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1.
Protist ; 169(4): 539-568, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036779

RESUMO

Until now only one group of diatoms, the Bacillariaceae, was known to contain heterotrophic representatives. We show that a second group, represented by species in the genus Tursiocola, has undergone evolutionary loss of photosynthesis within the Bacillariophyta. Heterotrophy was evidenced by the presence of only apochlorotic cells in live and motile specimens. Three species of Tursiocola (T. bondei sp. nov., T. alata sp. nov., and T. gracilis sp. nov.), of which at least two are apochlorotic, are described as new to science from the skin of Florida manatees. T. ziemanii and T. varicopulifera were also observed to be apochlorotic. A new morphological feature termed a "fastigium" was observed on some Tursiocola spp. and is described as an extension of the mantle margin at the valve apex that overhangs the apex and extends towards the valve face. The presence of greatly elevated marginal ridges on the valve face of T. alata sp. nov. is a newly observed morphological character within the genus. Phylogenetic analyses using ribosomal RNA sequences indicate that Tursiocola is monophyletic, though morphological character analysis suggests paraphyly as species of the closely related Epiphalaina genus are embedded within a larger Tursiocola clade.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/ultraestrutura , Pele/microbiologia
2.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(1): 151-155, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982019

RESUMO

: We surveyed 13 carcasses of marine mammals (12 Trichechus manatus and one Stenella clymene) that had stranded in northeastern Brazil during 1990-2013 for infectious diseases by screening tissues from the collection of the Brazilian National Center of Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammal, Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were investigated by culturing and PCR of tissue samples, whereas Sarcocystidae parasites, Leptospira spp., and Morbillivirus were surveyed for using specific PCR assays. Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were not isolated through microbiologic culturing, and all animals were negative for detection of Sarcocystidae parasites, Leptospira spp., Mycobacterium spp., and Morbillivirus by PCR assays. All manatees were negative for Brucella spp. infection, but Brucella ceti was detected in the brain tissue of an S. clymene calf by using a PCR assay.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Stenella/microbiologia , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Brucelose/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 48(1): 13-17, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363079

RESUMO

Between September 2001 and March 2013, 62 bacterial cultures (37 aerobic and 25 anaerobic) were performed on 37 blood samples from 23 Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus) that were kept in captivity at the Brazilian National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals (CMA) in Pernambuco (CMA-PE) and Alagoas (CMA-AL), Brazil. All of the animals sampled exhibited clinical signs at the time of sampling including abscesses (n = 8), debilitation and anorexia (n = 22), and profound lethargy-moribundity (n = 7). The 4 animals with profound lethargy-moribundity died shortly after sampling of unknown causes. Bacteria were isolated from 15/37 (40.5%) and aerobic blood cultures from 13/23 animals (56.5%). None of the anaerobic cultures were positive. Aeromonas caviae , Aeromonas hydrophila , Aeromonas sp., Escherichia coli , Leclercia adecarboxylata , Pantoea agglomerans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas stutzeri , Pseudomonas sp., Sphingomonas paucimobilis , coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were each found in only one animal; Staphylococcus spp. was found in two; and Vibrio fluvialis in four. Thirteen samples had only one bacteria isolated, one sample had two bacteria, and one sample had three bacteria isolated. Regarding sex, age group, and origin among the manatees examined, 54.5% (6/11) of the females, 58.3% (7/12) of the males, 40% (2/5) of the calves, 66.7% (8/12) of the juveniles, 50% (3/6) of the adults, 55.5% (10/18) at CMA-PE, and 60% (3/5) at CMA-AL were found to be positive for bacterial growth during at least one sampling time. All Antillean manatees were clinically ill. Regarding clinical signs, bacteria were found in 50% (11/22) of blood samples of the animals showing debilitation and anorexia, 1 of 8 (12.5%) of blood samples of the animals showing abscesses, and 3 of 7 (42.9%) of blood samples of the animals showing profound lethargy-moribundity.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/veterinária , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/veterinária , Trichechus manatus/sangue , Animais , Bacteriemia/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia
4.
Can J Microbiol ; 61(10): 763-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26308797

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the yeast microbiota of natural cavities of manatees kept in captivity in Brazil. Sterile swabs from the oral cavity, nostrils, genital opening, and rectum of 50 Trichechus inunguis and 26 Trichechus manatus were collected. The samples were plated on Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. The yeasts isolated were phenotypically identified by biochemical and micromorphological tests. Overall, 141 strains were isolated, of which 112 were from T. inunguis (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida famata, Candida krusei, Candida norvegensis, Candida ciferri, Trichosporon sp., Rhodotorula sp., Cryptococcus laurentii) and 29 were from T. manatus (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula minuta, Trichosporon sp.). This was the first systematic study to investigate the importance of yeasts as components of the microbiota of sirenians, demonstrating the presence of potentially pathogenic species, which highlights the importance of maintaining adequate artificial conditions for the health of captive manatees.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Trichechus/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/fisiologia , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/fisiologia , Trichechus inunguis/microbiologia , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Trichosporon/isolamento & purificação , Trichosporon/fisiologia
5.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 113(1): 69-73, 2015 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667338

RESUMO

Phaeohyphomycoses are emerging and opportunistic diseases caused by dematiaceous fungi that infect many animal species. This paper describes a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in an Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus caused by Bipolaris hawaiiensis. Blackish skin lesions were observed in an Antillean manatee calf held captive in Brazil. Direct examination of skin scraping from the affected areas revealed the presence of dematious hyphae. Culture of skin fragments led to the isolation and subsequent identification of B. hawaiiensis as the etiologic agent. Treatment with itraconazole for 14 d was effective. Infections by Bipolaris spp. are rare in animals, and this is the first report of B. hawaiiensis in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Fungos Mitospóricos/isolamento & purificação , Feoifomicose/veterinária , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Fungos Mitospóricos/classificação , Feoifomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Feoifomicose/epidemiologia , Feoifomicose/microbiologia
6.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 87(3): 601-15, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24215517

RESUMO

The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Digestório/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Florida , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rios , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
J Wildl Dis ; 45(1): 122-7, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19204341

RESUMO

Stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. These programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify important sources of mortality or changes in mortality patterns that lead to management actions. However, the utility of these data in determining cause-specific mortality rates has not been explored. We present a maximum likelihood-based approach that partitions total mortality rate, estimated by independent sources, into cause-specific mortality rates. We also demonstrate how variance estimates are derived for these rates. We present examples of the method using mortality data for California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Lontras , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Oceanos e Mares , Lontras/lesões , Lontras/microbiologia , Lontras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Tubarões , Trichechus manatus/lesões , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Trichechus manatus/parasitologia
8.
Toxicon ; 52(2): 385-8, 2008 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18585400

RESUMO

Proliferation of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya, in Florida lakes and rivers has raised concerns about ecosystem and human health. Debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) was measured in concentrations up to 6.31 microg/g wet weight lyngbyatoxin A equivalents (WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from natural substrates. DAT was also detected (up to 1.19 microg/g WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from manatee dorsa. Ulcerative dermatitis found on manatees is associated with, but has not been proven to be caused by DAT.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/análise , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas da Lyngbya/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Alga Marinha/microbiologia , Trichechus manatus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/patologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Ecossistema , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 34(2): 184-8, 2003 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12885137

RESUMO

Two male Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) died at the marine aquarium in Inagi City, Tokyo, Japan. Acid-fast bacteria were demonstrated in tuberculoid nodules in the lungs from both manatees. Mycobacterium marinum and M. fortuitum were isolated from one manatee; M. marinum and M. kansasii were cultured from the second animal. This report confirms the pathogenicity and potentially fatal outcome of mycobacterial infection in manatees. In addition, the pathologic response to infection with these mycobacteria in manatees is similar to that associated with Mycobacterium spp. in other animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/veterinária , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Trichechus manatus/microbiologia , Animais , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/mortalidade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/patologia , Mycobacterium fortuitum/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium marinum
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