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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 100-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638481

RESUMO

A common practice in resistance training is to perform sets of exercises at, or close to failure, which can alter movement dynamics. This study examined ankle, knee, hip, and lumbo-pelvis dynamics during the barbell back squat under a moderate-heavy load (80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)) when performed to failure. Eleven resistance trained males performed three sets to volitional failure. Sagittal plane movement dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbo-pelvis were examined; specifically, joint moments, joint angles, joint angular velocity, and joint power. The second repetition of the first set and the final repetition of the third set were compared. Results showed that while the joint movements slowed (p < 0.05), the joint ranges of motion were not altered There were significant changes in most mean joint moments (p < 0.05), indicating altered joint loading. The knee moment decreased while the hip and lumbo-pelvis moments underwent compensatory increases. At the knee and hip, there were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in concentric power output (p < 0.05). Whilst performing multiple sets to failure altered some joint kinetics, the comparable findings in joint range ofmotion suggest that technique was not altered. Therefore, skilled individuals appear to maintain technique when performing to failure.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 55-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902124

RESUMO

Suspension training is an adjunct to traditional strength and conditioning. The effect of added instability on muscle activation during traditional exercises is unclear and depends on the exercise and type of instability. The purpose of this review was to compare the activations of different muscles in suspension training exercises and their traditional counterparts. A search of the current literature was performed without language restrictions using the electronic databases PubMed (1969-12 January 2017), SPORTDiscus (1969-12 January 2017) and Scopus (1969-12 January 2017). The inclusion criteria were: (1) descriptive studies; (2) physically active participants; and (3) studies that analysed muscle activation using normalised electromyographic signals during different suspension training exercises. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. For the push-up, inverted row, prone bridge and hamstring curl in suspension, the activation of upper-body and core muscles ranged between moderate (21-40% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)) and very high (>60% MVIC). Muscle activation in these same muscle groups was greater with suspension exercises relative to comparable traditional exercises, except for the inverted row. Muscle activation in the upper extremity and core muscles varied greatly amongst studies.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Humanos , Postura/fisiologia
3.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 90-119, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132028

RESUMO

As the sport of strongman is becoming increasingly popular, and such exercises are being commonly used by strength and conditioning coaches for a wide range of athletic groups, a greater understanding of the biomechanics of strongman exercises is warranted. To improve the quality of research, this systematic review summarised the research methodology used in biomechanical studies of strongman exercises and identified potential improvements to current approaches. A search of 5 databases found 10 articles adherent to the pre-defined inclusion criteria. The studies assessed 8 strongman exercises and included male participants of relatively similar body mass but varying training backgrounds. Due to the complexity of strongman exercises and the challenges in collecting advanced biomechanical data in the field, most studies used simplified measurement/analysis methods (e.g., 2D motion capture). Future strongman biomechanical studies should: assess under/un-researched strongman exercises; include a greater number of experienced and female strongman athletes; utilise more advanced (e.g., 3D motion capture and/or inertial sensor) technology so to provide a broader range and greater quality of data. Such approaches will provide strength and conditioning coaches, strongman coaches and athletes with a greater understanding of strongman exercises, thereby further improving exercise prescription, athlete performance and minimising risk of injury.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Antropometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Cinética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17625, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with the side effects of breast cancer treatment (eg, loss of muscular mass and muscular strength, upper-limb mobility and disability, lymphedema, cardiac toxicity, and reduced quality of life) is increasing yearly. These consequences can be improved through exercise, specially combining resistance and aerobic training. Previous exercise trials have not been consistent in applying training principles and standardized reporting, and this partly explains the variability in obtained results. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a 12-week supervised resistance exercise program combined with home-based aerobic exercise, compared with home-based aerobic exercise only, on muscular strength and several aspects of health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. To maximize transparency, replicability, and clinical applicability, the intervention is described following the consensus on exercise reporting template. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial in which 60 female breast cancer survivors, who have completed central treatments of the disease in the last 5 years, will be randomly assigned to either an experimental group that will perform a total of 24 progressive resistance training sessions for 12 weeks (ie, 2 weeks of individual training and 10 weeks of micro-group training) and will be requested to undertake 10,000 steps/d, or a control group that will be requested to undertake 10,000 steps/d, only. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline and at week 12. Primary outcome measure is peak isometric muscular strength of the lower- and upper-body, assessed with several exercises through an electromechanical dynamometer. Secondary outcomes include cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-joint mobility and disability, health-related quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, depression, life satisfaction, and presence of lymphedema. DISCUSSION: This study aims to investigate the extent to which a 12-week supervised and progressive resistance exercise program, in addition to home-based aerobic physical activity, might improve muscular strength and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. The comprehensive description of the intervention will likely contribute to enhancing exercise prescription in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN14601208.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725606

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive multisystem neuromuscular disease characterized by myotonia and muscle weakness and wasting of distal and axial muscles. People with DM1, due to the disease progression, are often concerned about their ability to carry out and participate in the activities of daily living. Rehabilitation approaches in DM1, including moderate-to-intense strength training, have shown not univocal efficacy to face such difficulties. Aim of this case-study was to demonstrate the effects of a combined approach by using conventional plus robotic training in rare neuromuscular diseases, such as DM1. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old woman came to our observation complaining of difficulty in opening fist after strong voluntary muscle contraction for about 20 years. Over the years, she referred swallowing difficulties for solid foods, balance impairment complicated by tendency to stumble and falls, fatigability, hand muscle weakness with difficulty to open bottles and lifting weights, and daytime sleepiness DIAGNOSIS:: Paraparesis in DM1. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent 2 different trainings. The first period of treatment was carried out by using conventional physiotherapy, 6 times a week (twice a day) for 4 weeks. Then, she underwent a two-month specific task-oriented robotic rehabilitation training for the gait impairment using an overground exoskeleton, namely Ekso-GT, combined to the conventional therapy. OUTCOMES: The patient, after the EKSO training, gained a significant improvement in walking, balance and lower limbs muscle strength, as per 10-meter walking test and Left Lower Limb Motricity Index. Neurophysiological data (electroencephalography and surface electromyography) were also collected to more objectively assess the functional outcomes. LESSONS: Rehabilitation approaches in DM1, including moderate-to-intense strength training, have shown not univocal efficacy. Emerging and advancing robotic technologies can enhance clinical therapeutic outcomes by allowing therapists to activate and/or modulate neural networks to maximize motor and functional recovery.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Distrofia Miotônica/reabilitação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Terapia Combinada , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1461-1469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616137

RESUMO

Introduction: A 91-year-old sedentary man presenting exhaustion, lower-limb weakness, hypertension, and history of multiple falls was diagnosed with sarcopenia - appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASM) of 7.10 kg/m2. Purpose: To investigate the effects of strength training performed with low intensity in isolation (LI) or with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR) on strength, muscle mass, IGF-1, endothelial function, microcirculation, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress. Methods: In the first 3 months, LI was performed with intensity corresponding to 30% of 1 repetition maximum, followed by 1 month of inactivity, and another 3 months of LI-BFR (similar load than LI concomitant to BFR equivalent to 50% of resting systolic blood pressure). Results: LI-BFR, but not LI improved muscle mass, ASM, handgrip strength, isokinetic peak torque, IL-6, and IGF-1. Endothelial function, red blood cell velocity, and concentrations of C-reactive protein, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 improved after both LI and LI-BFR. Endothelin-1 and oxidative stress increased after LI-BFR, and lowered after LI. Conclusion: LI-BFR, but not LI improved strength, muscle mass, IGF-1, endothelial function, and selected inflammatory markers in a nonagenarian sarcopenic patient. These results are promising and suggest that LI-BFR should be considered as an alternative to prevent muscle loss and improve functional fitness in frail older populations.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle
8.
Orthopade ; 48(12): 992-997, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The need for effective training methods for positive adaptations in muscle strength and bone mineralization, suitable for all groups of patients, arises in both rehabilitation and pre-habilitation. In addition to mechanical stress, an increased metabolic stress, by means of reduced blood supply of the muscle, seems to induce positive adaptations as well. OBJECTIVES: Description of the effects of resistance training and opportunities of blood-flow restriction training in a clinical setting. METHODS: Key and specialized literature RESULTS: Regularly applied high mechanical loads are suitable to induce increases in muscle strength and mass as well as bone mineralization. In principle, the trainability of these tissues is given over the entire life span, although the adaptation of the muscle mass is reduced in the prepubertal and later stages of life. Classic strength training is particularly suitable as a training method to apply this stimulus quality (mechanical stress). For some years now, however, there has been increasing evidence that even low-intensity resistance training associated with metabolic stress is capable of producing hypertrophic effects and increasing muscle strength. This observation is particularly interesting for target groups whose mechanical capacity of the musculoskeletal system is reduced. Blood-flow-restriction training is particularly suitable as a training method for the application of this stimulus quality (metabolic stress). The data available on the effectiveness of low-intensity stress protocols on bone structure is still insufficient. Further research is needed to make evidence-based recommendations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Estresse Mecânico , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1435-1441, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of coffee ingestion with supplemental caffeine (CAF) on serum testosterone (T) responses to exercise in recreationally strength-trained males. METHODS: Subjects ingested 6 mg/kg body weight of caffeine via 12 ounces of coffee (CAF) supplemented with anhydrous caffeine or decaffeinated (DEC) coffee prior to exercise in a randomized, within-subject, crossover design. The exercise session consisted of 21 minutes of high-intensity interval cycling (alternating intensities at power outputs associated with 2.0 mmol/L lactate for two minutes and 4.0 mmol/L lactate for one minute) followed by resistance exercise (seven exercises, three sets of ten repetitions, 65% 1RM, one-minute rest periods). Subjects also completed repetitions to fatigue tests and soreness scales to determine muscle recovery 24 hours following the exercise. RESULTS: T was elevated immediately and 30-minutes post-exercise by 20.5% and 14.3% respectively (P<0.05). There was no main effect for treatment and no exercise x treatment interaction. There were no differences in repetitions to fatigue or soreness between treatments (P>0.05). No relationships were observed between T and any proxy of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: While past literature suggests caffeine may enhance T post-exercise, data from the current study suggest that augmented T response is not evident following anhydrous caffeine added to coffee. The duration of T elevation indicates that this protocol is beneficial to creating long-lasting increases in serum testosterone.


Assuntos
Cafeína/metabolismo , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17304, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tongue strengthening exercise (TSE) is a remedial method for the training of swallowing-related muscles in the oropharyngeal phase. However, clinical evidence of its effectiveness is insufficient. METHODS: To investigate the effect of TSE on the oropharyngeal muscles associated with swallowing in older adults, in this study, 40 elder adults living in the community were recruited and assigned to 2 groups. The experimental group performed a TSE with a 1-repetition maximum resistance level of 70%. The exercise was divided into an isometric and isotonic part. The control group did not perform an exercise. We measured the muscle strength and thickness of the tongue and suprahyoid muscles using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and ultrasonography. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in tongue muscle strength and thickness in the oral phase (P = .001 and <.001, respectively). In the pharyngeal phase, the experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in the mylohyoid and digastric muscles (suprahyoid muscles) (P = .045 and .019, respectively). The control group showed no statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: TSE is effective in increasing the strength and thickness of the oropharyngeal muscles of elder adults and is recommended for those who are vulnerable to swallowing difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/prevenção & controle , Deglutição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Língua/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia
11.
Life Sci ; 238: 116964, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639398

RESUMO

AIMS: The main aim of this study was to investigate the moderate versus high-load resistance training on muscle strength, hypertrophy and protein synthesis signaling in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were randomly allocated into three groups as follow: control group (C, n = 6), high-load training (HL, n = 7) and moderate-load training (ML, n = 7). A ladder climb exercise was used to mimic resistance exercise. ML resistance training consisted of a moderate load, allowing performance at higher volume of load inherent to higher number of repetitions (8-16 climbing). HL resistance training consisted of progressively increase training load, with low volume of load (4-8 climbing). C group remained with physical activity restricted to their cage space. This experiment was conducted over a six-weeks period. Forty-eight hours after the last resistance training session the animals were euthanized for tissue collection. RESULTS: Both HL and ML regimens promoted similar increases in muscle strength, elevated protein synthesis signaling demonstrated by increased skeletal muscle total/phosphorylated P-70S6K ratio and similar increases in plantaris and FHL muscle hypertrophy, all compared to control. All these similarities were demonstrated even though testosterone/cortisol ratio was higher in HL group compared to ML and control. ML regimen caused higher total training volume and soleus muscle hypertrophy, which was not demonstrated in HL group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, results suggest that both HL and ML induce muscle hypertrophy and increase on strength in a similar way. ML moreover seems to favor slow fiber hypertrophy due the higher training volume.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17290, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that self-selection of the training intensity can be an interesting strategy to improve adherence in aerobic exercise programs. However, its effectiveness with weight training has not been systematically reviewed and remains unclear. In this study, we will describe a systematic review protocol that aims to investigate if people are able to self-select an intensity during weight training sufficient to enhance muscular strength. METHODS: This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols. In this study, we will search the following electronic databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus. Intervention studies with at least one weight training session performed at self-selected intensity, with people from both genders and all age ranges will be included. The Downs & Black checklist will be used for methodological quality assessment. Two experienced reviewers will independently perform the selection of studies, data extraction, and evaluation of the methodological quality. CONCLUSION: This will be the first systematic review describing the results of weight training intervention studies with self-selected intensity. This study will provide high-quality and reliable evidence for health professionals and may direct methodological recommendations for further studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019120323.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Autocuidado , Humanos , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Autocuidado/psicologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17465, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593104

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic syndrome, is a central nervous system demyelinating disease consisting of optic neuritis and myelitis. Several studies have reported the effects of rehabilitation programs and specific exercises on outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis, but few have considered individuals with NMO. We present 2 cases of paraplegia due to NMO with rehabilitation outcome. PATIENT CONCERNS: The first case corresponds to a 65-year-old woman with NMO presented with C4 incomplete American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) scale D, and the second case is a 41-year-old woman with NMO presented with C1 incomplete ASIA-C. DIAGNOSES: Two cases were confirmed by positive anti-aquaporin-4 antibody and presence of T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging. INTERVENTION: The first patient planned for focusing on left hand fine motor training through occupational therapy by strengthening and stretching muscle using E-link (Biometrics Ltd, Newport, UK) during 4 weeks, and the second patient received strengthening lower extremity and gait training using a lower-body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG, Anti-Gravity Treadmill, Fremont, CA) during 4 weeks. OUTCOMES: After a 4-week rehabilitation, the first patient's manual muscle testing was improved to grade 2/5 to 3+/5 in left upper limb specifically. Also, Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) was improved 79 to 88. Functional gains were made in bathing, upper-extremity dressing, and using chopsticks independently. Also, the second patient's manual muscle testing improved to grades 1 to 2/5 to 3 to 4/5 generally, and ASIA scale improved C5 incomplete ASIA-D. SCIM was improved to by allowing walking independently and increasing lower-extremity dressing and toileting ability. LESSONS: An intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program may lead to neurological and functional gains in patients with NMO.


Assuntos
Neuromielite Óptica/reabilitação , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Destreza Motora , Neuromielite Óptica/fisiopatologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(10): 749-754, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of game-based chin-tuck against resistance exercise and head-lift exercise on swallowing function and compliance of patients with dysphagia after stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 37 patients with stroke were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The experimental group performed game-based chin tuck against resistance exercise, whereas the control group performed traditional head-lift exercise. The videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) were used to evaluate swallowing function. In addition, the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) was used for dietary assessment. Finally, the numerical rating self-report scale was used to assess compliance (motivation, interest/enjoyment, physical effort needed, muscle fatigue) with the 2 exercises. RESULTS: After intervention, there was no significant difference in VDS, PAS, and FOIS between the 2 groups. Comparing the compliance with the 2 exercises, the scores for motivation and interest/enjoyment items were significantly higher, and the scores for physical effort needed and muscle fatigue were significantly lower, in the experimental group than in the control group. CONCLUSION: Game-based chin-tuck against resistance exercise not only has a similar effect to head-lift exercise on swallowing function of patients with dysphagia, but is also a less strict and more enjoyable and interesting method.


Assuntos
Queixo/fisiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 45(2): 221-227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Game-based exercise is effective for improving strength and motor function in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation, and it creates fun and motivation for exercise. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of game-based exercise on hand strength, motor function, and compliance in stroke patients. METHODS: Fifty stroke patients were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed a game-based hand resistance exercise. This exercise was divided into isotonic and isometric types and was performed 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks with 70% of the 1-repetition maximum. In contrast, the control group was given a traditional manual exercise by the occupational therapist, and the type of exercise and time involved were the same as those in the experimental group. The primary outcome measure was hand strength test measured using a dynamometer. Secondary outcome measures were manual function tests (MFT) and hand function tests using box and block test (BBT). Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain/fatigue evaluated on 0 to 10 numeric rating scales were compared between groups. RESULTS: After training, hand strength, MFT and BBT was improved in the experimental group compared to the control group (P < 0.001, both). Subject-based reports of motivation and fun was significantly greater in the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.001, both), except to pain/fatigue (P = 0.728). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we demonstrated that game-based exercise is more effective than manual exercise in improving muscle strength, motor function, and compliance in stroke patients.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Força da Mão , Destreza Motora , Dor/etiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 850-855, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499564

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of different training loads on ratings of perceived exertion and discomfort and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (26.7±3.5 years, 85.1±17.5 kg, and 174. 9±9.9 cm) performed 3 sets of the bench press, squat on a hack machine, and lat pulldown, until volitional concentric failure in two separate conditions: a moderate load (MOD) consisting of a relative load of 8-12 repetitions maximum (RM), and a light load (LIT) consisting of a relative load of 25-30RM. The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), session rating of perceived discomfort (sRPD), and session pleasure/displeasure feelings (sPDF) were assessed after 15 min after the ending of each session. A randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study was performed with 48 h recovery afforded between sessions. Differences between conditions were observed for sRPE and sRPD, in which scores for LIT were greater than MOD (sRPE: MOD=5.5±1.0 vs. LIT=6.4±0.7; sRPD: MOD=6.7±1.7 vs. LIT=8.7±1.0). For sPDF, MOD reported feelings of pleasure (1.2), whereas the LIT presented a feeling of displeasure (-2.3). Results suggest that resistance training performed with a light load until failure induces higher degrees of effort, discomfort and displeasure compared to a moderate load.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Prazer/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 747-755, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476783

RESUMO

Concurrent resistance and aerobic training (CT) has been applied to optimize both strength and aerobic performance. However, it should be carefully prescribed, as there are some factors, as the training intensity, which have strong influence on training adaptations. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to analyze the scientific evidence regarding aerobic and resistance exercise intensities during CT and their effect on performance outcomes. The effects of exercise intensity on a subsequent detraining period were also assessed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, the risk of bias was assessed, and the percentage of changes and effect sizes were quantified. CT improved running times (10 m, 30 m and 10 km) and strength performance (one-repetition maximum, countermovement jump) regardless of exercise intensity used (4-47%, ES=0.4-2.8). Nevertheless, higher aerobic training intensities (≥ lactate threshold intensity) resulted in higher aerobic gains (5-10%, ES=0.3-0.6), and greater neuromuscular adaptations were found when higher resistance loads (≥ 70% of maximal strength) were used (10-14%, ES=0.4-1.3). Most training-induced gains were reversed after 2-4 weeks of detraining. Although further research is needed, it seems that higher intensities of aerobic or resistance training induce greater aerobic or neuromuscular gains, respectively. Nevertheless, it seems that higher resistance training loads should be combined with lower aerobic training intensities for increased strength gains and minimal losses after detraining.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 704-710, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404936

RESUMO

Competitive cricket demands a high level of performance from fast bowlers. Ground reaction forces during the landing phase pose a risk for lower limb and lumbar spine injury. Good dynamic knee strength allows the knee to flex to absorb these forces and extend prior to ball release for maximum efficiency. Plyometric training has been shown to improve dynamic strength. There is a lack of literature on this subject for cricket. This study evaluated the effect of a combined plyometric and strength training program on isokinetic knee strength of fast bowlers. Forty-two professional fast bowlers were randomly assigned to a training group (n=21) and a control group (n=21). Both groups underwent isokinetic knee strength and vertical and standing broad-jump testing. Quadriceps and hamstring concentric and eccentric peak torques, bilateral strength asymmetries (BSAs), and dynamic control ratios (DCRs) were evaluated by isokinetic testing. The study group underwent 12 weeks of plyometric training, whereas the control group continued with their own training methods. The study group showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) in jump performance and eccentric strength. There was a reduction in the proportion of bowlers with poor BSA and DCR. Improving dynamic knee strength through plyometric training reduces injury risk and improves performance in cricket fast bowlers.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Exercício Pliométrico/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Esportes/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2685-2690, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418312

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the bar-mounted PUSH BandTM 2.0 to determine peak and mean velocity during the bench press exercise with a moderate (60% one repetition maximum [1RM]) and heavy (90% 1RM) load. We did this by simultaneously recording peak and mean velocity using the PUSH BandTM 2.0 and three-dimensional motion capture from participants bench pressing with 60% and 90% 1RM. We used ordinary least products regression to assess within-session reliability and whether the PUSH BandTM 2.0 could accurately predict motion capture velocity. Results showed that PUSH BandTM 2.0 and motion capture peak and mean velocity reliability was acceptable with both loads. While there was a tendency for the PUSH BandTM 2.0 to slightly overestimate peak and mean velocity, there was no fixed bias. However, mean velocity with 60 and 90% 1RM demonstrated proportional bias (differences between predicted and motion capture values increase with magnitude). Therefore, PUSH BandTM 2.0 peak velocity with 60 and 90% 1RM is valid, but mean velocity is not.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2667-2675, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418319

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate responsiveness (ability to detect change) of isometric force-time measures to neuromuscular fatigue in resistance-trained participants using two differing protocols that modified both the instructions provided to participants and the duration of the test. Both protocols were completed at two knee joint angles in the isometric squat test. Ten participants volunteered to take part in this study (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years, strength training experience: 7.7 ± 2.6 years). Isometric peak force (ISqTpeak) and isometric explosive force (ISqTexp) test protocols were assessed at two joint angles (knee angle 100° and 125°) pre-high intensity strength training, immediately post strength training, 24-h post, 48-h post and analysed for peak and RFD performance. Participants completed eight sets of three repetitions of the back-squat exercise as the high-intensity strength training. Results showed the highest standardised response means (SRM) detected was peak force using the ISqTpeak 100, SRM -1.97 compared to an SRM of -1.31 for RFD 200 ms in the ISqTexp 125. Peak force was the most responsive variable using the ISqTpeak protocol, whereas the ISqTexp protocol was most responsive for RFD measures. Therefore, ISqTpeak and ISqTexp test protocols should not be used interchangeably to evaluate RFD variables.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
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