varones (edad=29.5±6.4 años; peso=71.2±4.0 kg; altura=173.6±4.4 cm; VO2máx=56.92±5.78 ml/kg/min) fueron aleatoriamente divididos en dos grupos: polarizado y piramidal. Cada grupo siguió un modelo de distribución de la intensidad del entrenamiento diferente. La duración del periodo de entrenamiento específico fue de 11 semanas, realizándose mediciones antropométricas pre y post a este periodo para comparar los efectos de los modelos de distribución de la intensidad del entrenamiento sobre la composición corporal. Resultados: El grupo polarizado redujo de manera estadísticamente significativa su peso total (p=0.046) y su sumatorio de pliegues cutáneos (p=0.046). El grupo piramidal aumentó de manera significativa el perímetro corregido de la pierna (p=0.017). En el grupo polarizado se incrementó el componente del somatotipo de ectomorfia de manera significativa (p=0.046) y en el piramidal el de mesomorfia (p=0.043). Conclusiones: La distribución polarizada tuvo un mayor efecto sobre la pérdida de peso y masa grasa que la distribución piramidal


Objective: To compare how affect two models of different training intensity distribution (polarized model and pyramidal model) on body composition in amateur long-distance triathletes. Method: After a general training period of six week, 14 male triathletes (age=29.5±6.4 years; weight=71.2±4.0 kg; height=173.6±4.4 cm VO2max=56.92±5.78 ml/kg/min) were randomly divided into two groups: polarized and pyramidal. Each group followed a different training intensity distribution model. The duration of the specific training period was 11 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were taken before and after this period to compare the effects of the two models of training intensity distribution on body composition. Results: Significant reduces were observed in polarized group in the total weight (p=0.046) and summatory of the 8 skinfolds (p=0.046). Pyramidal group significantly increased the corrected perimeter of the leg (p=0.017). In polarized group the somatotype component of ectomorphy was significantly increased (p=0.046) and the mesomorphy component was significantly increased in pyramidal (p=0.043). Conclusions: Polarized distribution had a greater effect on weight loss and fat mass than pyramidal distribution


Objetivo: Comparar a influência dos modelos de distribuição de diferentes intensidade de treinamentos (modelo polarizado e modelo piramidal) sobre a composição corporal de triatletas amadores de longa distância. Métodos: Depois de um período de treinamento básico de seis semanas, 14 triatletas do sexo masculino (idade = 29.5±6.4 anos; peso = 71.2±4.0 kg; altura = 173.6±4.4 cm; VO2máx = 56.92±5.78 ml/kg/min) foram aleatoriamente divididos em dois grupos: polarizado e piramidal. Cada grupo seguiu um modelo diferente de distribuição da intensidade de treinamento. A duração do período de treinamento específico foi de 11 semanas, realizando medidas antropométricas pré e pós intervenção para comparar os efeitos dos modelos de distribuição da intensidade do treinamento sobre a composição corporal. Resultados: O grupo polarizado reduziu de maneira estatisticamente significativa o peso total (p=0.046) e o somatório de dobras cutâneas (p=0.046). O grupo piramidal aumentou de maneira significativa o perímetro corrigido da perna (p=0.017). No grupo polarizado houve incremento significativo do componente do somatório da ectomorfia (p=0.046) e no piramidal o da mesomorfia (p=0.043). Conclusão: A distribuição polarizada teve maior efeito sobre a perda de peso e massa gorda do que a distribuição piramidal


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antropometria/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos
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