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1.
Water Res ; 176: 115743, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272321

RESUMO

In order to understand and minimize the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), it is important to investigate how dissolved organic matter (DOM) contributes to their generation. In the present study, we analysed the DOM profile of water samples from the Barcelona catchment area by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and we studied the changes after chlorination. Chlorination produced significant changes in the DOM, decreased the average m/z and Kendrick mass defect (KMD) of their spectra and decreased the number and abundance of lignin-like features. The Van Krevelen (VK) fingerprint exhibited several noticeable changes, including the appearance of highly oxidized peaks in the tannin-like region (average O/C, 0.78 ± 0.08), the appearance of features with low H/C and the disappearance of more than half of the lipids-like features. Up to 657 halogenated peaks were generated during sample chlorination, most of which in the condensed hydrocarbons-like and the lignin-like region of the VK diagram. Around 200 features were found to be strongly correlated (ρ ≥ 0.795) to the formation potential of trihalomethanes (THMs) and 5 were correlated with the formation potential of haloacetonitrile (HANs). They all were plotted in the lignin fraction of the VK diagram, but both groups of features exhibited different nitrogen content: those features related to HANs FP had at least one nitrogen atoms in their structures, whilst those related to THMs did not.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Espectrometria de Massas , Trialometanos
2.
Water Res ; 175: 115678, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199186

RESUMO

Although there are numerous studies concerning the occurrence of microplastics (MP) in the environment and its impact on the ecosystem, dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from MP (MP-DOM) has received little attention, and its characteristics have been rarely examined. It is presumed that the DOM leaching from plastics could be accelerated when plastics lost their protective additives during their transport and weathering processes in aquatic systems. In this study, two additive-free MPs (or micro-sized plastic polymers) were leached in artificial freshwater under UV irradiation and dark conditions. The leached DOM was characterized by typical analyses for naturally occurring DOM (N-DOM) such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The potential to generate trihalomethanes (THMs), a well-known environmental impact of N-DOM, was also explored for the DOM with plastic origins for the first time. The leaching results demonstrated that UV irradiation promoted the leaching of DOM from the plastic polymers with an amount corresponding to ∼3% of the total mass of the polymers. The leached amounts were much greater than those previously reported using commercial plastics which presumably contained protective additives. The SEC results revealed that, different from typical aquatic N-DOM, MP-DOM is mostly composed of low molecular weight fractions <350 Da. For the two polymer types (polyethylene and polypropylene), the MP-DOM exhibited a high potential to form THMs upon chlorination, which was comparable to those of typical aquatic N-DOM. This study highlighted an overlooked contribution of UV irradiation to the DOM leaching from additive-free plastics and the potential risk of MP-DOM to produce toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlorination.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Polímeros , Trialometanos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110247, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004943

RESUMO

2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), a newly identified algal toxins in water, pose a great threat to human health. DAB may react with chlorine or chloramine to produce CX3R-type disinfection by-products (DBPs) during water treatment processes. This study mainly investigated the formation and speciation of DBPs from chlor(am)ination of DAB. The results revealed that haloacetic acids (HAAs), trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) were the main kinds of CX3R-type DBPs generated from DAB during chlor(am)ination, of which dichloroacetic acid yielded the highest. The formation and total toxicity of four CX3R-type DBPs from DAB during chloramination was significantly lower than that during chlorination at each Cl2:N molar ratio. However, more formation of Br-THMs and I-THMs were observed during chloramination in the presence of Br-/I-. Futhermore, the effects of chlor(am)ine dosage, solution pH, reaction time, and the concentration of Br- and I- on the formation and speciation of CX3R-type DBPs were also evaluated during chlor(am)ination. The plausible formation pathways of CX3R-type DBPs from DAB were proposed and verified by theoretical calculation. The quantum chemistry calculations indicate that 1N in DAB and 8N in 2,4-diaminochlorobutyric acid (C4H9O2N2Cl) were more likely to be attacked by electrophiles, supporting the proposed pathway schemes.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/química , Cloraminas/química , Cloro/química , Desinfetantes/química , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Desinfecção/métodos , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
4.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125940, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006828

RESUMO

This study examined the potential of six aliphatic and aromatic amides, commonly found in natural waters or used as chemical aids in water treatment, to act as organic precursors for nine haloacetamides (HAcAms), five haloacetonitriles (HANs), regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) upon chlorination and chloramination. The impact of key experimental conditions, representative of drinking water, including pH (7 & 8), retention time (4 & 24 h) and bromide levels (0 & 100 µg/L), on the generation of the target DBPs was investigated. The highest aggregate DBP yields upon chlor(am)ination were reported for the aromatic and hydrophobic hydroxybenzamide; 2.7% ± 0.1% M/M (chlorination) and 1.7% M/M (chloramination). Increased reactivity was observed in aliphatic and hydrophilic compounds, acrylamide (2.5 ± 0.2% M/M) and acetamide (1.3 ± 0.2% M/M), in chlorination and chloramination, respectively. The addition of bromide increased average DBP yields by 50-70%. Relative to chlorination, the application of chloramines reduced DBP formation by 66.5% (without Br-) and by 46.4% (with Br-). However, bromine incorporation in HAAs and HAcAms was enhanced following chloramination, of concern due to the higher toxicological potency of brominated compounds.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetamidas , Amidas , Brometos/química , Bromo , Cloraminas/química , Cloro/química , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos/química , Purificação da Água
5.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125999, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006834

RESUMO

Control of risks caused by disinfection by-products (DBPs) requires pre-knowledge of their levels in drinking water. In this study, a radial basis function (RBF) artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed to predict the concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAs, one dominant class of DBPs) in actual distribution systems. To train and verify the RBF ANN, a total of 64 samples taken from a typical region (Jinhua region) in China were characterized in terms of water characteristics (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254), NO2--N level, NH4+-N level, Br- and pH), temperature and the prevalent HAAs concentrations. Compared with multiple linear/log linear regression (MLR) models, predictions done by RBF ANNs showed rather higher regression coefficients and accuracies, indicating the high capability of RBF ANNs to depict complicated and non-linear relationships between HAAs formation and various factors. Meanwhile, it was found that, predictions of HAAs formation done by RBF ANNs were efficient and allowed to further improve the prediction accuracy. This is the first study to systematically explore feasibility of RBF ANNs in prediction of DBPs. Accurate predictions by RBF ANNs provided great potential application of DBPs monitoring in actual distribution system.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção , Trialometanos/análise , Purificação da Água
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110286, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036101

RESUMO

Trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water are associated with many chemical parameters in water. However, the available evidence on the relationship between physical parameters of the water distribution system (WDS) and THMs is still scarce; therefore, this study aimed to compare the THMs concentration in the old and new WDS in Yazd, Iran. Moreover, we investigated the seasonal trend and health risk assessment of exposure to THMs through ingestion, dermal, and inhalation pathways. Mann-Whitney test was applied to compare THMs between old and new WDS as well as fall season and winter season. The order of THM concentrations was: chloroform > BDCM > DBCM > bromoform. The maximum levels of THMs in the fall and winter were 31 and 39 ppb, respectively, which were less than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water, i.e., <200 ppb. There was a significant difference between the concentration of BDCM in autumn and winter (P-value = 0.01). There was a marginally significant difference between THM concentration in the autumn and winter (P-value 0.09). The total concentration of THMs and chloroform in the old WDS were significantly higher than the new WDS. The mean values of lifetime cancer risks (LTCR) for oral, dermal, and inhalation exposure pathways to THMs were in the acceptable and low-risk levels. The inhalation exposure pathway had the highest LTCR from among the three mentioned exposure pathways. The hazard index was found to be < 1 through oral and dermal pathways. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis revealed that the ingestion rate for oral exposure, the exposure time for dermal and exposure duration for the inhalation exposure pathway had the highest impact on chronic daily intake (CDI). Our finding confirmed that THM concentration in tap water was associated with the lifespan of WDS and this finding could be useful for urban planners and decision-makers.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Derme , Exposição Dietética , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Water Res ; 174: 115613, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092546

RESUMO

Operational and financial constraints challenge effective removal of natural organic matter (NOM), and specifically disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors, at remote and/or small sites. Granular activated carbon (GAC) is a widely used treatment option for such locations, due to its relatively low maintenance and process operational simplicity. However, its efficacy is highly dependent on the media capacity for the organic matter, which in turn depends on the media characteristics. The influence of GAC media properties on NOM/DBP precursor removal has been studied using a range of established and emerging media using both batch adsorption tests and rapid small-scale column tests. DBP formation propensity (DBPFP) was measured with reference to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). All GAC media showed no selectivity for specific removal of precursors of regulated DBPs; DBP formation was a simple function of residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels. UV254 was found to be a good surrogate measurement of DBPFP for an untreated water source having a high DOC. Due to the much-reduced concentration of DBP precursors, the correlation was significantly poorer for the coagulation/flocculation-pretreateed water source. Breakthrough curves generated from the microcolumn trials revealed DOC removal and consequent DBP reduction to correlate reasonably well with the prevalence pores in the 5-10 nm range. A 3-6 fold increase in capacity was recorded for a 0.005-0.045 cm3/g change in 5-10 nm-sized pore volume density. No corresponding correlation was evident with other media pore size ranges.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Desinfecção , Trialometanos
8.
Water Res ; 172: 115432, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004911

RESUMO

Biological activated carbon (BAC) is widely used as a polishing step at full-scale drinking water plants to remove taste and odor compounds and assimilable organic carbon. BAC, especially with pre-ozonation, has been previously studied to control regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) and DBP precursors. However, most previous studies only include regulated or a limited number of unregulated DBPs. This study explored two full-scale drinking water plants that use pre-chloramination followed by BAC and chloramine as the final disinfectant. While chloramine generally produces lower concentrations of regulated DBPs, it may form increased levels of unregulated nitrogenous and iodinated DBPs. We evaluated 71 DBPs from ten DBP classes including haloacetonitriles, haloacetamides, halonitromethanes, haloacetaldehydes, haloketones, iodinated acetic acids, iodinated trihalomethanes, nitrosamines, trihalomethanes, and haloacetic acids, along with speciated total organic halogen (total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine) across six different BAC filters of increasing age. Most preformed DBPs were well removed by BAC with different ages (i.e., operation times). However, some preformed DBPs were poorly removed or increased following treatment with BAC, including chloroacetaldehyde, dichloronitromethane, bromodichloronitromethane, N-nitrosodimethylamine, dibromochloromethane, tribromomethane, dibromochloroacetic acid, and tribromoacetic acid. Some compounds, including dibromoacetaldehyde, bromochloroacetamide, and dibromoacetamide, were formed only after treatment with BAC. Total organic halogen removal was variable in both plants and increases in TOCl or TOI were observable on one occasion at each plant. While calculated genotoxicity decreased in all filters, decreases in overall DBP formation did not correlate with decreases in calculated cytotoxicity. In three of the six filters, calculated toxicity increased by 4-27%. These results highlight that DBP concentration alone may not always provide an adequate basis for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 89: 90-101, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892405

RESUMO

This study investigated the speciation of halogen-specific total organic halogen and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) upon chlorination of natural organic matter (NOM) in the presence of iopamidol and bromide (Br-). Experiments were conducted with low bromide source waters with different NOM characteristics from Northeast Ohio, USA and varied spiked levels of bromide (2-30 µmol/L) and iopamidol (1-5 µmol/L). Iopamidol was found to be a direct precursor to trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid formation, and in the presence of Br- favored brominated analogs. The concentration and speciation of DBPs formed were impacted by iopamidol and bromide concentrations, as well as the presence of NOM. As iopamidol increased the concentration of iodinated DBPs (iodo-DBPs) and THMs increased. However, as Br- concentrations increased, the concentrations of non-brominated iodo- and chloro-DBPs decreased while brominated-DBPs increased. Regardless of the concentration of either iopamidol or bromide, bromochloroiodomethane (CHBrClI) was the most predominant iodo-DBP formed except at the lowest bromide concentration studied. At relevant concentrations of iopamidol (1 µmol/L) and bromide (2 µmol/L), significant quantities of highly toxic iodinated and brominated DBPs were formed. However, the rapid oxidation and incorporation of bromide appear to inhibit iodo-DBP formation under conditions relevant to drinking water treatment.


Assuntos
Brometos/análise , Desinfetantes , Iopamidol/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Halogênios , Trialometanos
10.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125824, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927228

RESUMO

Ballast Water Managements Systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use Active Substances (AS) to inactivate organisms. This paper provides new insights in the global issue of noxious Disinfection By-Products (DBP) produced with primarily oxidant-based BWMS, and the risk assessment for workers, including port State control officers, while performing tasks on a vessel that involve exposure to treated ballast water. The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection - Ballast Water Working Group (GESAMP-BWWG) plays a role in the certification process of BWMS that make use of AS evaluating potential negative effects. All BWMS that passed GESAMP-BWWG Final Approval until mid 2019 were analyzed providing an overview of chemicals in the treated ballast water before and after neutralization. The ballast tank cleaning scenario, the sampling scenario, and the ballast tank inspection scenario all showed elevated human health risks using the Derived Minimal Effect Levels approach. The most critical exposure occurs in the ballast tank cleaning scenario through the inhalation of volatile DBP, such as tribromomethane. This substance may cause acute effects such as headache, dizziness and also has carcinogenic properties. The two risk reducing options available in the GESAMP-BWWG Tier 2 calculations were compared, one being mitigation measures such as protective gloves and coveralls, the other option is taking into account a time correction factor. The results showed that the trihalomethanes in air are most problematic, however, there is a possibility that the calculated values may be overestimated as generally worst case assumptions were used.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Navios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Humanos , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 143, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989324

RESUMO

Quenching agents (QAs) are widely used in order to prevent the additional formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the sample holding time. In addition, DBP levels are usually stabilized by adjusting the pH of water samples. Previous studies have mostly focused on the individual effects of QAs or of pH on the stability of DBPs in water samples. Considering that disinfectant quenching and pH adjustments are applied simultaneously during routine analyses, it is more appropriate to evaluate the stability of DBPs with all the chemicals (e.g., disinfectants, QAs, buffers) present in the water. This study investigated the synergistic effects of different QAs (ascorbic acid, ammonium chloride, or no quenching) and pH adjustment (3-9) strategies on the stability of different classes of DBPs (i.e., trihalomethanes (THMs), halogenated acetaldehydes (HALs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKs), and halonitromethane (HNM)). Sample preservation conditions that did not include a QA were shown to be inadequate for GC-ECD analysis, due to interference problems. Ammonium chloride was found to be effective for most DBPs. However, some HALs continued to form in the presence of chloramine, which is a by-product of dechlorination using ammonium chloride. Conversely, using ascorbic acid efficiently inactivated residual chlorine, providing a clean chromatographic baseline. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the use of ascorbic acid for quenching and sulfuric acid for acidifying (pH 3.5) samples. Considering the instability of some DBPs in water matrices over long periods (i.e., 14 days), samples should be processed as soon as possible after collection.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Halogenação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Trialometanos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 114, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940101

RESUMO

17ß-Estradiol (E2) is a natural estrogen produced by the feminine endocrine system. It is excreted mainly through urine and feces. Exposure to E2 may affect the reproductive system of both animals and humans, especially since the removal of E2 in conventional processes and technologies present in the wastewater treatment plants is not sufficient. Chlorine is one of the most studied and used oxidant worldwide. Although there are studies that demonstrate the endocrine disrupting compounds removal like E2, its reaction with organic matter can originate by-products, namely, trihalomethanes, which are known to have high toxic potential. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the removal of E2 (50 µg E2 L-1-maximum concentration) using peracetic acid (PAA), a seeming cleaner and innocuous alternative to chlorine. To this end, a series of jar tests were performed, using different peracetic acid concentrations (1, 5, 10, and 15 mg L-1) and contact times (10, 15, and 20 min). The results obtained showed that a peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg L-1 with a contact time of 20 min had a removal efficacy of approximately 100%. The second main goal of this study was to evaluate the ecotoxicological potential of the tested treatments on the zebrafish Danio rerio. Several oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated, namely glutathione S-transferase, lipid peroxidation, and catalase, besides vitellogenin. Both peracetic acid and E2 caused significant increases in the oxidative stress biomarkers, although this did not lead to increased lipid peroxidation levels. In addition, peracetic acid significantly decreased the estrogenic activity of E2, as indicated by decreased vitellogenin levels. Peracetic acid demonstrated to have great potential as an alternative disinfectant for chlorine treatments, and indications for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Ácido Peracético/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cloro , Desinfetantes , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estradiol/análise , Estrona , Humanos , Trialometanos , Vitelogeninas , Águas Residuárias
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135280, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896211

RESUMO

In this case study, high sensitivity simple methods for the analysis of trihalomethanes (THM4), iodinated-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromide, iodide and iodate have been developed. A one-step procedure for the analysis of haloacetic acids by head-space GC-MS provides good reproducibility and low limits of quantification (≤50 ng L-1). These methods were applied to characterize the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in a full scale drinking water treatment plant. In this treatment plant, the incorporation of bromine into THMs increases throughout the water treatment line, due to the formation of bromine reactive species favored by the decrease of competition between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide towards chlorine. A linear correlation has been observed between the bromine incorporation factor and the Br-/DOC mass ratio. The conversion of iodine to iodate by chlorination occurs in this water due to the relatively high bromide concentration. Moreover, a higher formation of iodate compared to iodide levels in the raw water is observed indicating a degradation of organic iodinated compounds. The formation of I-THMs was constant in terms of quantity and speciation between campaigns despite fluctuating concentrations of DOC and total iodine in the raw water. A preferential removal of DBPs formed by the intermediate chlorination in the order I-DBPs > Br-DBPs > Cl-DBPs occurs during the subsequent activated carbon filtration. The removal rates range from 25 to 36% for the regulated THM4, from 82 to 93% for the ∑I-THMs and 95% for haloacetic acids. The assessment of the relative toxicity shows that despite a much lower concentration of HAAs (<10% of the total mass of measured DBPs) compared to THMs, these compounds are responsible for 75% of the relative cytotoxicity of the treated water. Bromoacetic acid on its own accounts for more than 60% of the overall toxicity of the 17 compounds included in this study.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Água Potável , Halogenação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água
14.
Water Res ; 170: 115296, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760361

RESUMO

Increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events (i.e., floods and droughts) combined with higher temperatures can threaten surface water quality and downstream drinking water production. This study characterized the effects of extreme weather events on dissolved organic matter (DOM) washout from watershed soils and the corresponding contribution to disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors under simulated weather conditions. A laboratory simulation was performed to assess the effects of temperature, drought, rainfall intensity, sea level rise, and acid deposition on the amount of DOM released from soil samples. DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) were obtained to assess the effect of extreme weather events on DBP formation and drinking water quality. The results demonstrated that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbonaceous DBP levels increased with increasing temperature in a dry (drought) scenario. Regardless of the watershed from which a soil sample was obtained and the incubation temperature during rewetting or chlorination processes, the DOC and carbonaceous DBP levels also increased with increasing temperature. Brominated DBP formation was increased when bromide was present during the rewetting of soil, indicating the effect of sea level rise. When bromide was present during the chlorination of water for DBPFP tests, only the level of brominated DBPs increased. Acid deposition had various effects under different weather conditions. The results of heavy rainfall simulations suggested that water quality deteriorates at the beginning of an extreme rainfall event. Abundant DOM was washed out of soil, leading to a peak in the DBPFP level. The level of DOM in seepage water was less than that of the surface runoff water during rainfall. The situation was more severe when the rainfall came after a long drought and the drought-rewetting cycle effect occurred.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Trialometanos , Qualidade da Água
15.
Water Res ; 169: 115220, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677437

RESUMO

The effect of the UV-C/free chlorine (FC) process on the removal of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from real urban wastewater as well as the effect of UV-C radiation on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) compared to FC process alone was investigated. Unlike of FC process, UV-C/FC was really effective in the degradation of the target CECs (carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and imidacloprid) in real wastewater (87% degradation of total CECs within 60 min, QUVC = 1.33 kJ L-1), being CBZ the most refractory one (49.5%, after 60 min). The UV-C radiation significantly affected the formation of THMs. THMs concentration (mainly chloroform) was lower in UV-C/FC process after 30 min treatment (<1 µgL-1 = limit of quantification (LOQ)) than in FC process in dark (2.3 µgL-1). Noteworthy, while in FC treated wastewater chloroform concentration increased after treatment, UV-C/FC process resulted in a significant decrease (residual concentrations below the LOQ), even after 24 h and 48 h post-treatment incubation. The formation of radicals due to UV-C/FC process can reduce THMs compared to chlorination process, because part of FC reacts with UV-C radiation to form radicals and it is no longer available to form THMs. These results are encouraging in terms of possible use of UV-C/FC process as advanced treatment of urban wastewater even for possible effluent reuse.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos , Raios Ultravioleta , Águas Residuárias
16.
Water Res ; 169: 115100, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669900

RESUMO

Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids determined based on the quantum chemical (QC) simulations were compared in this study with the experimental data generated using the differential spectroscopy approach in chlorination and chloramination. The ratios of the slopes of the correlations between -DlnA350 values and individual DBPs concentrations (SNH2Cl/SHOCl) were observed to be linearly correlated with the ratios of the Gibbs free energies (ΔGNH2Cl/ΔGHOCl) of the corresponding reactions of chloramine and chlorine with acetaldehyde which was used as a model DBP precursor in QC simulations. Further QC examination of the kinetics of chlorination and chloramination of the model compound acetoacetic acid showed that the activation energy of reactions between monochloramine that directly participates in substitution reactions to form mono-, di and tri-halogenated intermediates are 2-3 times higher than those of HOCl formed via the hydrolysis monochloramine. This result confirms that the interactions of chloramine with NOM and ensuing DBP formation are primarily mediated by the free chlorine released as a result of the hydrolysis of monochloramine while direct halogenation of NOM by monochloramine is likely to provide a small contribution to DBP formation.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloraminas , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134521, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715483

RESUMO

Exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in municipal water mainly occurs through ingestion, inhalation during showering, house cleaning and dermal permeation. While showering, the air-phase DBPs [e.g., trihalomethanes (THMs)] can pose risk to humans through inhalation pathway. In assessing inhalation risk during showering, current approaches assume negligible initial concentrations of air-phase THMs in shower stalls, which may not be realistic in places with common shower stalls (e.g., gymnasiums). The time difference between successive showering events in these places is likely to be minimal, resulting in significant initial concentrations of THMs due to prior showering events. In this study, exposure to air-phase THMs during the successive showering events were predicted. In the 2nd showering event, averages of chronic daily intake (CDI), cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI) were 1.82, 1.83 and 1.85 times the CDI, CR and HI in the first event, respectively. In the 3rd event, these were 2.50, 2.54 and 2.58 times, respectively. The increasing trends of CDI, CR and HI were observed for up to the 9th event (5.06, 4.98 and 5.60 times, respectively). By widening the time-gap between the successive showering events, reducing showering duration and enhancing ventilation, human exposure and risk can be controlled.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene , Trialometanos/análise , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124939, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726604

RESUMO

Chloramination is a conventional and successful pre-disinfection approach to control biological fouling for reverse osmosis (RO) treatment in water reuse. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of using a new disinfectant-stabilized hypobromite-in controlling membrane fouling and the formation of a particular carcinogenic disinfection byproduct (DBP)-N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Our accelerated chemical exposure tests showed that the new disinfectant reduced the permeability of a polyamide RO membrane permeability from 6.7 to 4.1 L/m2hbar; however, its treatment impact was equivalent to that of chloramine. The disinfection efficacy of stabilized hypobromite was greater than that of chloramine when evaluated with intact bacterial counts, which suggests its potential for mitigating membrane biofouling. Additional pilot-scale tests using synthetic wastewater demonstrated that pre-disinfection with the use of stabilized hypobromite inhibits membrane fouling. Among 13 halogenated DBPs evaluated, the formation of bromoform by stabilized hypobromite was higher than that by chloramine at a high dose of 10 mg/L, thus suggesting the need for optimizing chemical doses for achieving sufficient biofouling mitigation. NDMA formation upon stabilized hypobromite treatment in two different types of actual treated wastewaters was found to be negligible and considerably lower than that by chloramine treatment. In addition, NDMA formation potential by stabilized hypobromite was 2-5 orders of magnitude lower than that by chloramine. Our findings suggest the potential of using stabilized hypobromite for controlling NDMA formation and biofouling, which are the keys to successful potable water reuse.


Assuntos
Dimetilnitrosamina/química , Desinfetantes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cloraminas , Dimetilnitrosamina/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Água Potável , Filtração , Halogenação , Trialometanos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124583, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425865

RESUMO

The presence of bromide (Br-) in water results in the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) after chlorination, which are much more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. Given that conventional water treatment processes (e.g., coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation) fail to remove Br- effectively, in this study, we systematically tested and compared the performance of different anion exchange resins, particularly two novel Br-selective resins, for the removal of Br-. The resins performance was evaluated under both typical and challenging background water conditions by varying the concentrations of anions and organic matter. The overall Br- removal results followed the trend of Purolite-Br ≥ MIEX-Br > IRA910 ≥ IRA900 > MIEX-Gold > MIEX-DOC. Further evaluation of Purolite-Br resin showed Br- removal efficiencies of 93.5 ±â€¯4.5% for the initial Br- concentration of 0.25 mg/L in the presence of competing anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, PO43-, and a mixture of all five), alkalinity and organic matter. In addition, experiments under challenging background water conditions confirmed the selectivity of the resins (i.e. Purolite-Br and MIEX-Br) in removing Br-, with SO42- and Cl- exhibiting the greatest influence upon the resin performance followed by NOM concentration, regardless of the NOM characteristic. After Br- removal, both the subsequent formation of brominated DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and haloacetonitriles), and the total organic halogens (TOX), decreased by ∼90% under the uniform formation conditions. Overall, Br-selective resins represent a promising alternative for the efficient control of Br-DBPs in water treatment plants.


Assuntos
Resinas de Troca de Ânions/química , Brometos/análise , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Floculação , Halogenação , Troca Iônica
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 726-734, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846301

RESUMO

Increases in source water bromide concentrations are challenging for drinking water utilities since bromide contributes to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that have negative human-health effects. The present work evaluates the role of coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-associated bromide loads on in-stream bromide concentrations in the Monongahela River Basin in the water year (WY) 1998 (during a nationwide study) and over a five-year period from WYs 2013 through 2017. Under mean flow conditions in the lower Monongahela River for the WYs of interest, the median-estimated wet FGD bromide discharges are modeled to represent a significant fraction (27-57%) of observed bromide concentrations with the range representing the change in load conditions across WYs. Seasonal effects are predicted due to changes in the dilution capacity of the river with elevated concentrations under lower flows in the third and fourth quarters (July through December). The effect of these bromide concentration contributions, which range from 6.8 to 23 µg/L under median load estimates and median flow conditions, on trihalomethane (THM) formation and associated risk were assessed. A simple model was applied to demonstrate an analytical approach for evaluating the power plant total THM (TTHM) and risk contributions. Utilizing this model, the power plant TTHM contribution was estimated to range from 7.6 to 27 µg/L with a median risk contribution of 0.0014.


Assuntos
Rios , Trialometanos , Brometos , Carvão Mineral , Humanos , Centrais Elétricas
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