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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 87002, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in public water systems (PWS) are an unintended consequence resulting from reactions between mostly chlorine-based disinfectants and organic and inorganic compounds in source waters. Epidemiology studies have shown that exposure to DBP (specifically trihalomethanes) was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to characterize the relative differences in exposures and estimated potential bladder cancer risks for people served by different strata of PWS in the United States and to evaluate uncertainties associated with these estimates. METHODS: We stratified PWS by source water type (surface vs. groundwater) and population served (large, medium, and small) and calculated population-weighted mean trihalomethane-4 (THM4) concentrations for each stratum. For each stratum, we calculated a population attributable risk (PAR) for bladder cancer using odds ratios derived from published pooled epidemiology estimates as a function of the mean THM4 concentration and the fraction of the total U.S. population served by each stratum of systems. We then applied the stratum-specific PARs to the total annual number of new bladder cancer cases in the U.S. population to estimate bladder cancer incidence in each stratum. RESULTS: Our results show that approximately 8,000 of the 79,000 annual bladder cancer cases in the United States were potentially attributable to DBPs in drinking water systems. The estimated attributable cases vary based on source water type and system size. Approximately 74% of the estimated attributable cases were from surface water systems serving populations of >10,000 people. We also identified several uncertainties that may affect the results from this study, primarily related to the use of THM4 as a surrogate measure for DBPs relevant to bladder cancer. DISCUSSION: Despite significant reductions in exposure over the past several decades, our study suggests that ∼10% of the bladder cancer cases in the United States may still be attributed to exposure to DBPs found in drinking water systems. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9985.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 151-160, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725067

RESUMO

Algal blooms and wastewater effluents can introduce algal organic matter (AOM) and effluent organic matter (EfOM) into surface waters, respectively. In this study, the impact of bromide and iodide on the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination from various types of dissolved organic matter (DOM, e.g., natural organic matter (NOM), AOM, and EfOM) were investigated based on the data collected from literature. In general, higher formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) was observed in NOM than AOM and EfOM, indicating high reactivities of phenolic moieties with both chlorine and monochloramine. The formation of haloacetaldehydes (HALs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAMs) was much lower than THMs and HAAs. Increasing initial bromide concentrations increased the formation of THMs, HAAs, HANs, and HAMs, but not HALs. Bromine substitution factor (BSF) values of DBPs formed in chlorination decreased as specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) increased. AOM favored the formation of iodinated THMs (I-THMs) during chloramination using preformed chloramines and chlorination-chloramination processes. Increasing prechlorination time can reduce the I-THM concentrations because of the conversion of iodide to iodate, but this increased the formation of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. In an analogous way, iodine substitution factor (ISF) values of I-THMs formed in chloramination decreased as SUVA values of DOM increased. Compared to chlorination, the formation of noniodinated DBPs is low in chloramination.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Brometos , Desinfecção , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Halogenação , Iodetos , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 161-172, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725068

RESUMO

A survey was conducted at eight U.S. drinking water plants, that spanned a wide range of water qualities and treatment/disinfection practices. Plants that treated heavily-wastewater-impacted source waters had lower trihalomethane to dihaloacetonitrile ratios due to the presence of more organic nitrogen and HAN precursors. As the bromide to total organic carbon ratio increased, there was more bromine incorporation into DBPs. This has been shown in other studies for THMs and selected emerging DBPs (HANs), whereas this study examined bromine incorporation for a wider group of emerging DBPs (haloacetaldehydes, halonitromethanes). Moreover, bromine incorporation into the emerging DBPs was, in general, similar to that of the THMs. Epidemiology studies that show an association between adverse health effects and brominated THMs may be due to the formation of brominated emerging DBPs of heath concern. Plants with higher free chlorine contact times before ammonia addition to form chloramines had less iodinated DBP formation in chloraminated distribution systems, where there was more oxidation of the iodide to iodate (a sink for the iodide) by the chlorine. This has been shown in many bench-scale studies (primarily for iodinated THMs), but seldom in full-scale studies (where this study also showed the impact on total organic iodine. Collectively, the THMs, haloacetic acids, and emerging DBPs accounted for a significant portion of the TOCl, TOBr, and TOI; however, ∼50% of the TOCl and TOBr is still unknown. The correlation of the sum of detected DBPs with the TOCl and TOBr suggests that they can be used as reliable surrogates.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Bromo , Cloro , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodetos , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 209-221, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725072

RESUMO

Water disinfection is an essential process that provides safe water by inactivating pathogens that cause waterborne diseases. However, disinfectants react with organic matter naturally present in water, leading to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Multi-analyte methods based on mass spectrometry (MS) are preferred to quantify multiple DBP classes at once however, most require extensive sample pre-treatment and significant resources. In this study, two analytical methods were developed for the quantification of 32 regulated and unregulated DBPs. A purge and trap (P&T) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was optimized that automated sample pre-treatment and analyzed volatile and semi-volatile compounds, including trihalomethanes (THMs), iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKTs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs). LOQs were between 0.02-0.4 µg/L for most DBPs except for 8 analytes that were in the low µg/L range. A second method with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of 10 haloacetic acids (HAAs) with a simple clean-up and direct injection. The LC-MS/MS direct injection method has the lowest detection limits reported (0.2-0.5 µg/L). Both methods have a simple sample pre-treatment, which make it possible for routine analysis. Hyperchlorination and uniform formation conditions (UFC) formation potential tests with chlorine were evaluated with water samples containing high and low TOC. Hyperchlorination formation potential test maximized THMs and HAAs while UFC maximized HANs. Ascorbic acid was found to be an appropriate quencher for both analytical methods. Disinfected drinking water from four water utilities in Alberta, Canada were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cromatografia Líquida , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Halogenação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 264-275, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725078

RESUMO

Halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are an unintended consequence of drinking water disinfection, and can have significant toxicity. XAD resins are commonly used to extract and enrich trace levels of DBPs for comprehensive, nontarget identification of DBPs and also for in vitro toxicity studies. However, XAD resin recoveries for complete classes of halogenated DBPs have not been evaluated, particularly for low, environmentally relevant levels (ng/L to low µg/L). Thus, it is not known whether levels of DBPs or the toxicity of drinking water might be underestimated. In this study, DAX-8/XAD-2 layered resins were evaluated, considering both adsorption and elution from the resins, for extracting 66 DBPs from water. Results demonstrate that among the 7 classes of DBPs investigated, trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodo-THMs, were the most efficiently adsorbed, with recovery of most THMs ranging from 50%-96%, followed by halonitromethanes (40%-90%). The adsorption ability of XAD resins for haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, and haloacetaldehydes was highly dependent on the individual species. The adsorption capacity of XAD resins for haloacetic acids was lower (5%-48%), even after adjusting to pH 1 before extraction. Recovery efficiency for most DBPs was comparable with their adsorption, as most were eluted effectively from XAD resins by ethyl acetate. DBP polarity and molecular weight were the two most important factors that determine their recovery. Recovery of trichloromethane, iodoacetic acid, chloro- and iodo-acetonitrile, and chloroacetamide were among the lowest, which could lead to underestimation of toxicity, particularly for iodoacetic acid and iodo-acetonitrile, which are highly toxic.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Acetonitrilas , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Iodoacetatos , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 276-284, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725079

RESUMO

Swimming pools adopt chlorination to ensure microbial safety. Giardia has attracted attention in swimming pool water because of its occurrence, pathogenicity, and chlorine resistance. To control Giardia concentrations in pool water and reduce the microbial risk, higher chlorine doses are required during disinfection. Unfortunately, this process produces carcinogenic disinfection byproducts that increase the risk of chemical exposure. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the comparative microbial vs. chemical exposure risks that stem from chlorination inactivation of Giardia in swimming pool water is an issue that demands attention. We simulated an indoor swimming pool disinfection scenario that followed common real-world disinfection practices. A quantitative microbial risk assessment coupled with a chemical exposure risk assessment was employed to compare the Giardia microbial exposure risk (MER) and the trihalomethane chemical exposure risk (CER) to humans. The results demonstrated a 22% decrease in MER- and CER-induced health exposure risk, from 8.45E-5 at 8:00 to 6.60E-5 at 19:00. Both the MER and CER decreased gradually, dropping to 3.26E-5 and 3.35E-5 at 19:00, respectively. However, the CER exceeded the MER after 18:30 and became the dominant factor affecting the total exposure risk. Past the 18 hr mark, the contribution of trihalomethane CER far exceeded the risk aversion from microbial inactivation, leading to a net increase in total exposure risk despite the declining MER. Swimmers may consider swimming after 19:00, when the total exposure risk is the lowest. Lowering water temperature and/or pH were identified as the most sensitive factors to minimize the overall health exposure risk.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cloretos , Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção/métodos , Giardia , Halogênios , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 285-294, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725081

RESUMO

In this study, the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) was systematically evaluated and compared for three treatment processes - (i) chlorination, (ii) monochloramine, and (iii) dichloramination - under different pH conditions. The results demonstrated that I-THM formation decreased in the order of monochloramination > dichloramination > chlorination in acidic and neutral pH. However, the generation of I-THMs increased in the dichloramination < chlorination < monochloramination order in alkaline condition. Specifically, the formation of I-THMs increased as pH increased from 5 to 9 during chlorination and monochloramination processes, while the maximum I-THM formation occurred at pH 7 during dichloramination. The discrepancy could be mainly related to the stability of the three chlor (am) ine disinfectants at different pH conditions. Moreover, in order to gain a thorough insight into the mechanisms of I-THM formation during dichloramination, further investigation was conducted on the influencing factors of DOC concentration and Br-/I- molar ratio. I-THM formation exhibited an increasing and then decreasing trend as the concentration of DOC increased from 1 to 7 mg-C/L, while the yield of I-THMs increased with increasing Br-/I- molar ratio from 5:0 to 5:10. During the three processes mentioned above, similar I-THM formation results were also obtained in real water, which indicates that the excessive generation of I-THMs should be paid special attention during the disinfection of iodide-containing water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Iodetos , Trialometanos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 295-304, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725082

RESUMO

In the race to deliver clean water to communities through potable water reuse, disinfection and water quality assessment are and will continue to be fundamental factors. There are over 700 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water; evaluating each compound is practically impossible and very time consuming. A bioanalytical approach could be an answer to this challenge. In this work, the response of four major classes of DBPs toward mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and cytoplasmic adenosine triphosphate (C-ATP) was investigated with human carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Within 90 min of cell exposure, only the haloacetic acid (HAA) mixture caused a cytotoxic response as measured by C-ATP. All four groups (haloacetonitriles (HANs), trihalomethanes (THMs), nitrosamines (NOAs), and HAAs) responded well to ΔΨm, R2 > 0.70. Based on the half-maximum concentration that evoked a 50% response in ΔΨm, the response gradient was HANs >> HAAs ∼ THM > NOAs. The inhibition of the ΔΨm by HANs is driven by dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), while dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) did not cause a significant change in the ΔΨm at less than 2000 µM. A mixture of HANs exhibited an antagonistic behavior on the ΔΨm compared to individual compounds. If water samples are concentrated to increase HAN concentrations, especially DBAN, then ΔΨm could be used as a biomonitoring tool for DBP toxicity.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Nitrosaminas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Cloro , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 117: 315-325, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725085

RESUMO

Many drinking water treatment plants in the U.S. have switched from chlorination to chloramination to lower levels of regulated trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water and meet the current regulations. However, chloramination can also produce other highly toxic/carcinogenic, unregulated DBPs: iodo-acids, iodo-THMs, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In practice, chloramines are generated by the addition of chlorine with ammonia, and plants use varying amounts of free chlorine contact time prior to ammonia addition to effectively kill pathogens and meet DBP regulations. However, iodo-DBPs and nitrosamines are generally not considered in this balancing of free chlorine contact time. The goal of our work was to determine whether an optimal free chlorine contact time could be established in which iodo-DBPs and NDMA could be minimized, while keeping regulated THMs and HAAs below their regulatory limits. The effect of free chlorine contact time was evaluated for the formation of six iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), six iodo-acids, and NDMA during the chloramination of drinking water. Ten different free chlorine contact times were examined for two source waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide/iodide. For the low DOC water at pH 7 and 8, an optimized free chlorine contact time of up to 1 h could control regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as iodo-DBPs and NDMA. For the high DOC water, a free chlorine contact time of 5 min could control iodo-DBPs and NDMA at both pHs, but the regulated DBPs could exceed the regulations at pH 7.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Iodo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Amônia , Cloro , Dimetilnitrosamina , Desinfecção , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 839: 156228, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643141

RESUMO

AC-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron composites (nZVI/AC) exhibit significant environmental implications for trihalomethanes (THMs)-contaminated water remediation. To improve the adsorption and degradation capability of AC, herein, a composite (nZVI/Ag@AC-RGO) consisting of AC, reduced graphene oxide (RGO), nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), and silver (Ag) was synthesized and characterized using several techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The analysis of textural and morphological structures showed that a tightly-attached RGO film, amorphous iron, and weak crystal silver nanoparticles with a size of 20-30 nm were evenly immobilized on the support. Specific surface area increased by 19.12% after supporting RGO, while it decreased after supporting nZVI and Ag due to the partial blockage of micropores. The Fe surface was concurrently coated by iron oxides (Fe2O3, FeOOH) and Ag. THMs were eliminated through multilayer reaction processes. The values of the adsorption constant (KF) of chloroform (CHCl3), dichlorobromoethane (CHBrCl2), dibromochloroethane (CHBr2Cl), and tribromomethane (CHBr3) adsorbed by nZVI/Ag@AC-RGO increased by 34.4, 33.7, 81.6, and 67.3%, respectively, compared to pristine AC. THMs with more Br atoms exhibited better removal efficiency and adsorption capacity, along with a higher oxidation degree of the Fe surface. CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl mainly decomposed into chloromethane (CH3Cl) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and CHBr3 and CHCl3 primarily degraded into dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and CH2Cl2, respectively, along with generating Cl- and Br-. Conclusively, THMs-contaminated water could be remediated by coupling AC pre-enrichment and the reactivity of nZVI/Ag.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química , Grafite , Ferro/química , Prata , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
11.
J Water Health ; 20(6): 946-961, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768969

RESUMO

In this study, we report the formation and cancer risk estimation of trihalomethanes (THMs) emanating from 'ex-situ' chlorination of shallow hand-dug well water obtained from a peri-urban area of Mufulira District, Zambia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential cancer risks for people in this area where chlorine water disinfection at the household level is commonly practiced. Water samples from 13 randomly selected hand-dug wells (4-8 m deep) were collected and analyzed for pH, turbidity, and dissolved organic carbon before chlorination. Then another set of water samples from the same 13 wells was chlorinated using the methods commonly practiced in this area, consistent with WHO recommended doses. The chlorination degradation products, THMs, trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and tribromomethane, were determined at three different times of 60, 180, and 300 min after chlorination, while residual chlorine was determined immediately after chlorination and at 60 and 1,440 min after chlorination. THMs were determined using gas chromatography (GC), while residual chlorine was determined colorimetrically. Then cancer risk estimation from ingestion, inhalation, and dermal routes was carried out. All water samples from the 13 wells showed elevated amounts of THMs, which also increased with increasing contact time. For instance, the concentrations of THMs at 60 min after chlorination ranged from 24.3 ± 2.0 to 61.3 ± 1.0 µg/L, while at 180 and 300 min, ranged between 85.6 ± 4.3-146.9 ± 2.5 µg/L and 188.1 ± 7.1-250.1 ± 7.1 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that tribromomethane was not detected at all in all samples, while CHCl2Br and CHClBr2 were only detected at 180 and 300 min post chlorination. The lifetime cancer risk estimation results showed negligible risk at 60 min post chlorination. However, at 180 and 300 min post chlorination, the results were far above negligible, but within the regulatory US EPA limits. The overall risk, however, could not be ignored, given a multiplicity of exposure to various other contaminants, raising concerns over additivity and synergistic interactive effects, particularly for non-cancer hazard indices.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(25): 5845-5853, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35727076

RESUMO

The Coulomb explosion of tribromomethane (bromoform, CHBr3) induced by 28 fs near-infrared laser pulses is investigated by three-dimensional coincidence ion momentum imaging. We focus on the fragmentation into three, four, and five ionic fragments measured in coincidence and present different ways of visualizing the three-dimensional momentum correlations. We show that the experimentally observed momentum correlations for 4- and 5-fold coincidences are well reproduced by classical Coulomb explosion simulations and contain information about the structure of the parent molecule that could be used to differentiate structural isomers formed, for example, in a pump-probe experiment. Our results thus provide a clear path toward visualizing structural dynamics in polyatomic molecules by strong-field-induced Coulomb explosion imaging.


Assuntos
Lasers , Trialometanos , Íons
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1673: 463068, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500387

RESUMO

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are detrimental to public health owing to their carcinogenicity and mutagenesis. Fast and reliable determination of DBPs is essential for ascertaining their formation, characteristics, and occurrence. This study reported an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method for quantifying typical nitrogenous-DBPs, including haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane, and trihalomethanes (THMs). The analysis was further optimized by selecting SPME fiber coatings, extraction/desorption time and temperature, and salt addition. The optimized method examined the occurrence and stability of the selected DBPs in aqueous samples under different preservation conditions and showed good sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.010-0.320 µg/L) and precision. Most THMs and HANs with high recovery were preserved in ultrapure water under dark and low-temperature conditions. However, real samples exhibited greater analytical biases due to comprehensive effects of photochemistry, biochemistry, and physiochemistry. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that tested samples should be preserved in a frozen state and analyzed within three days.


Assuntos
Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Desinfecção/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Water Res ; 220: 118630, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35609430

RESUMO

Copper water pipelines are widely used in water distribution systems, but the effects of solid copper corrosion products (CCPs) including CuO, Cu2O and Cu2(OH)2CO3 on the generation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during chloramination remain unknown. This study found that the formation of I-THMs during chloramination of humic acid (HA) was inhibited by the presence of CuO and Cu2O, but promoted with the addition of Cu2(OH)2CO3. The negative effect of CuO and Cu2O is mainly exerted by promoting the decay of both NH2Cl and HOI. Although Cu2(OH)2CO3 also accelerated the decomposition of NH2Cl and HOI, it was found that the complexes formed between Cu2(OH)2CO3 and HA facilitated, through carboxyl functional groups, the reaction between HA and HOI, leading to an enhancement of I-THM generation during chloramination, which was further confirmed by model compound experiments. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the effects of solid CCPs on I-THM generation during chloramination were solid CCP- and HA-concentration dependent, but almost unaffected by different initial I- and Br- concentrations. This study provides new insights into the health risks caused by the corrosion of copper water pipelines, especially in areas intruded by sea water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cobre , Corrosão , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos , Água
16.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 2): 135147, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636602

RESUMO

Despite operating complexity and high energy costs associated with its operation and maintenance, dissolved air flotation (DAF) is widely used in drinking water treatment processes. Recently, the focus has shifted to designing and developing DAF with high surface loading rates. This research compares the performance of pilot-scale high-rate DAF and low-energy high-rate flash-pressurized flotation (FPF) based on the removal behavior of natural organic matter, different molecular weight size fractions, and the formation potential of disinfection by-products. For a surface-loading rate of 30 m/h, the residual dissolved organic matter (DOC) concentrations in treated samples from high-rate DAF and FPF were 1.35 ± 0.02 (30.25 ± 0.15% removal) mg/L and 1.37 ± 0.03 (29.12 ± 1.72% removal) mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the removal of high-molecular-weight fractions, i.e., biopolymers and humic substances, showed similar removal performance for both treatment processes but not for building blocks. The removal rates were 27.10% and 6.64% for high-rate DAF and FPF, respectively. The formation potential of trihalomethanes/DOC for high-rate DAF with reaction times of 1, 3, 6, and 9 days 14.12 ± 0.18, 17.84 ± 0.22, 23.04 ± 0.29, and 29.73 ± 0.37 µg/mg C, respectively, and 16.83 ± 0.34, 22.69 ± 0.46, 27.08 ± 0.55, and 28.54 ± 0.58 for high-rate FPF. In the case of haloacetonitriles/dissolved organic nitrogen-humic substances and chloral hydrate/DOC, there were no significant differences. Thus, low-energy high-rate FPF with a reduction of energy of 55% provides an alternative to high-rate DAF.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Tecnologia , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Chemosphere ; 302: 134892, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537624

RESUMO

As an emerging persistent pollutant, microplastics (MPs) have been detected in the drinking water system and its potential risk in the presence of disinfectants has received little attention. This work aimed to investigate the changes in MPs properties and the organic matter leaching behavior of MPs during chlorination. Physical and chemical changes of the chlorinated MPs were detectable by scanning electron microscope, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polystyrene (PS) was less resistant to chlorination than polyethylene (PE), indicated by changes in Raman peaks and O/C ratio of the XPS spectrum. Organic matter leaching behavior of MPs was explored by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) determination and disinfection byproducts formation potential measurement. The results demonstrated the stimulating effect of chlorination on the organic matters leaching from MPs, with the total leached DOC accounting for ∼0.3‰-0.5‰ of the MPs mass. The leached organic matters exhibited an appreciable potential to form trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs). The formation potential of THMs and HANs were 54.43-185.08 µg/mg C and 3.65-11.83 µg/mg C, respectively. Compared to PE, organic matter leaching behavior during chlorination was more obvious for PS. This study provides insights into the fate of chlorinated microplastics and the possible risk of organic matters leached from MPs to form disinfection byproducts during chlorination.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Se Pu ; 40(6): 584-589, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35616204

RESUMO

Ship ballast water can control the roll, trim, and draft of the ship, and thus ensuring the balance and stability of the ship in the course of sailing, and playing a vital role in the safe navigation of ships. The annual discharge of ship ballast water is very large in China. About three to five billion cubic meters of ship ballast water is discharged into offshore or inland waters every year. This water contains plankton, pathogens, and their larvae or spores. If not be handled appropriately, this will have a serious impact on the ecological environment of the discharge waters. Ballast water is usually treated by electrolysis before being discharged. Sodium hypochlorite can be generated, which can kill microorganisms; however, the by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) are cytotoxic and biotoxic. Studies have shown that THMs may cause fetal growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, or death. The concentration of THMs in drinking water is closely related to the risk of bladder cancer death. Hence, it is important to establish a method for the determination of THMs in ship ballast water. The four kinds of THMs are chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, and tribromomethane. At present, ship ballast water is mostly analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using an electron capture detector (ECD) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Given the low boiling point of THMs, headspace injection and purge-and-trap can be used. Gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS), was adopted. NCI is a soft ionization technique that shows special response to compounds bearing electronegative elements or groups. THMs contain electronegative chlorine atoms and bromine atoms. Therefore, NCI is a good choice for their analysis. The samples were processed by the headspace injection technique. The NaCl content in 10 mL sample was optimized in headspace injection. The results showed that 3.0 g NaCl was the most suitable dosage. The analytes were separated on a DB-5MS UI capillary-column (30 m×0.25 mm×1.0 µm). The target compounds were quantified by using the external standard method in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The four THMs were not only well separated but also showed a high response at 0.2 µg/L. The four THMs showed good linear relationships in the range of 0.2-50 µg/L, with correlation coefficients≥0.995. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) were 0.1-0.2 µg/L, and the average recoveries of the four THMs were 90.3%-106.8% at the three spike levels of 0.2, 0.5, and 2.0 µg/L. The relative standard deviations were 1.4%-6.2%. The LOQs of the THMs in the GB/T 5750.8-2006 Standard Test Method of Drinking Water Organic Matter Index are 0.3-6.0 µg/L. It can be seen that the LOQs of the THMs are greatly reduced in this study. The proposed method is accurate, stable, and reliable, and it can be used for monitoring the four THMs in ship ballast water. The method was applied for the detection of 36 ship ballast water samples. In all cases, the detection rates of tribromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, dichlorobromomethane, and chloroform were 83.3%, 69.4%, 22.2%, and 19.4%, respectively. The detection values of tribromomethane, chlorodibromomethane, dichlorobromomethane, and chloroform were 34.25-221.5 µg/L, 3.52-41.87 µg/L, 1.52-8.56 µg/L, and 0.02-5.46 µg/L, respectively. Based on the analysis of several ship ballast water samples (electrolytic water), it was concluded that the greater the number of bromine atoms in the THMs, the higher are the detection rate and detection value in ship ballast water. Compared to chloroform, tribromomethane is more harmful to living beings. China has acceded to the International Convention on Ship Ballast Water and Sediment Control and Management. There is an urgent need to establish analysis methods with high sensitivity, good stability, and high accuracy in addition to determining standards and regulations for ship ballast water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Navios , Bromo/análise , Clorofórmio/análise , Água Potável/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade
19.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115099, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500481

RESUMO

The selective adsorption mechanisms involved in the competitive adsorption of five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) onto dithiolglycol and (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxy functionalized HKUST-1 (HK-SH and HK-MPTS, respectively) were investigated by single- and mixed-batch adsorption. HK-SH had the highest adsorption rates and capacities for the five I-THMs, followed by HK-MPTS and pristine HKUST-1, even though the porosity and surface area decreased after modification. The primary adsorptive mechanism of HK-SH consists of ion-dipole interactions of I-THMs with the protonated hydroxyl and thiol groups at the metal (Cu) node, which is supported by Lewis acid-base reactions via Cu-Cu complex and π-π interactions. In a mixed solute, bromodiiodomethane, which was the most hydrophobic and had the smallest molecular size, exhibited the most competitive adsorption on HK-SH. In contrast, the selective adsorption of I-THMs onto HK-MPTS was affected by their log Kow values, causing hydrophobic partitioning onto the alkyl chain of the mercaptopropyl group. Iodinated haloforms tend to achieve a higher adsorption rate and capacity than chlorinated and brominated haloforms via hydrophobic partitioning. Moreover, dithiolglycol grafted onto HK-SH can better promote the excellent selective adsorption performance of iodoacetamide than dichloroiodomethane and iodoacetic acid in both single- and mixed-solute solutions due to hydrogen bonding via the -NH2 group of diiodoacetamide.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Soluções , Compostos de Sulfidrila , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(5): 57006, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By-products are formed when disinfectants react with organic matter in source water. The most common class of disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes (THMs), have been linked to bladder cancer. Several studies have shown exposure-response associations with THMs in drinking water and bladder cancer risk. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated gene-environment interactions for total THMs (TTHMs) with known bladder cancer susceptibility variants. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the combined effect on bladder cancer risk contributed by TTHMs, bladder cancer susceptibility variants identified through genome-wide association studies, and variants in several candidate genes. METHODS: We analyzed data from two large case-control studies-the New England Bladder Cancer Study (n/n=989 cases/1,162 controls), a population-based study, and the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study (n/n=706 cases/772 controls), a hospital-based study. Because of differences in exposure distributions and metrics, we estimated effects of THMs and genetic variants within each study separately using adjusted logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) with and without interaction terms, and then combined the results using meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of the 16 loci showing strong evidence of association with bladder cancer, rs907611 at 11p15.5 [leukocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1 region)] showed the strongest associations in the highest exposure category in each study, with evidence of interaction in both studies and in meta-analysis. In the highest exposure category, we observed OR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.34, p-trend=0.005) for those with the rs907611-GG genotype and p-interaction=0.02. No other genetic variants tested showed consistent evidence of interaction. DISCUSSION: We found novel suggestive evidence for a multiplicative interaction between a putative bladder carcinogen, TTHMs, and genotypes of rs907611. Given the ubiquitous exposure to THMs, further work is needed to replicate and extend this finding and to understand potential molecular mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9895.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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