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1.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(4): e4794, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944362

RESUMO

Just as natural saponins transform into aglycones, secondary glycosides and their derivatives using biotransformation technology, steroidal saponins may also undergo similar transformation after stir-frying. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the variations and the reasons for these variations in the contents of steroidal saponins in Fructus Tribuli (FT) during a stir-frying treatment. Stir-fried FT was processed in different time-temperature conditions. An UHPLC-MS/MS method was established and fully validated for quantitative analysis. In addition, the simulation processing products of tribuluside A, terrestroside B, terrestrosin K, terrestrosin D and 25R-tribulosin were determined by qualitative analysis using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. The established UHPLC-MS/MS method provides a rapid, flexible, and reliable method for the quality assessment of FT. The present study revealed that furostanol saponins with a C22-OH group could transform into corresponding furostanol saponins with a C-20-C-22 double bond (FSDB) via dehydroxylation. Additionally, FSDB could be successively converted into its secondary glycosides via a deglycosylation reaction. The transformation of spirostanol saponins into corresponding aglycones via deglycosylation led to a decrease in spirostanol saponins and an increase in aglycones. The results of this research provided scientific evidence of variation and structural transformation among steroidal saponins. These findings might be helpful for elucidating the processing mechanism of FT.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Frutas/química , Saponinas/análise , Esteroides/análise , Tribulus/química , Glicosídeos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/química , Esteroides/química
2.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1249-1259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary stones with oxalate composition can cause kidney failure. Recent findings evidenced that probiotics are effective in reducing oxalate absorption in these subjects based on their high colonic absorption levels at baseline. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the simultaneous use of oxalate-degrading bacteria, Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract in reducing urinary oxalate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-urolithiatic activity of Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract and pro-biotic by using ethylene glycol induced rat model. In this study, 4 strains of Lactobacillus and 2 strains of Bifidobacterium and also 2 strains of L. paracasei (that showed high power in oxalate degrading in culture media) were used. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6). The rats of group-I received normal diet (positive control group) and groups-II (negative control group), III, IV rats received diet containing ethylene glycol (3%) for 30 days. Groups III rats re-ceived Urtica dioica and T. terrestris extract. Groups IV rats received extracts + probiotic for 30 days. FINDINGS: The results show that the use of herbal extracts (Urtica dioica and T. terrestris) redu-ced the level of urinary oxalate and other parameters of urine and serum. Also, the accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney tissue was significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: Considering that the formation of calcium oxalate crystals can cause inflammation and tissue damage in the kidney, the use of herbal extracts with oxalatedegrading bacteria can be a new therapeutic approach to preventing the formation of kidney stones.


Assuntos
Hiperoxalúria/prevenção & controle , Oxalatos/urina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Tribulus/química , Urtica dioica/química , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Cálcio/análise , Creatinina/análise , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Renais/urina , Túbulos Renais/química , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3297-3304, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602886

RESUMO

The contents of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K in Tribuli Fructus with different degree of stir-frying were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detector( HPLC-ELSD). The results showed that the contents of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K were increased at first and then decreased,and both of them had the highest content at the best time of heating. The results of simulated processing of Tribulus Terrestris saponins showed that when the processing time kept constant,the contents of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K were decreased gradually with the increase of processing temperature from 180 ℃ to240 ℃. At a certain temperature,the content of terrestrosin K was increased first and then decreased with the prolongation of processing time,and reached the highest level at 5 min. However,the content of terrestroside B was increased first and then decreased with the increase of processing time only at 180 ℃,and reached the highest level at 10 min. When the processing temperature was controlled at200,220 and 240 ℃ respectively,the content of terrestroside B was decreased gradually with the increase of processing time. The simulated processing products of tribuluside A,terrestroside B and terrestrosin K were qualitatively characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-TOF/MS). It was proved that tribuluside A and terrestrosin Ⅰ containing C-22-OH were dehydroxylated in the processing of Tribuli Fructus and transformed respectively into terrestroside B and terrestrosin K containing C-20-C-22 double bond. As a result,the contents of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K were increased. The sugar chains at C-3 and C-26 positions of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K could be deglycosylated and converted into monosaccharide chain saponins and short sugar chain saponins,so the contents of terrestroside B and terrestrosin K were reduced. The study provides reference for further revealing the processing principle of Tribuli Fructus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Saponinas/análise , Tribulus/química , Química Farmacêutica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(5): 1043-1054, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. RESULTS: Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed signifi cantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed signifi cant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. CONCLUSION: TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/química , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tribulus/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2 (Supplementary)): 805-816, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103976

RESUMO

Tribulus terrestris (T.T) is enriched with steroidal saponins and flavonoids which have neuroprotective effect. The study was aimed to explore the potential of T.T methanol extract (T.T ME) for anti-Alzheirmer activity along with its safety evaluation. Plant was characterized by physicochemical, phytochemical and GCMS analyses whereas acute oral toxicity (OECD 425) was performed for safety evaluation. AlCl3 induced Alzheimer's disease rat model was used for anti-Alzheirmer activity. T.T ME was given orally at 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg doses for 21 days and behavioral parameters were observed on 22nd study day. Physicochemical parameters were in permissible limits. GCMS analysis showed eight different compounds and benzene dicarboxylic acid showed maximum % peak area (64.19). No mortality was noted in acute toxicity study. Behavioral studies showed highly significant (p<0.001) improvement in T.T ME treated groups. Antioxidant enzymes and acetylcholinesterase levels were significantly (p<0.05) improved on treatment with T.T ME. Histopathological analysis indicated that neurofibrillary tangles were significantly improved in T.T ME treated groups. Biochemical and behavioral results suggested that T.T contained lead compounds which are effective in the treatment of Alzheimer disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tribulus/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Cloreto de Alumínio/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 178: 113-122, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999179

RESUMO

The rational of the current study was to assess whether Tribulus terrestris extract (TTE) could alleviate long-term copper (Cu) overload-induced testicular dysfunction compared to enalapril and losartan. Rats were administered either vehicle (control group, n = 10) or copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O, 200 mg/kg, p.o) for 90 days (n = 40). Cu-treated rats were randomized into four equal groups. One group was left untreated (Cu group) while the remaining three groups were daily co-treated with one of the following treatments along with CuSO4: TTE (10 mg/kg, p.o); enalapril (30 mg/kg, p.o); losartan (10 mg/kg, p.o). Excess Cu intake resulted in Cu overload coupled with a significant elevation in systolic blood pressure and serum angiotensin II levels along with a reduction in serum nitric oxide level. All concomitant treatments led to an alleviation of such deleterious effects. However, only losartan failed to ameliorate angiotensin II elevation. Additionally, all treatments protected the testes against Cu-overload-elicited zinc depletion and oxidative stress. Regarding reproductive function, the relative weights of testes, serum levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone; the expression of steroidogenic genes; the protein levels of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme 1, in addition to its activity, they were significantly reduced. Amongst all treatments, only TTE and E were able to revert these reproductive changes. In conclusion TTE and E were able to protect against Cu overload-induced impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. Thus, they might be considered as prophylactic drugs of choice against hypertension and testicular dysfunction to ameliorate Cu overload risk.


Assuntos
Angiotensinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Cobre/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribulus/química , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/sangue , Cobre/metabolismo , Enalapril/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Losartan/farmacologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813246

RESUMO

Stroke is one of the most common neurological disorders and seriously threatens human life. Gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris fruit (GSTTF) are used for neuroprotective treatment on convalescents of ischemic stroke. However, the therapeutic effects and mechanisms have not yet well understood, especially from the metabolic perspective. In this study, the protective effect of GSTTF on ischemic stroke in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model was investigated by the GC-MS-based metabolomics approach. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of brain tissues showed that GSTTF significantly reduced the infarct area after MCAO surgery. Metabolomic profiling showed a series of metabolic perturbation occurs in ischemic stroke compared with sham group. GSTTF can reverse the MCAO-induced serum metabolic deviations by regulating multiple metabolic pathways including fatty acids metabolism, amino acids metabolism, and carbohydrates metabolism. The current study provided a useful approach for understanding the mechanism of MCAO-induced ischemic stroke and a reliable basis for evaluating the efficacy of GSTTF in the treatment of ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tribulus/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Sais de Tetrazólio/metabolismo
8.
J Med Food ; 22(3): 241-247, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888914

RESUMO

Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease that is characterized by impairments in bone strength that predispose an individual to a higher risk of fractures. Despite the various etiologies, undoubtedly the most important factors are aging of the population and hypogonadism. Although several therapeutic options are available, pharmacological treatments have some risks. Among these are increases in the incidence of thrombosis, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and muscle injury, among others. Herbal medication may be an alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a standardized extract of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in rats. Female rats were first subjected to OVX and treated with TT (3, 30, and 300 mg/[kg·day]) or furosemide (25 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. Bone densitometry and tibial histology were performed, and acute renal function and testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol levels were assessed. Prolonged treatment with TT stimulated bone mass gain in all ovariectomized animals, raising bone mass to levels that were similar to sham-operated rats. DHEA levels significantly increased in TT-treated rats. The TT group also had lower calcium (Ca2+) excretion that OVX control and furosemide-treated rats. Finally, the histopathological analyses showed the maintenance of bone turnover in all TT-treated groups. Overall, the results indicate that the standardized extract of T. terrestris exerted a bone-protective effect by increasing bone mineral density. This activity may be at least partially attributable to an increase in serum DHEA levels and a Ca2+-sparing effect.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tribulus/química , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/sangue
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 111: 1342-1352, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841448

RESUMO

The aim of the present investigation is the evaluation and elucidation of the mechanisms by which Tribulus terrestris L. methanol extract (TTM) devoid of fruit exhibits protection against cardiac ischemia in in vitro (H9c2 cell line) and in vivo (Wistar rat) model. Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) was used in this study to evaluate the efficacy against cardiac ischemia employing in vitro and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia. H9c2 cells were used for the in vitro induction of ischemia. Male Wistar rats (10 weeks old) weighing 180-220 g were used for the in vivo experiments. ECG and clinically relevant cardiac biomarkers like serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatinine kinase, serum creatinine kinase myocardial B fraction, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were analysed to evaluate efficacy in the rat. For elucidation of molecular mechanisms of its beneficial activity in vitro, expression of apoptotic markers like Bax, Bad, Bcl-2 and signalling pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinases like p38α, JNK, and Akt were studied. Tribulus terrestris L. was found effective against cardiac ischemia in the rat which was evident from ECG and various cardiac biomarkers analysis. Tribulus terrestris L. was found to act through the mitogen-activated signalling pathway leading to prevention of apoptosis during ischemic insult. The beneficial effect of Tribulus terrestris L. against cardiac ischemia was seen both in in vitro and in vivo models via its anti-apoptotic potential.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribulus/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Frutas/química , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 392-405, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790614

RESUMO

ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Phytotherapeutic approaches have been widely proposed to improve male health. Despite the well-touted effects of tribulus (Tribulus terrestris L) on men's health, an optimal phytotherapy remains an elusive challenge. AIM OF THE REVIEW: We sought to critically analyze the evidence in the phytotherapic literature beyond the effects of tribulus on testosterone (T) concentration and sperm analysis to also include indications for prostate health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A focused literature search was conducted to include studies published in Cochrane, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases between the years 2002 and 2018. RESULTS: The use of tribulus and maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, Brassicaceae) were not scientifically supported to improve serum T levels in men. Moderate evidence supports the use of long Jack (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Simaroubaceae), mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., Fabaceae), ashwagandha (Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanaceae), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Fabaceae), and black seeds (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae) to increase total T and improve seminal parameters. Data suggests an increase in total T with the use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed and ashwagandha root (151 and 143 ng/dL, respectively) over a 12-week period in patients with oligozoospermia. The use of mucuna was supported for patients with oligozoospermia to improve sperm parameters, with an increase of 83.3 million/mL observed after use of 5000 mg/d of powdered mucuna seed over a 12-week period. Evidence supporting the use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, (W.Bartram) Small, Arecaceae) to improve prostate health remains equivocal; whereas, evidence supporting the use of Pygeum africanum Hook.f., Rosaceae, Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae, beta-sitosterols, pollen extract, onion, garlic, and tomato, appears favorable and promising. CONCLUSION: Scientific evidence supports the use of mucuna and ashwagandha as phytotherapics for improving serum T concentrations and semen parameters. Despite inconclusive evidence for use of tribulus as a T booster, it may provide advantageous effects on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic infertility. Nutraceutical strategies and some phytotherapics may also be effective to promote prostate health. Popular foodstuffs (onion, garlic, and tomato), nutraceutical agents (pollen extract and beta-sitosterols), and herbal medicines (Pygeum africanum and Urtica dioica) are rational approaches.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Tribulus/química , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
11.
Complement Ther Med ; 42: 95-103, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE(S): Tribulus terrestris L. is an herbal plant that has long been used as sex stimulant and to treat male infertility. This systematic review collected the clinical trials and/or quasi-experimental studies on the effect of T. terrestris on sperm parameters in idiopathic male infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To search the related articles, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ProQuest, Clinicaltrial.gov, WHO, Google Scholar, MEDLINE via Pubmed, Web of Science, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, and Iranmedex databases were used without any time limitation. Words used to search were T. terrestris L., Tribestan, male infertility and sperm parameters based on the MeSH glossary. To assess the eligibility of the articles, the views of the two authors and in cases where there was no agreement, the third person was used. RESULTS: Through searching of the databases, 5775 articles were identified, of which 3509 were entered after removing the duplicates. Afterward, 102 articles were screened for inclusion. Finally, 7 articles were included in this systematic review. Only one quasi-experimental without control arm article reported that the use of T. terrestris L. in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility was not effective, In the others, T. terrestris L. was reported to be effective in improving some or all parameters of the sperm, namely number, motility and morphology. CONCLUSION: The results of the present systematic review showed that the consumption of T terrestris L., in general, resulted in the improvement of sperm parameters. This result was obtained from 6 out of the 7 articles.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribulus/química , Animais , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(4): e4474, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577068

RESUMO

The current study focused on the extraction technology, components analysis, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of total flavonoids and fatty acids from Tribulus terrestris L. fruits. The extraction process of total flavonoids and fatty acids was optimized by the response surface method, and the compositions were identified from the two extracts by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS- and GC-MS, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities were evaluated by assay of ABTS, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and minimal inhibitory concentration. The yields of total flavonoids and fatty acids were 0.46 and 9.76% under the optimized conditions. Moreover, nine and eight compositions were identified from the two extracts based on the related references, respectively. In addition, total flavonoids and fatty acids extracts both exhibited certain antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The present findings suggest that total flavonoids extracted from T. terrestris L. fruits comprised a more interesting candidate than fatty acids for the research and development of natural and healthy antioxidants and antibacterial agents for the pharmaceutical and food industries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tribulus/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Estatísticos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
Inflammopharmacology ; 27(4): 761-772, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938333

RESUMO

The study comprises exploring the effects of saponins from Tribulus terrestris (TT) in attenuating the neuropathic pain caused by vincristine (100 µg/ml i.p.) for 10 days (in two 5 day cycles with 2 days pause). Mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia were assessed by Randall-Sellitto and electronic von Frey tests, respectively. Chemical- induced nociception was assessed by formalin test. Neurophysiological effect of the extract was evaluated by recording sciatic functional index (SFI) on the test days (7, 10, 14, and 21) and sciatic nerve conduction velocity test (SNCV) on the last day. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) in both sciatic nerve and brain and brain neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate, were measured to support the behavioral response. The saponins of TT-treated group were found to be effective in the behavioral experiments, implying its activity both centrally and peripherally in attenuating pain. The inflammatory mediators in both sciatic nerve and brain (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) were found to be attenuated with TT saponin treatment in comparison to vincristine-treated group, indicating its anti-inflammatory property. The excitatory neurotransmitters, L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, were also found to be attenuated with TT saponins, implying restoration of neuronal damage and synaptic activity caused by high amount of glutamate due to excess TNF-α in brain and reversing the nociceptive threshold lowered due to aspartate. Thus, TT(S) is peripherally and centrally active in lowering the inflammatory mediators, reversing the neuronal damage and increasing the nociceptive threshold caused due to peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Tribulus/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Medição da Dor/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Vincristina/farmacologia
14.
J Sep Sci ; 41(22): 4212-4221, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168286

RESUMO

Tribulus terrestris L. is a well-known medicinal plant from subtropical areas. In China Pharmacopoeia, only the fruit of T. terrestris is recorded to be the medicinal part. But some pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements made of total saponins of aerial part of T. terrestris including fruits, stems, and leaves are commercially available. However, steroidal saponins in different parts have not been studied extensively. So differentiating three parts and ensuring reasonable application of T. terrestris has been an important issue. Herein, we developed an integrated platform based on components profiling and chemometrics analysis to comparatively characterize and investigate steroidal saponins in three parts. As a result, a total of 84 steroidal saponins were characterized or tentatively identified, including 20 compounds reported for the first time. A clear separation of the three parts was achieved by partial least squares discriminant analysis based on the identified saponins, and 17 saponins were screened as biomarkers. Support vector machines model established based on 17 markers showed excellent predication accuracy of 100%. Finally, different distribution of steroidal saponins in three parts was shown obviously by heatmap visualization. These results provide promising perspectives for quality control of Chinese medicine, especially those with different medical parts.


Assuntos
Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Saponinas/análise , Esteroides/análise , Tribulus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Conformação Molecular
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 5758191, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228856

RESUMO

Tribulus terrestris (TT) has been considered as a potential stimulator of testosterone production, which has been related with steroidal saponins prevailing in this plant. Cyclophosphamide (CP) is the most commonly used anticancer and immunosuppressant drug, which causes several toxic effects, especially on the reproductive system. Patients who need to use CP therapy exhibit reduced fertility or infertility, which impacts both physically and emotionally on the decision to use this drug, especially among young men. We hypothesized that the treatment with TT dry extract would protect the male reproductive system against CP toxicity. Mice received dry extract of TT (11 mg/kg) or vehicle by gavage for 14 days. Saline or CP was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose (100 mg/kg) on the 14th day. Animals were euthanized 24 h after CP administration, and testes and epididymis were removed for biochemical and histopathological analysis and sperm evaluation. The dry extract of TT was evaluated by HPLC analysis and demonstrated the presence of protodioscin (1.48%, w/w). CP exposure increased lipid peroxidation, reactive species, and protein carbonylation and altered antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GR). Moreover, acute exposure to CP caused a reduction on 17 ß-HSD activity, which may be related to the reduction in serum testosterone levels, histopathological changes observed in the testes, and the quality of the semen. The present study highlighted the role of TT dry extract to ameliorate the alterations induced by CP administration in mice testes, probably due to the presence of protodioscin.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribulus/química , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Diosgenina/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Padrões de Referência , Saponinas/análise , Sêmen/metabolismo , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Seminíferos/patologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
16.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202572, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperurecemia is usually associated with gout and various metabolic arthritis disorders. Limited medications are available to manage such conditions. This study aimed to isolate the triterpenes constituent of the plant and to assess xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of Tribulus arabicus ethanolic extract, its fractions and the isolated compound using in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODS: The ethanolic extract, fractions; n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol and the isolated compound (ursolic acid) were evaluated in vitro for their XO inhibitory activity. Those that demonstrated significant activity were further evaluated for their antihyperuricemic activity on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemia in mice. RESULTS: The ethanolic extract was found to be safe up to 5000 mg/kg. The extract and its n-hexane fraction exhibited significant inhibitory activity on XO, whilst only a modest reduction in the enzymatic activity was noticed with n-butanol and chloroform fractions. Furthermore, administration of the ethanolic extract at low and high doses significantly reduced serum urate levels in mice by 31.1 and 64.6% respectively. The isolated active constituent, ursolic acid, showed potent XO inhibition activity (Half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 10.3 µg/mL), and significantly reduced uric acid level in vivo by 79.9%. Virtually, the binding mode of ursolic acid with XO was determined using molecular docking simulations. CONCLUSIONS: The activity of the ethanolic extract of T. arabicus and its n-hexane fraction can be attributed to the isolated compound, ursolic acid. Ursolic acid has good hypouricemic activity and therefore has high potential to be used for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gota/genética , Gota/patologia , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/genética , Hiperuricemia/patologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tribulus/química , Triterpenos/química , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/genética
17.
Microb Pathog ; 123: 219-226, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009969

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to investigate the antimicrobial potency of leaves from various extracts of Capparis zeylanica, Streblus asper and Tribulus terrestris were evaluated. In addition, this is the first report on MIC, MBC/MFC antimicrobial activities of above mentioned plants and also identify the phytochemical, functional groups by GC-MS and FT-IR respectively. Soxhlet extraction method was used for preparation of different extracts viz., aqueous, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were examined against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecallis, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteriae, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by agar well diffusion method, and Minimum Inhibitory Concentratioon (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentration (MBC/MFC) values were determined through micro dilution method. Phytochemical analysis of compounds was carried out by GC-MS analysis and functional groups were identified by FT-IR. Based on the outcome of our results, Ethyl acetate extract Showed significant antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens especially, for C. albicans (40 mm) followed by ethyl acetate of S. asper against S. paratyphi (38 mm). While, the least inhibition was observed with aqueous extract of T. terrestris against S. paratyphi (10 mm). The MIC ranged from 3.21 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml and MBC/MFC 6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml was recorded. Ethyl acetate extracts of almost all samples showed better activity than other extracts in inhibition growth of pathogens. Phytochemical analysis exhibited the presence of Steroids, tannins and cardiac glycosides were found only in ethyl acetate extract of C. zeylanica. Functional group of leaf extract was confirmed by FT-IR spectrum and GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed the presence of 20 compounds. The results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of C. zeylanica leaves has potential activity than the other extracts as well as standard drugs (Gentamycin and Ketocozole). Hence, this plant may be recommended for further studies in isolation of active compounds and related pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Capparis/química , Moraceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Tribulus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Esteroides/farmacologia , Taninos/farmacologia
18.
Urologiia ; (2): 54-61, 2018 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901295

RESUMO

RELEVANCE: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition. Pharmacological management of ED involves medications produced by chemical synthesis. Despite high efficiency, their use is often accompanied by some side effects. Considering this, herbal preparations with sufficient efficacy and greater safety have received much attention. AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of two herbal preparations (EFFEX Tribulus and Tribestan) based on Tribulus Terrestris herb dry extract in patients with ED. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 173 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 87 (group I) and 86 (group II) received EFFEX Tribulus and Tribestan, respectively. The mean age of patients was 42.2+/-11.5 years in group I and 42.8+/-11.2 years in group II. One hundred fifty two patients completed the study. The follow-up was 13 weeks (the herbal preparation dose was titrated at week five after the treatment initiation). The effectiveness of treatment was assessed on five follow-up visits using the IIEF, AMS, MSF, GAQ questionnaires, and a complex of diagnostic and laboratory studies. RESULTS: At visit five compared to visit 1, the mean IIEF erectile function domain score increased by 5.7+/-4.6 and 5.2+/-4.3 points in group I and II, respectively. In both groups, all other IIEF domain scores demonstrated a statistically significant increase. The AMS scores decreased from 32.93+/-10.04 to 25.02+/-7.62 points in group I and 31.78+/-10.37 to 24.55+/-7.31 points in group II. The SMF scores increased from 22.36+/-4.85 to 27.16+/-4.80 points in group I and from 22.13+/-3.69 to 26.10+/-5.69 points in group II. Besides, the use of the herbal preparations was associated with a decrease in the serum cholesterol level, more pronounced with increasing patient age (correlation coefficient -0.06, p=0.41). CONCLUSION: The herbal preparations EFFEX Tribulus and Tribestan have a similar efficacy and safety profiles.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Saponinas/administração & dosagem , Tribulus/química , Adulto , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15: 14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568244

RESUMO

The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased during last decades. At present, some herbs are used to enhance muscle strength and body mass. Emergent evidence suggests that the health benefits from plants are attributed to their bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids which have several physiological effects on the human body. At times, manufacturers launch numerous products with banned ingredient inside with inappropriate amounts or fake supplement inducing harmful side effect. Unfortunately up to date, there is no guarantee that herbal supplements are safe for anyone to use and it has not helped to clear the confusion surrounding the herbal use in sport field especially. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the efficacy and side effect of most used plants in sport. We have identified plants according to the following categories: Ginseng, alkaloids, and other purported herbal ergogenics such as Tribulus Terrestris, Cordyceps Sinensis. We found that most herbal supplement effects are likely due to activation of the central nervous system via stimulation of catecholamines. Ginseng was used as an endurance performance enhancer, while alkaloids supplementation resulted in improvements in sprint and cycling intense exercises. Despite it is prohibited, small amount of ephedrine was usually used in combination with caffeine to enhance muscle strength in trained individuals. Some other alkaloids such as green tea extracts have been used to improve body mass and composition in athletes. Other herb (i.e. Rhodiola, Astragalus) help relieve muscle and joint pain, but results about their effects on exercise performance are missing.


Assuntos
Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Esportes , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Atletas , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Efedrina/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Humanos , Panax/química , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rhodiola/química , Tribulus/química
20.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 69(6)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898986

RESUMO

Strong evidence proposes that brain oxidative DNA damage and microglia activation contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Traditional therapeutic regimens for PD can only relieve the symptoms. Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris), a flowering plant from family Zygophyllaceae, is used in traditional medicine for treating different disorders and exerts neuroprotective and antioxidant effects in experimental models. The current study attempted to test whether treatment with T. terrestris standardized extract (TTE) can improve motor dysfunction and alleviate rotenone induced oxidative DNA damage and neurotoxicity in mice. Six groups of male Swiss albino mice were utilized. Group (1) was the vehicle (oil) group, group 2 was the rotenone control group (1 mg/kg/48 hours, subcutaneously) for 9 times, groups 3 and 4 were injected with rotenone and treated with TTE (5 or 10 mg per kg, by oral gavage) for 17 days, groups 5 and 6 served as TTE (5 or 10 mg per kg) per se groups. Motor function was measured by the pole and the open-field tests. Then, mouse brains were dissected, one hemisphere was employed for biochemical assays and the other one was used in histopathological studies. Results demonstrated that TTE ameliorated the motor dysfunctions induced by rotenone as well as markers of inflammation and DNA damage (8-OHdG and MTH1 expression). Indicators of oxidative stress and upregulation of the microglia marker (CD11b) were suppressed by the higher dose of TTE (10 mg per kg). Finally, the higher dose of TTE improved the Cresyl violet staining and tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining in the substantia nigra. In summary, TTE ameliorated the locomotor dysfunction and dampened the DNA damage and oxidoinflammatory stress in rotenone-parkinsonian mice. These results suggest TTE as a potential candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rotenona/farmacologia , Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribulus/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
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