Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.842
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3292916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029503


In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole world causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, and inappropriate training conditions. The reduction of mobility imposed to contain the advance of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic can negatively affect the physical condition and health of individuals leading to muscle atrophy, progressive loss of muscle strength, and reductions in neuromuscular and mechanical capacities. Resistance training (RT) might be an effective tool to counteract these adverse consequences. RT is considered an essential part of an exercise program due to its numerous health and athletic benefits. However, in the face of the SARS-Cov-2 outbreak, many people might be concerned with safety issues regarding its practice, especially in indoor exercise facilities, such as gyms and fitness centers. These concerns might be associated with RT impact in the immune system, respiratory changes, and contamination due to equipment sharing and agglomeration. In this current opinion article, we provide insights to address these issues to facilitate the return of RT practices under the new logistical and health challenges. We understand that RT can be adapted to allow its performance with measures adopted to control coronavirus outbreak such that the benefits would largely overcome the potential risks. The article provides some practical information to help on its implementation.

Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Segurança
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22131, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957334


INTRODUCTION: In activities involving upper limbs, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) report an increase in dyspnea. For this reason, the authors of the recommendations about pulmonary rehabilitation propose to perform upper limbs muscle strengthening in patients with COPD. However, the modalities of strengthening are not clearly established.The aim of this study is to compare the effects of upper limbs endurance strengthening versus upper limbs force strengthening, in patients with COPD during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. METHODS: This study is a randomized, open-label, bi-center controlled trial in parallel groups distributed in a ratio (1:1) comparing upper limbs force strengthening (group F) to the upper limbs endurance strengthening (group E) during a pulmonary rehabilitation program in patients with COPD stages 2 to 4 (A-D).After randomization, patients will be allocated to follow: A 4 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation program with upper limbs resistance strengthening (group F). A 4 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation program with upper limbs endurance strengthening (group E).The primary outcome is dyspnea measured with the London Chest Activity of daily Living questionnaire. The secondary outcomes are dyspnea (using Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea Scale, dyspnea-12 questionnaire, multidimensional dyspnea profile questionnaire), upper limb exercise capacity (using the 6-minute Peg Board and Ring Test), Maximal voluntary strength of deltoid, biceps, and brachial triceps.The sample size calculated is 140 patients per group, or 280 in total. DISCUSSION: The modalities of upper limb strengthening are not very well known, and evidence based is lacking to recommend endurance or resistance upper limb strengthening.We anticipate that the results of this study will be of relevance to clinical practice. They will bring information about the best modality of upper limb strengthening to use during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IdRCB n°2018-A00955-50; V1.1 du 11/07/2018; REHABSUP, clinical (NCT03611036), registered August 02, 2018,

Dispneia/reabilitação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Extremidade Superior , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866148


The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week specialized training program aimed at strengthening core muscles to improve the effectiveness of selected elements of a swimming race on a group of Polish swimmers. Sixteen male national level swimmers (21.6 ± 2.2 years) participated in the research. The competitors were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups before the data collection process: an experimental (EG, n = 8) and a control (CG, n = 8) group. Both groups of swimmers underwent the same training program in the water environment (volume and intensity), while swimmers from the EG additionally performed specific core muscle training. The task of the swimmers was an individual front crawl swim of 50 m, during which the kinematic parameters of the start jump, turn and swimming techniques were recorded using a video camera system. In both groups, a minor increase in the flight phase was observed at the start (EG = 0.06 m, 1.8%; p = 0.088; CG = 0.08 m, 2.7%; p = 0.013). The time to cover a distance of 5 m after the turn and the recorded average speed in swimming this distance for the EG statistically significantly improved by 0.1 s (-28.6%; p < 0.001) and 3.56 m∙s-1 (23.2%; p = 0.001), respectively. In the EG, a statistically significant improvement in 50 m front crawl swimming performance of 0.3 s (-1.2%, p = 0.001) was observed. The results of the research show that the implementation of isolated strengthening of the stabilizing muscles seems to be a valuable addition to the standard training of swimmers.

Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos , Polônia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1128-1136, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955839


BACKGROUND: Little is known about the changes in biomechanical risk factors for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after participation in a pelvic and core strength training (PCST) program in female team players. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial for which a total of 29 female soccer players were recruited from a soccer club and split into two groups, namely, experimental group (EG, N.=18; mean [SD] age, 17.8 [2.0 years], weight 64.0 [6.6] kg and height 1.7 [0.0] m) and control group (control, N.=11; mean [SD] age, 16.2 [1.2] years, weight 61.6 [7.3] kg and height 1.7 [0.0] m). The EG participated in an in-season 8-week PCST program (twice/week). Participants in the CG performed their normal training without additional pelvic and core strengthening. Pre- and postintervention knee frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), hip, knee and ankle peak flexion angles and jump height were collected during bilateral and unilateral drop jumps. RESULTS: PCST significantly reduced FPPA at dynamic landing, in both dominant (-7.1º) and non-dominant lower extremities (-8º). Further, this training significantly increased the peak hip (24.4º) and knee flexion angles (14.94º), but not the peak ankle dorsiflexion angle (P>0.05) which, significantly decreased in the CG (-3.5º). Following the intervention, EG significantly increased measures obtained for both bilateral (2.84 cm) and unilateral jumps (1.33 cm for the dominant leg and 1.22 cm for the non-dominant leg) (P<0.05), not so for CG (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PCST resulted in improvements on ACL injury risk factors and vertical drop jump performance, suggesting that strengthening this body part warrants not only injury prevention, but increases jumping performance.

Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/prevenção & controle , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Futebol/lesões , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Joelho/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941526


The aim of the study was to compare the EMG amplitude in bench press (stable loads) to bench press using loads moving in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Seventeen resistance-trained men, with 9.4±4.7 years of resistance training experience were recruited. After a familiarization session assessing 1 repetition maximum (RM) in the bench press, participants performed: 1) bench press with traditional stable loading 2) bench press with loads (2x5kg) attached as pendulums swinging forward/backwards and 3) left/right in randomized order. The total load was 70% of the 1RM load. Electromyography was measured in the pectoralis major, anterior- and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii and external obliques. Using stable loads, the pectoralis major demonstrated lower EMG amplitude compared to the two unstable conditions. In the external obliques, the stable conditions demonstrated lower EMG amplitude than the swing in the mediolateral direction, but not the anteroposterior direction. There were no differences between two swinging loads or the three conditions for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii, anterior deltoid or posterior deltoid. In conclusion, swinging in bench press resulted in similar EMG amplitude in the shoulder- and arm muscles, but greater pectoralis and external oblique (only mediolateral swing) activity compared to bench press.

Contração Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
Codas ; 32(4): e20180285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756852


PURPOSE: To compare the impact of isokinetic exercise (tongue suction on the palate) in the cervical region of Class I and Class II / 2nd Division participants, considering the average and the symmetry of Root Means Square (RMS) of suprahyoid and suboccipital muscles and cervical sensory reports. METHOD: 11 participants Class I and 19 Class II / 2nd Division, both genders, mean age 33.4 ± 14.1 years. For the analysis of RMS average and symmetry, electromyography was performed in the suboccipital and suprahyoid muscles, bilaterally, at rest and suction of water in the initial, intermediate and final phases. The cervical sensation was evaluated qualitatively during the exercises. RESULTS: the mean RMS did not differ between Classes (p=0.7), but showed an increase in the intermediate phase in the suboccipital musculature (p=0.0001) and decrease in the suprahyoid musculature. In symmetry, the suprahyoid musculature showed a significant difference between classes (p=0.0001) during the intermediate phase. In the Class I participant the symmetry was reestablished in the final phase, a fact that did not occur in Class II / 2nd Division. Regarding the cervical sensation, only the Class II / 2nd Division had expressive complaints. CONCLUSION: The Isokinetic suctioning exercise of the tongue against the palate, had an expressive repercussion with reports of discomfort and neck pain in the Class II / 2nd Division participants. On average RMS, there was no difference between the classes, but in the intermediate phase, the suboccipital muscles showed a significant increase in the activity. Symmetry in the suprahyoid musculature had a significant difference between the classes and asymmetry in the intermediate phase.

Exercício Físico , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Língua , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Língua/fisiologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786


We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.

Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1242, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799849


BACKGROUND: Resistance-training (RT) provides significant health benefits. However, roughly 3/4 of adults in the United States do not meet current Physical Activity Guidelines in this regard. There has been a call for research examining the effectiveness of interventions to increase participation in physical activity and to better understand the dose response relationship upon health outcomes. Studies are needed that assess the effectiveness of RT programs that are time-efficient and simple to perform. This fully-powered, randomized controlled study will assess a habit-based RT program consisting of one set of push-ups, angled-rows, and bodyweight-squats performed every weekday for 12-24 weeks in untrained individuals. METHODS: Forty-60 untrained osteopathic medical students and college/university employees who work in an office setting will be recruited and randomized (1:1) to an intervention or waitlist control group. After 12-week follow-up assessment, the intervention group will continue the program and the control group will initiate the program for 12 weeks. In addition to the equipment and training needed to safely perform the exercises, all participants will receive training in the Tiny Habits® Method (THM) and digital coaching for the duration of the study. Participants will complete weekly assessments regarding the program during their initial 12-week intervention phase. The primary outcome is the change from baseline to 12 weeks in the intervention group versus the control group, in the combined number of repetitions performed in one set of each of the three exercises (composite repetitions) under a standardized protocol. Secondary outcomes include adherence to and satisfaction with the program, and change from baseline to 12- and 24-week follow-up in blood pressure, fasting lipid panel, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, anthropometry, body composition, mid-thigh muscle thickness, and habit strength. DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate a simple, habit-based RT intervention in untrained individuals. The approach is unique in that it utilizes brief but frequent bodyweight exercises and, via the THM, focuses on consistency and habit formation first, with effort being increased as participants are motivated and able. If effective, the program can be easily scaled for wider adoption. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was prospectively registered at, identifier NCT04207567 , on December 23rd, 2019.

Ginástica/psicologia , Hábitos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1746-1758, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750132


OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) is under scrutiny to deliver high-quality care and superior outcomes in less time. High-intensity resistance training demonstrates functional improvements in community-dwelling and long-term care populations but has not been generalized to the SNF population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate implementation issues including safety and feasibility and to provide preliminary information on effectiveness of rehabilitation focused on high-intensity functional resistance training in an SNF. METHODS: The implementation study design consisted of 2 nonrandomized independent groups (usual care and high intensity) that were staged within a single SNF. The i-STRONGER program (IntenSive Therapeutic Rehabilitation for Older Skilled NursinG HomE Residents) integrates principles of physiologic tissue overload into rehabilitation. Physical therapists administered the Short Physical Performance Battery and gait speed at evaluation and discharge. Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance was used to evaluate the implementation process. An observational checklist and documentation audits were used to assess treatment fidelity. Regression analyses evaluated the response of functional change by group. RESULTS: No treatment-specific adverse events were reported. Treatment fidelity was high at >99%, whereas documentation varied from 21% to 50%. Patient satisfaction was greater in i-STRONGER, and patient refusals to participate in therapy sessions trended downward in i-STRONGER. Patients in i-STRONGER exhibited a 0.13 m/s greater change in gait speed than in the usual care group. Although not significant, i-STRONGER resulted in a 0.64-point greater change in the Short Physical Performance Battery than usual care, and average SNF length of stay was 3.5 days shorter for i-STRONGER patients. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study indicate that implementation of a high-intensity resistance training framework in SNFs is safe and feasible. Furthermore, results support a signal effectiveness of improving function and satisfaction, although the heterogeneity of the population necessitates a larger implementation study to confirm. IMPACT STATEMENT: This pragmatic study demonstrates that high-intensity resistance training in medically complex older adults is safe and favorable in SNFs. This work supports the need to fundamentally change the intensity of rehabilitation provided to this population to promote greater value within post-acute care. Furthermore, this study supports the application of implementation science to rehabilitation for rapid and effective translation of evidence into practice.

Assistência ao Convalescente/organização & administração , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Semi-Intensivos/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
Gene ; 760: 145018, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758580


Protein turnover is a process that is regulated by several factors and can lead to muscle hypertrophy or atrophy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) and eccentric resistance exercise on variables related to protein turnover in rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly assigned into four groups of eight, including control, control-HMB, exercise, and exercise-HMB. Animals in HMB groups received 340 mg/kg/day for two weeks. Animals in the exercise groups performed one session of eccentric resistance exercise consisting of eight repetitions descending from a ladder with a slope of 80 degree, with an extra load of two times body weight (100% 1RM). Twenty-four hours after the exercise session, triceps brachii muscle and serum were collected for further analysis. Exercise and HMB-FA induced lower muscle myostatin and higher muscle Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression, as well as higher serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. Exercise alone induced higher caspase-3 and caspase-8 gene expression while HMB-FA alone induced lower caspase 3 gene expression. HMB-FA supplement increased the effect of exercise on muscle FNDC5, myostatin, and P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression. The interaction of exercise and HMBFA resulted in an additive effect, increasing serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. In conclusion, a 2-week HMB-FA supplementation paired with acute eccentric resistance exercise can positively affect some genes related to muscle protein turnover.

Proteínas Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Valeratos/farmacologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fibronectinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Genes Reguladores/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Miostatina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
Phys Ther ; 100(10): 1816-1824, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691064


OBJECTIVE: Direct strength training (DST) is effective in managing unilateral weakness in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its feasibility, however, is considerably reduced if one limb is too compromised to train. In this case, contralateral strength training (CST) of the unaffected side to induce a strength transfer to the untrained homologous muscles can help to establish a strength baseline in the weaker limb, eventually allowing direct training. Limited effects for CST, however, have been reported on patient functioning. We tested the effects on dynamometric, electromyographic, and functional outcomes of a sequential combination of CST and DST of the ankle dorsiflexors in a case of MS-related foot-drop. METHODS: A 56-year-old man diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS exhibited severe weakness of the right dorsiflexors impairing functional dorsiflexion. The intervention consisted of a 6-week CST of the unaffected dorsiflexors followed by 2 consecutive 6-week DST cycles targeting the weaker dorsiflexors. RESULTS: At baseline, the participant could not dorsiflex his right ankle but could do so after CST. Maximal strength of the affected dorsiflexors increased by 80% following CST, by 31.1% following DST-1, and by a further 44.6% after DST-2. Neuromuscular recruitment was found progressively increased, with the largest changes occurring after DST-1. Improvements in mobility and walking speed were also detected, although plantar flexors' spasticity on the Modified Ashworth Scale increased from 1+ to 2. CONCLUSION: In this case, the sequential combination of CST and DST proved a feasible approach to manage severe unilateral weakness in a patient who was not able, at least initially, to dorsiflex his weaker ankle. In this perspective, CST may prime a minimum gain in strength necessary to allow subsequent direct training.

Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/reabilitação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21187, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702879


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of supervised and home-based exercise programs on older people with frailty or pre-frailty. METHODS: A total of 146 community-dwelling participants aged 65 and older who were prefrail or frail were randomly allocated into supervised exercise (N = 74) and home exercise (N = 72) groups. The 3-month supervised exercise training consisted of 3 exercise sessions per week, was performed at a hospital and supervised by a physical therapist. Home exercise participants took instructions on exercise and illustrated exercise handouts. The baseline and 3-month follow-up measurements included body composition, strength of selected upper and lower limb muscle groups, grip and leg press strengths, and five physical performance tests. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was applied to determine whether two groups differ in terms of changes before and after the intervention and to compare within-group improvements. RESULTS: After 3 months of supervised or home-based exercise, the average number of frailty criteria met and fat percentage decreased significantly. Strength of knee extensors, knee flexors and leg press improved significantly in supervised exercise group. In home-based exercise group, the strength of all muscle groups tested improved significantly, except for leg press strength. Walking speed improved in both groups, and timed-up-and-go and timed chair rise tests improved significantly only in supervised exercise group. CONCLUSIONS: Three-month supervised or home-based exercise improved walking speed and strength of the limb muscles. Supervised group showed more improvements in the physical performance tests compared with home-based exercise group.

Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Resistência/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603351


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a six-week, twice weekly resistance training (4 sets at 30% 1-RM until failure) with practical blood flow restriction (BFR) using 7cm wide cuffs with a twist lock placed below the patella is superior to training without BFR (NoBFR) concerning muscle mass and strength gains in calf muscles. A two-group (BFR n = 12, mean age 27.33 (7.0) years, training experience 7.3 (7.0) years; NoBFR n = 9, mean age 28.9 (7.4) years, training experience 7.1 (6.6) years) randomized matched pair design based on initial 1-RM was used to assess the effects on structural and functional adaptations in healthy males (Perometer calf volume [CV], gastrocnemius muscle thickness using ultrasound [MT], 7-maximal hopping test for leg stiffness [LS], 1-RM smith machine calf raise [1-RM], and visual analogue scale as a measure of pain intensity [VAS]). The mean number of repetitions completed per training session across the intervention period was higher in the NoBFR group compared to the BFR group (70 (16) vs. 52 (9), p = 0.002). VAS measured during the first session increased similarly in both groups from first to fourth set (p<0.001). No group effects or time×group interactions were found for CV, MT, LS, and 1-RM. However, there were significant time effects for MT (BFR +0.07 cm; NoBFR +0.04; p = 0.008), and 1-RM (BFR +40 kg; NoBFR +34 kg; p<0.001). LS and CV remained unchanged through training. VAS in both groups were similar, and BFR and NoBFR were equally effective for increasing 1-RM and MT in trained males. However, BFR was more time efficient, due to lesser repetition per training session.

Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645111


The aim of the study was to compare the effects of a 10-week chest-press resistance training on lifting regions in a trained exercise and a none-trained exercise; the barbell bench press (BBP). Thirty-five resistance trained men with 4.2 (± 2.3) years of resistance training experience were recruited. The participants were randomized to attend a resistance program, performing the chest-press, twice per week using either, Smith machine, dumbbells or laying on Swiss ball using a barbell. A six-repetitions maximum (6RM) test was conducted pre- and post-training in the trained chest-press exercise and non-trained BBP to examine lifting velocity, load displacement and the time of the pre-sticking, sticking and post-sticking regions. Additionally, the muscle activity in pectoralis major, triceps brachii, biceps brachii and deltoid anterior was examined. In the post-test, all three chest-press groups decreased lifting velocity and increased the time to reach the sticking- and post-sticking region. Independent of the type of chest-press exercise trained, no differences were observed in vertical displacement or in the muscle activity for the three lifting regions. In general, similar changes in kinematics in trained exercise and those observed in the BBP were observed for all three groups. This indicates that none of the three chest-press exercises (Swiss ball, Smith machine or dumbbells) were specific regarding the lifting regions but displaced a transferability towards the non-trained BBP. However, improved strength altered the sticking region among resistance trained men.

Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Tronco/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
Sports Health ; 12(5): 495-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720852


BACKGROUND: Traditional exercises performed with the shoulder in the position of 90° abduction and external rotation with elbow flexion (90/90) while using a single elastic band showed moderate activity of both the lower trapezius (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate activity of the teres minor (TMi) and the LT muscles during standing external rotation exercise with the shoulder in the 90/90 position with 2 elastic bands in both the frontal and the scapular plane. HYPOTHESIS: TMi, IS, and LT muscle activities will vary depending on whether the shoulder is positioned in the frontal or scapular plane with the application of 2 elastic bands. Also, the serratus anterior (SA) and teres major (TMa) muscles will produce different muscular activity patterns during exercises performed with 2 elastic bands in the frontal plane compared with the TMi and LT muscles. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: A total of 21 collegiate baseball players volunteered to participate. The electromyography (EMG) activities of the TMi, IS, LT, SA, TMa, middle deltoid (MD), posterior deltoid, and upper trapezius (UT) muscles were measured with the 90/90 arm position during both isometric and oscillation resistance exercises with 2 elastic bands oriented in the frontal and scapular planes. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed in EMG activity of both the TMi and the LT muscles between single and double elastic band applications in the frontal plane (P < 0.05). In contrast, EMG activity of the IS, SA, and TMa muscles was significantly increased in the scapular plane compared with the frontal plane (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The standing 90/90 position effectively increased both TMi and LT muscle EMG activity with the double elastic band in the frontal plane while minimizing UT and MD muscle activity. EMG activity of the IS, SA, and TMa muscles increased with exercise in the scapular plane as compared with the frontal plane. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oscillation movement under double elastic band application differentiated external rotator muscle and scapular muscle activities between the frontal and scapular plane during the 90/90 exercise in the frontal plane compared with the scapular plane. Clinicians can utilize each of the scapular and frontal positions based on their desired focus for muscular activation.

Braço/fisiologia , Beisebol/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Manguito Rotador/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Rotação
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 13(2): 71-75, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194367


OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability has been proposed as a valid method to examine the individual response to training load in endurance athletes. Thanks to this tool, the relationship between basal and post-exercise Heart rate variability measurements can be analyzed during a microcycle (one week) using straight values or their coefficients of variation. METHOD: Ten amateur endurance athletes (n = 5 men, n = 5 women) were monitored during a 7-day microcycle that included three road-cycling sessions, two running sessions and two trail-running sessions. The RR series were measured for 5 minutes upon wake up and after training, in a seating position, using a chest strap. RESULTS: Basal and post-exercise Heart rate variability measurements showed high correlation when weekly mean values were used, very similar to when coefficients of variation values were used. In women, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) was: r= 0.73; RMSSD coefficients of variation (RMSSDcv) was: r= 0.66; natural logarithm (Ln) RMSSD: r= 0.68; LnRMSSDcv: r= 0.79; and in men it RMSSD was: r= 0.78; RMSSDcv: r= -0.62; LnRMSSD: r= 0.75; LnRMSSDcv: r= -0.73). CONCLUSION: the relationship between these two measurements could be useful to program the training loads of the following microcycle

OBJETIVO: La variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca se ha propuesto como un método válido para examinar la respuesta individual a la carga de entrenamiento en atletas de resistencia. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre las mediciones basales y post ejercicio durante un microciclo (una semana) utilizando valores directos o sus coeficientes de variación. MÉTODO: Se monitorizó a diez atletas aficionados de resistencia durante un microciclo de 7 días, que incluyó tres sesiones de ciclismo de ruta, dos sesiones de carrera y dos sesiones de trail running. Las series RR se midieron durante 5 minutos al despertar y después del entrenamiento, en posición sentado, utilizando una banda torácica. RESULTADOS: Las mediciones de variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca basales y post ejercicio mostraron una alta correlación cuando se usaron valores medios semanales, como cuando se usaron valores de los coeficientes de variación. En mujeres, la raíz cuadrada de la media de las diferencias de la suma de los cuadrados entre intervalos RR adyacentes (RMSSD) fue: r = 0.73; el coeficiente de variación (cv) de la RMSSD fue RMSSDcv: r = 0.66; el logaritmo natural (Ln) de la RMSSD (LnRMSSD) fue: r = 0.68; LnRMSSDcv: r = 0.79; y en los hombres fueron RMSSD: r = 0.78; RMSSDcv: r = -0.62; LnRMSSD: r = 0.75; LnRMSSDcv: r = -0.73. CONCLUSIONES: La relación entre estas dos mediciones podría ser útil para el programa de entrenamiento del microciclo posterior

OBJETIVO: A variação da frequência cardíaca tem sido utilizada como método de análise de respostas individuais a carga de treino em atletas de endurance. Graças a esta ferramenta, a relação entre a variação da frequência cardíaca basal e pós-exercício pode ser analisada durante um microciclo (uma semana) usando valores diretos ou seus coeficientes de variação. MÉTODO: Dez atletas de endurance amadores (n = 5 homens, n = 5 mulheres) foram monitorados durante microciclos de 7 dias que incluíram 3 sessões de ciclismo em estrada, duas sessões de corrida e duas sessões de corrida em trilha. As series de RR foram medidas durante 5 minutos depois de acordar e depois do exercício, em posição sentada, com recurso a cardiofrenquencímetros toráxicos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostram uma correlação alta entre as medidas de variação de frequência cardíaca basal e pós-exercício quando utilizados valores médios semanais, muito semelhantes aos resultados quando utilizados coeficientes de variação. Nas mulheres, a raiz quadrada media das diferenças sucessivas (RMSSD) foi: r= 0.73; coeficientes de variação RMSSD, (RMSSDcv) foi: r= 0.66; logaritmo natural (Ln) RMSSD: r = 0.68; LnRMSSDcv: r= 0.79; e nos homens, raiz quadrada media das diferenças sucessivas r= 0.78; RMSSDcv: r= -0.62; LnRMSSD: r= 0.75; LnRMSSDcv: r= -0.73). CONCLUSÃO: a relação entre estas duas medidas poderia ser útil para prescrição de cargas de treino dos microciclos seguintes

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos , Atletas , Corrida/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 13(2): 87-91, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194370


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of pre-fatiguing the triceps brachii on subsequent strength performance and myoelectric activity in the barbell, dumbbell, and Smith machine bench press. METHOD: Nineteen trained men participated of this study (27.9 ± 4.5 years; 1.72 ± 0.1 m; 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Ten-repetition maximum loads were determined for the triceps extension as well as the barbell barbell, dumbbell and Smith machine bench press. Three experimental protocols were performed in a randomized design. All experimental protocols began with four sets of the triceps extension (performed with a high pulley) to repetition failure followed by four sets to repetition failure for one of three bench press modalities. Two minute-rest intervals were adopted between sets and exercises. Total repetitions (work), training volume and myoelectric activity of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii were recorded during each bench press modality. RESULTS: Significantly greater activity of the biceps brachii was observed during performance of the dumbbell bench press versus barbell and Smith machine bench press. No other significant differences were observed between protocols. CONCLUSION: Therefore, considering the training volume and myoelectric activity of the synergistic muscles, similar performance across bench press modalities can be expected when preceded by performance of a triceps extension

OBJETIVO: Examinar el efecto de la prefatiga del tríceps braquial en el desempeño subsiguiente de la fuerza y actividad mioeléctrica en el supino recto utilizando barra (SRB), mancuernas (SRM) y Smith machine (SMSR). MÉTODO: En el estudio participaron 19 hombres entrenados (27.9 ± 4.5 años, 1.72 ± 0.1 m, 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Se realizó una prueba de diez repeticiones máximas para la extensión del tríceps, así como para el supino resto utilizando barra, mancuernas y Smith Machine. Se realizaron tres protocolos experimentales en orden aleatorizado. Los protocolos consistieron de cuatro series de repeticiones de extensión del tríceps (realizado con polea alta) hasta la fatiga, seguida de cuatro series de repeticiones hasta la fatiga de una de las tres modalidades de supino. Dos intervalos de descanso de un minuto se realizaron entre series y ejercicios. Las repeticiones totales (trabajo), volumen de entrenamiento y actividad mioeléctrica de pectoral mayor, deltoides anteriores, bíceps braquial y tríceps braquial fueron registradas durante cada modalidad de supino. RESULTADOS: Se observó una actividad significativamente mayor del bíceps braquial durante la realización del supino recto con mancuerna versus barra y Smith Machine. No se observó ninguna diferencia significativa entre los protocolos. CONCLUSIONES: Por lo tanto, considerando el volumen de entrenamiento y la actividad mioeléctrica de los músculos sinérgicos, se puede esperar un rendimiento similar en las diversas modalidades de supino, cuando es precedido por la realización de una extensión de tríceps

OBJETIVO: examinar o efeito da pré-fatiga do tríceps braquial no desempenho subsequente da força e atividade mioelétrica no supino reto utilizando barra, halter e Smith machine. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 19 homens treinados (27.9 ± 4.5 anos; 1.72 ± 0.1 m; 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Foi realizado um teste de dez repetições máximas para a extensão do tríceps, assim como para o SRB, SRH e SMSR. Três protocolos experimentais foram realizados em ordem randomizada. Os protocolos consistiram de quatro séries de repetições do a extensão do tríceps (realizado com polia alta) até a falha seguida de quatro séries de repetições até a falha de uma das três modalidades de supino. Dois intervalos de descanso de um minuto foram adotados entre séries e exercícios. As repetições totais (trabalho), volume de treinamento e atividade mioelétrica de peitoral maior, deltóide anterior, bíceps braquial e tríceps braquial foram registradas durante cada modalidade de supino. RESULTADOS: Observou-se uma atividade significativamente maior do bíceps braquial durante a realização do supino reto halter versus barra e Smith Machine. Nenhuma outra diferença significativa foi observada entre os protocolos. CONCLUSÕES: Portanto, considerando o volume de treinamento e a atividade mioelétrica dos músculos sinérgicos, pode-se esperar um desempenho semelhante em modalidades de supino quando precedido pela realização de uma extensão de tríceps

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Antropometria
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 13(2): 106-109, jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194373


El presente artículo describe el proceso sistemático seguido para desarrollar unas directrices científicas de ejercicio para personas con lesión medular, así como sus resultados. Para mejorar la condición física, las personas adultas con lesión medular deben realizar al menos 20 minutos de ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada-vigorosa, dos veces por semana, combinados con tres series de ejercicios de fuerza de intensidad moderada-vigorosa por cada grupo muscular con funcionalidad, dos veces por semana. Para mejorar la salud cardiometabólica, se sugiere que las personas adultas con lesión medular realicen al menos 30 minutos de ejercicio aeróbico de intensidad moderada-vigorosa tres veces por semana. Dado que la falta de información sobre el tipo y la cantidad de actividad física necesaria para obtener beneficios saludables es una barrera importante para las personas con lesión medular, este conocimiento puede ser de gran relevancia para la promoción de estilos de vida activos entre este colectivo

The present paper describes the systematic process adopted to develop scientific exercise guidelines for adults with spinal cord injury and its results. To improve fitness, adults with spinal cord injury should engage in at least 20 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise twice a week, combined with three sets of strength-training exercises for each major functioning muscle group, at a moderate to vigorous intensity, twice a week. To improve cardiometabolic health, adults with spinal cord injury are suggested to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise three times a week. Since lack of information on the type and the amount of physical activity needed to obtain health benefits is an important barrier for people with spinal cord injury, this knowledge could be of great relevance in order to promote physically active lifestyles in this population

Este artigo descreve o processo sistemático seguido para desenvolver diretrizes científicas de exercício para pessoas com lesão medular e seus resultados. Para melhorar o condicionamento físico, as pessoas adultas com lesão medular devem realizar pelo menos 20 minutos de exercício aeróbico de intensidade moderada-vigorosa duas vezes por semana, combinados com tres séries de exercícios de força de intensidade moderada-vigorosa para cada grupo muscular com funcionalidade, duas vezes por semana. Para melhorar a saúde cardiometabólica, sugere-se que as pessoas adultas com lesão medular realizem pelo menos 30 minutos de exercício aeróbico de intensidade moderada-vigorosa três vezes por semana. Dado que a falta de informações sobre o tipo e a quantidade de atividade física necessária para obter benefícios saudáveis é uma barreira importante para as pessoas com lesão medular, esse conhecimento pode ser de grande relevância para a promoção de estilos de vida ativos nesse grupo

Humanos , Adulto , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Terapia por Exercício/normas , Terapia por Exercício/educação , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(206): 53-61, abr.-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-191744


This study examines the effects of two strength training (ST) programs, one based on mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and another under the traditional method, the % one-repetition maximum (1RM), on neuromuscular performance and muscle composition in girls who play soccer. Fifty players with an average age of 13.6 ± 1.2 years participated in the study and were randomly assigned into three groups: a maximal execution velocity training group (VG, n = 15), a maximal strength group (RMG, n = 13), and a control group (CG, n = 18). The study was developed for a period of twelve weeks during regular team training to prepare for the season. The VG and RMG groups performed additional strength or muscle power training three times a week, including movements of full squat and pedaling on a cycle ergometer. The two types of training groups and the control group exhibited significant gains. However, the greatest increases were achieved with VG training, with significant increases (p < 0.000) in maximal strength, (p < 0.000) squat power, (p < 0.000) velocity over 30 m, (p < 0.000) cycle ergometer power, and (p < 0.008) lower limb muscle mass. Statistically significant differences were observed between VG and RMG in countermovement jump (CMJ) (p < 0.008) and squat power (p < 0.01) tests, between VG and CG in CMJ (p < 0.01), squat power (p < 0.000), and maximal squat strength (p < 0.000), and between RMG and CG in maximal squat strength (p < 0.000) only. These findings might indicate that high-velocity ST can be performed simultaneously with regular training to improve the explosive actions of soccer players

No disponible

Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20418, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481345


BACKGROUND: Isokinetic training (IKT) and core stabilization training (CST) are commonly used for balance training in musculoskeletal conditions. The knowledge about the effective implementation of these training protocols on sports performances in university football players with chronic low back pain (LBP) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To find and compare the effects of IKT and CST on sports performances in university football players with chronic LBP. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded controlled study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty LBP participants divided into isokinetic group (IKT; n = 20), core stabilization group (CST; n = 20), and the control group (n = 20) and received respected exercises for 4 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical (pain intensity and player wellness) and sports performances (40 m sprint, 4 × 5 m sprint, submaximal shuttle running, counter movement jump, and squat jump) scores were measured at baseline, after 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months. RESULTS: Four weeks following training IKT group shows more significant changes in pain intensity and player wellness scores than CST and control groups (P ≤ .001). Sports performance variables (40 m sprint, 4 × 5 m sprint, submaximal shuttle running, counter movement jump and squat jump) scores also show significant improvement in IKT group than the other 2 groups (P ≤ .001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that training through IKT improves pain intensity and sports performances than CST in university football players with chronic LBP.

Desempenho Atlético/normas , Dor Lombar/terapia , Dor/classificação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/normas , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Dor/prevenção & controle , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/psicologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/normas , Treinamento de Resistência/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/lesões , Futebol/psicologia , Adulto Jovem