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1.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 32, 2021 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While indoor microbiomes impact our health and well-being, much remains unknown about taxonomic and functional transitions that occur in human-derived microbial communities once they are transferred away from human hosts. Toothbrushes are a model to investigate the potential response of oral-derived microbiota to conditions of the built environment. Here, we characterize metagenomes of toothbrushes from 34 subjects to define the toothbrush microbiome and resistome and possible influential factors. RESULTS: Toothbrush microbiomes often comprised a dominant subset of human oral taxa and less abundant or site-specific environmental strains. Although toothbrushes contained lower taxonomic diversity than oral-associated counterparts (determined by comparison with the Human Microbiome Project), they had relatively broader antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles. Toothbrush resistomes were enriched with a variety of ARGs, notably those conferring multidrug efflux and putative resistance to triclosan, which were primarily attributable to versatile environmental taxa. Toothbrush microbial communities and resistomes correlated with a variety of factors linked to personal health, dental hygiene, and bathroom features. CONCLUSIONS: Selective pressures in the built environment may shape the dynamic mixture of human (primarily oral-associated) and environmental microbiota that encounter each other on toothbrushes. Harboring a microbial diversity and resistome distinct from human-associated counterparts suggests toothbrushes could potentially serve as a reservoir that may enable the transfer of ARGs. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Escovação Dentária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Metagenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129801, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581564

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a common anti-microbial ingredient in pharmaceutical and personal care products. The usage of TCS was banned by the United States Food and Drug Administration (in 2016) due to its potential health risks. However, TCS has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Therefore, it is vital to design low-cost and highly efficient photocatalysts to enhance TCS's photocatalytic degradation in wastewater treatment to eliminate its toxicity to environmental health. In this study, we developed a highly efficient catalyst by incorporating lignin nanorods (LNRs) into graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) nanomaterials as green LNRs/GCN-based nanocomposite photocatalysts for the effective degradation of TCS in waters. LNRs/GCN nanosheets (NSs) and LNRs/GCN-NRs based nanocomposite materials were prepared using a simple wet-impregnation method. The surface morphology and optical properties of as-synthesized materials were well-characterized using FE-SEM, XRD, XPS, and UV-DRS. The photocatalyst (LNRs/GCN-NRs) material showed maximum TCS degradation efficiency of 99.9% and a high rate constant of 0.0661 min-1 under pH-10 with crucial reactive spices (OH and O2-), and excellent cycling performance (over five cycles) within 90 min of UV-light illumination. LNRs/GCN-NRs nanocomposite indicated enhanced photocatalytic performances for TCS degradation due to its strong synergistic effect between LNRs and GCN-NRs as bifunctional catalyst substrate morphology with efficient bandgap energy and accessible active sites compared to LNRs/GCN-NSs. Therefore, LNRs/GCN-NRs nanocomposite was observed to be a highly-active, low-cost, stable, eco-friendly, and efficient photocatalyst for complete degradation of TCS under UV-light irradiation.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanotubos , Triclosan , Lignina , Água
3.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(3): 457-466, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555283

RESUMO

The environmental emergence of unexpected contaminants has gained the attention of the scientific community. A broad spectrum antimicrobial compound named triclosan (TCS) was detected in the environment as an emerging contaminant. Owing to its inherent toxicity, we have proposed eco-friendly potentiometric liquid state sensors to be used for monitoring and quantifying TCS in environmental water samples. The proposed sensors have been optimized by modifying the inner filling solution using hydrophilic 2-hydroxypropyl ß-cyclodextrin as a complexing agent to be capable of minimizing the trans-membrane ion flux and hence improving the selective and sensitive determination of TCS in environmental matrices with low LOD values. The obtained linear response of the optimized sensor was (1 × 10-9 to 1 × 10-5 M) compared to the control sensor (1 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-4 M). The obtained limit of detection (LOD) value was found to be 9.86 × 10-10 M compared to 9.78 × 10-9 M of the control sensor. The modification of the inner filling solution of the sensor with 2-hydroxypropyl ß-cyclodextrin improves not only its sensitivity but also its response time to be only 5 seconds. The electrical performance of the proposed sensor was evaluated following IUPAC recommendations. Both the pH and temperature effects were studied and optimized. Two different greenness assessment tools, Analytical Eco-scale and Green Procedure Index, were adopted upon the evaluation of the proposed sensors' greenness.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Triclosan , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina , Limite de Detecção , Água
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112044, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601171

RESUMO

Due to the extensive use and pseudo-persistence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), they are frequently detected in the aqueous environment, which has attracted global attention. In this paper, accumulation data of 81 PPCPs in surface water or sediment in China were reported. In addition, 20 kinds of PPCPs with high frequency were selected and their ecological risk assessment was conducted by risk quotient (RQs). The results indicated that the concentration detected in surface water and sediment ranged from ng/L (ng/kg) to µg/L (µg/kg) in China, which was similar to concentrations reported globally. However, contamination by certain PPCPs, such as caffeine, oxytetracycline, and erythromycin, was relatively high with a maximum concentration of more than 2000 ng/L in surface water. RQs revealed that 14 kinds of PPCPs pose no significant risk or low risk to aquatic organisms, while 6 kinds of PPCPs pose a high risk. Additionally, the pollution characteristics of PPCPs in each watershed are different. The Haihe River watershed and the central and lower Yangtze River were the regions of high concern for erythromycin. Triclosan has potential risks in the Pearl River watershed. This study determined the occurrence and risk of PPCPs in China in the past decade, providing a scientific basis for PPCPs pollution control and risk prevention.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Medição de Risco , Rios , Triclosan , Água
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013326, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Annually, infections contribute to approximately 25% of the 2.8 million neonatal deaths worldwide. Over 95% of sepsis-related neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Hand hygiene is an inexpensive and cost-effective method of preventing infection in neonates, making it an affordable and practicable intervention in low- and middle-income settings. Therefore, hand hygiene practices may hold strong prospects for reducing the occurrence of infection and infection-related neonatal death. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different hand hygiene agents for preventing neonatal infection in community and health facility settings. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 5), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 10 May 2019); Embase (1980 to 10 May 2019); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 10 May 2019). We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. Searches were updated 1 June 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs, cross-over trials, and quasi-RCTs that included pregnant women, mothers, other caregivers, and healthcare workers who received interventions within the community or in health facility settings DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were incidence of (study author-defined) suspected infection within the first 28 days of life, bacteriologically confirmed infection within the first 28 days of life, all-cause mortality within the first seven days of life (early neonatal death), and all-cause mortality from the 8th to the 28th day of life (late neonatal death). MAIN RESULTS: Our review included five studies: one RCT, one quasi-RCT, and three cross-over trials with a total of more than 5450 neonates (two studies included all neonates but did not report the actual number of neonates involved). Four studies involved 279 nurses working in neonatal intensive care units and all neonates on admission. The fifth study did not clearly state how many nurses were included in the study. Studies examined the effectiveness of different hand hygiene practices for the incidence of (study author-defined) suspected infection within the first 28 days of life. Two studies were rated as low risk for selection bias, another two were rated as high risk, and one study was rated as unclear risk. One study was rated as low risk for allocation bias, and four were rated as high risk. Only one of the five studies was rated as low risk for performance bias. 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) compared to plain liquid soap We are uncertain whether plain soap is better than 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) for nurses' skin based on very low-certainty evidence (mean difference (MD) -1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.31 to -0.19; 16 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). We identified no studies that reported on other outcomes for this comparison. 4% chlorhexidine gluconate compared to triclosan 1% One study compared 1% w/v triclosan with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and suggests that 1% w/v triclosan may reduce the incidence of suspected infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% CI 0.19 to 5.60; 1916 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). There may be fewer cases of infection in the 1% w/v triclosan group compared to the 4% chlorhexidine gluconate group (RR 6.01, 95% CI 3.56 to 10.14; 1916 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence); however, we are uncertain of the available evidence. We identified no study that reported on all-cause mortality, duration of hospital stay, and adverse events for this comparison. 2% CHG compared to alcohol hand sanitiser (61% alcohol and emollients) We are uncertain whether 2% chlorhexidine gluconate reduces the risk of all infection in neonates compared to 61% alcohol hand sanitiser with regards to the incidence of all bacteriologically confirmed infection within the first 28 days of life (RR 2.19, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.69; 2932 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence) in the 2% chlorhexidine gluconate group, but the evidence is very uncertain.   The adverse outcome was reported as mean visual scoring on the skin. There may be little to no difference between the effects of 2% CHG on nurses' skin compared to alcohol hand sanitiser based on very low-certainty evidence (MD 0.80, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.59; 118 participants, 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). We identified no study that reported on all-cause mortality and other outcomes for this comparison. None of the included studies assessed all-cause mortality within the first seven days of life nor duration of hospital stay.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain as to the superiority of one hand hygiene agent over another because this review included very few studies with very serious study limitations.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Viés , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Estudos Cross-Over , Higienizadores de Mão/administração & dosagem , Higienizadores de Mão/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Enfermagem Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sabões/administração & dosagem , Triclosan/administração & dosagem
6.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129453, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485045

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is an emerging contaminant that threatens the environment and human health. This study was conducted to investigate TCS abatement by a novel electro-oxidation (EO) process, which used a Ti-based nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO/Ti) anode and a carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped carbon/PTFE (CNTs-C/PTFE) gas diffusion electrode (GDE) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A comparative study was also performed for TCS degradation by using a traditional EO with a nickel foam cathode, termed as HER-EO. The optimal initial TCS concentration, current density and solution pH for TCS degradation during the ORR-EO and HER-EO were investigated. Results showed that ORR-EO removed more than 98% of TCS in 10-60 min under the concentration of 5-50 mg/L. The TCS degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and its main intermediates were observed during the ORR-EO and HER-EO using liquid chromatography combined mass (LC-MS). The results of FED analysis and toxicity prediction by ECOSAR software showed that less intermediates accumulated during the ORR-EO and the residues were less harmful. The ORR-EO degradation mechanism for TCS was attacking on the ether bond and the benzene ring by •OH. This novel ORR-EO process exhibits a great merit in the field of emerging contaminants abatement.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Eletrodos , Humanos , Cinética , Oxirredução , Triclosan/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(7)2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483311

RESUMO

Perturbation of natural microbial communities by antimicrobials, such as triclosan, can result in selection for antibiotic tolerance, which is of particular concern when pathogens are present. Members of the genus Pseudomonas are found in many natural microbial communities and frequently demonstrate increased abundance following triclosan exposure. The pathogen and well-studied model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits high triclosan tolerance; however, it is unknown if all Pseudomonas species share this trait or if there are susceptible strains. We characterized the triclosan tolerance phenotypes of diverse Pseudomonas isolates obtained from triclosan-exposed built environments and identified both tolerant and sensitive strains. High tolerance is associated with carriage of the enoyl-acyl carrier reductase (ENR) isozyme gene fabV, compared to the lesser protective effects of efflux or presence of ENRs. Given its unique importance, we examined fabV distribution throughout Pseudomonas species using large-scale phylogenomic analyses. We find fabV presence or absence is largely invariant at the species level but demonstrates multiple gain and loss events in its evolutionary history. We further provide evidence of its presence on mobile genetic elements. Our results demonstrate the surprising variability in triclosan tolerance in Pseudomonas and confirm fabV to be a useful indicator for high triclosan tolerance in Pseudomonas These findings provide a framework for better monitoring of Pseudomonas in triclosan-exposed environments and interpreting effects on species and gene composition.IMPORTANCE Closely related species are typically assumed to demonstrate similar phenotypes driven by underlying conserved genotypes. When monitoring for the effect of antimicrobials on the types of species that may be selected for, this assumption may prove to be incorrect, and identification of additional genetic markers may be necessary. We isolated several phylogenetically diverse members of Pseudomonas from indoor environments and tested their phenotypic tolerance toward the commonly used antimicrobial triclosan. Although Pseudomonas isolates are broadly regarded to be highly triclosan tolerant, we demonstrate the presence of both triclosan-tolerant and -susceptible strains, separated by a difference in tolerance of nearly 3 orders of magnitude. Bioinformatic and experimental investigation demonstrated that the presence of the gene fabV was associated with high tolerance. We demonstrate that fabV is not evenly distributed in all Pseudomonas species and that its presence could be a useful predictor of high triclosan tolerance suitable for antimicrobial monitoring efforts involving triclosan.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Pseudomonas/genética , Triclosan/farmacologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411598

RESUMO

Representative members of surface water microbiota were obtained from three unrelated municipal sites in Oklahoma by direct plating under selection by the hydrophobic biocide triclosan. Multiple methods were employed to determine if intrinsic triclosan resistance reflected resistance to hydrophobic molecules by virtue of outer membrane impermeability. While all but one organism isolated in the absence of triclosan were able to initiate growth on MacConkey agar, only one was able to initiate significant growth with triclosan present. In contrast, all bacteria selected with triclosan were identified as Pseudomonas spp. using 16S RNA gene sequencing and exhibited growth comparable to Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls in the presence of hydrophobic antibacterial agents to include triclosan. Two representative bacteria isolated in the absence of triclosan allowed for greater outer membrane association with the fluorescent hydrophobic probe 1-N-phenylnapthylamine than did two triclosan-resistant isolates. Compound 48/80 disruption of outer membrane impermeability properties for hydrophobic substances either partially or fully sensitized nine of twelve intrinsically resistant isolates to triclosan. These data suggest that outer membrane exclusion underlies intrinsic resistance to triclosan in some, but not all Pseudomonas spp. isolated by selection from municipal surface waters and implicates the involvement of concomitant triclosan resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/microbiologia , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oklahoma , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia da Água , p-Metoxi-N-metilfenetilamina/farmacologia
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144960, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477039

RESUMO

This article studies the ecotoxicity of 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA) using different bioassays and examines its fate in activated sludge batch experiments. Despite of the common use of TCSA as chemical uncoupler in wastewater treatment systems and as preservative in several products, limited data has been published for its ecotoxicity, while no information is available for its biodegradation. Among different bioassays, the highest toxicity of TSCA was noticed for Daphna magna (48-h LC50: 0.054 mg L-1), followed by Vibrio fischeri (15-min EC50: 0.392 mg L-1), Lemna minor, (7-d EC50: 5.74 mg L-1) and activated sludge respiration rate (3-h EC50: 31.1 mg L-1). The half-life of TSCA was equal to 7.3 h in biodegradation experiments with activated sludge, while use of mass balances showed that 90% of this compound is expected to be removed in an aerobic activated sludge system, mainly due to biodegradation. A preliminary risk assessment of TSCA using the Risk Quotient methodology showed possible ecological threat in rivers where wastewater is diluted up to 100-fold. Comparison with the structurally similar 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan, TCS) showed that both compounds have similar biodegradation potential and seem to cause analogous toxicity to Vibrio fischeri and activated sludge. Specifically, TCS was biodegraded quite rapidly by activated sludge (half-life: 6.2 h), while EC50 values equal to 0.134 mg L-1 and 39.9 mg L-1 were calculated for Vibrio fischeri, and activated sludge respiration rate. Future research should focus on monitoring of TSCA concentrations in the environment and study its effects in long-term toxicity and bioaccumulation tests.


Assuntos
Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Salicilanilidas , Esgotos , Triclosan/análise , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Chemosphere ; 271: 129399, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482525

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure for four months, with ibuprofen and triclosan at 25 and 50 µg/L in Striped catfish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, evaluated between sexes and exposure times. Biochemical biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, creatine kinase, lipid peroxidation, albumin, globulins, creatinine, and urea were evaluated. The results of this study suggest that both ibuprofen and triclosan at concentrations of 25 and 50 µg/L can cause alterations to P. magdaleniatum, interfering with the activity of certain enzymes associated with energy production, immune response, architecture, and cellular physiology. Also, we determined the current state of contamination in fish, the concentration of ibuprofen and triclosan in P. magdaleniatum muscle samples from the different places markets located on the banks of the main rivers of Colombia was quantified by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS, in three climatic periods; finding triclosan levels in the dry season in some of the sampling points compatible with enzyme-level alterations in this species.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Triclosan , Animais , Colômbia , Ibuprofeno , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triclosan/toxicidade
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145285, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515893

RESUMO

Chronic exposure of triclosan (TCS) to zebrafish triggers high incidence of fatty liver and hepatitis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we identified miR-30b as a sensitive biomarker to TCS stress, reflecting in that its decreased expression caused metabolic toxicity, abnormal development and behavior, and lipid-metabolism disorder. By microinjecting the inhibitor and mimic experiments, miR-30b was proved to regulate lipid metabolism by its main target gene fto. Over-expression of FTO resulted in fat accumulation, elevation of the TG and TC levels and up-regulation of the PPARγ and CEBPα, as well as decrease of the global m6A level in larvae. On the contrary, the knock-down of FTO using MO caused the anti-lipogenic effect, decrease of the TG and T-CHO levels, and abnormal changes of cebpɑ, acsl5, fasn, ppap2c and pparγ etc. Further fortification tests of cycloleucine and betaine evidenced that the toxic effect was strongly dependent on regulation of the m6A level. The toxicity effects in the treatments of methylated donors and receptors were consistent with the changes in physiological functions of FTO knockdown and overexpression. The effects of cycloleucine on m6A level and lipid metabolism generally consisted with those of FTO, but this was not the case for betaine, reflecting in increased m6A level and lipid accumulation in larval liver. Consequently, we posit that TCS exposure caused zebrafish lipid-metabolism disorder by decreasing miR-30b expression to regulate fto-mediated m6A methylation level. These findings contribute to our deep understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms regarding contaminant-originating fatty liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, and also have practical significance in pollution warning and target therapy for related diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , MicroRNAs , Triclosan , Animais , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Metilação , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Triclosan/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445775

RESUMO

Accelerating wound healing with minimized bacterial infection has become a topic of interest in the development of the new generation of tissue bio-adhesives. In this study, we fabricated a hydrogel system (MGC-g-CD-ic-TCS) consisting of triclosan (TCS)-complexed beta-cyclodextrin (ß-CD)-conjugated methacrylated glycol chitosan (MGC) as an antibacterial tissue adhesive. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed the inclusion complex formation between MGC-g-CD and TCS. The increase of storage modulus (G') of MGC-g-CD-ic-TCS after visible light irradiation for 200 s indicated its hydrogelation. The swollen hydrogel in aqueous solution resulted in two release behaviors of an initial burst and sustained release. Importantly, in vitro and in vivo results indicated that MGC-g-CD-ic-TCS inhibited bacterial infection and improved wound healing, suggesting its high potential application as an antibacterial tissue bio-adhesive.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Quitosana/química , Glicóis/química , Hidrogéis/química , Triclosan/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Chemosphere ; 270: 129456, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418217

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is a highly effective antibacterial agent, which is widely distributed in wastewater and sludge. The application of sludge containing high concentration TCS in agriculture will cause physiological damage to plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanism of TCS to plants. So firstly the physiological and biochemical indexes of tobacco with treatment of different concentrations of TCS were evaluated in this study. The results showed that tobacco plants with TCS treatment exhibited lower germination rate, root development, photosynthesis efficiency, and higher ROS accumulation in comparison with control group. The transcriptome analysis of tobacco plants was then performed to reveal the molecular mechanism in the response of tobacco to TCS. There were 3, 819 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between groups with or without TCS treatment. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis demonstrated that these DEGs were mainly enriched in groups of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway. To further investigate the role of plant hormone, transgenic tobacco overexpressing a homologous of salicylic acid (SA) binding protein gene was used to assess the SA-mediate TCS tolerance in plant. The results showed that transgenic plants exhibited enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and stronger TCS resistance than wild-type ones, which verify the important role of SA signal pathway in TCS response of tobacco plants. This study could be used to better understand the key roles of plant hormones in the TCS stress response of higher plants, and find key pathways and candidate genes for phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Tabaco , Triclosan , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Triclosan/toxicidade
14.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 83: 103599, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516901

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in personal hygiene products, such as mouthwash and toothpaste, and is found in human tissues. Interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interferon gamma (IFNγ) are pro-inflammatory cytokines and inappropriately elevated levels of each have been associated with pathologies including rheumatoid arthritis and certain cancers. Here we examine effects of TCS on the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines from human immune cell preparations. TCS at concentrations between 0.05-5 µM consistently increased the secretion of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα within 24 h of exposure and the increases often maintained out to 6 days of exposure. TCS also induced increases in IFNγ secretion, however the increases were most consistent after 48 h of exposure rather than within 24 h. Additionally, a role for both p44/42 and p38 MAPK in TCS-stimulated increases in IL-1ß was seen in cells from some donors.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 144170, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360465

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent, but its residue in the environment poses a great threat. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster were treated with series concentrations of TCS and the effects on development, behavior, reproduction, and oxidative stress indicators were investigated. The results showed that high concentrations of TCS severely interfered with the metamorphosis, resulting in lower hatching rate and longer development time. The hatching rate was only 75.00% ± 4.08% in 0.80 mg/mL TCS group. TCS also showed dose-dependent damage to the fertility of flies, causing ovarian defects and decreased the number of offspring. Almost no offspring adults hatched when exposed to high concentrations of TCS (0.50 and 0.80 mg/mL), and the hatching rate was 0% in 0.80 mg/mL TCS group. Larvae crawling, adult climbing and anti-starvation ability were also affected to varying degrees and showed hormesis. TCS could damage larval intestinal cells in a dose-dependent manner, and injury was lightened with culture time prolonging to 30 h. It is noteworthy that TCS caused redox imbalance with an increase on catalase (CAT) activity and decrease on reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Our results conclude that TCS elicits multiple impacts on Drosophila and its rational use should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Triclosan , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Larva , Metamorfose Biológica , Reprodução , Triclosan/toxicidade
16.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116368, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383428

RESUMO

Chemicals such as triclosan are a concern because of their presence on daily products (soap, deodorant, hand sanitizers …), consequently this compound has an ubiquitous presence in the environment. Little is known about the effect of this bactericide on aquatic life. The aim of this study is to analyze triclosan exposure (24 h) to an in vitro model, zebrafish hepatocytes cell line (ZF-L), if it can be cytotoxic (mitochondrial activity, membrane stability and apoptosis) and if can activate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins (activity, expression and protein/compound affinity). Triclosan was cytotoxic to hepatocytes when exposed to concentrations (1-4 mg/L). The results showed impaired mitochondria function, as well, plasma membrane rupture and an increase of apoptotic cells. We observed an ABC proteins activity inhibition in cells exposed to 0.5 and 1 mg/L. When ABCBs and ABCC2 proteins expression were analyzed, there was an increase of protein expression in both ABC proteins families on cells exposed to 1 mg/L of triclosan. On molecular docking results, triclosan and the fluorescent used as substrate (rhodamine) presented high affinity with all ABC proteins family tested, showing a greater affinity with ABCC2. In conclusion, this study showed that triclosan can be cytotoxic to ZF-L. Molecular docking indicated high affinity between triclosan and the tested pumps.


Assuntos
Triclosan , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triclosan/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
17.
Chemosphere ; 266: 129193, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310522

RESUMO

Despite the large number of recent studies on microplastics (MPs) and their ability to act as carriers of pollutants, the knowledge about the biological effects of MPs loaded with chemicals is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of MPs as vectors for the antimicrobial triclosan (TCS). For it, we tested low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyamide (PA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyoxymethylene (POM), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and the biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA). Thus, chemical analysis of sorption and desorption of TCS by these MPs was evaluated. The effect of TCS-loaded MPs to Anabaena sp. PCC7120, a cyanobacterium model of primary producers in freshwater ecosystems, was investigated. Chemical analyses showed different capacity of sorption depending on the MP type, which was related to some of their physicochemical properties. PA (104.7 µg/g), POM (57.4 µg/g) and LDPE (18.3 µg/g) were the polymers that sorbed the highest amounts of TCS. Glass transition temperature of polymers and their physicochemical interaction with TCS explained the extent of sorption. Significant decreases were found in growth, 22.3%, 94.6% and 81.0%, and chlorophyll a content, 58.4%, 95.0% and 89.6%, of Anabaena when exposed to TCS-loaded LDPE, PA and POM beads, respectively, which were the only MPs displaying significant sorption-desorption of TCS, implying that these MPs could act as vectors of TCS towards freshwater microalgae. This finding is of fundamental relevance as microalgae are at the base of the aquatic trophic chain and support growth of upper organisms.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Microalgas , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Clorofila A , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124134, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966969

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) is applied in a wide range of pharmaceutical and personal care products to prevent or reduce bacterial growth. In this study, the effects of TCS on phosphate removal and bacterial community shifts of activated sludge, especially on functional bacteria variation, were investigated. Compared with the control group (R-control), the treatment group (R-TCS) with 100 µg/L TCS inhibited the microbial growth. In addition, the phosphorus removal efficiency of PO43--P and total phosphorus removal rates declined by 15.99% and 7.81%, respectively. Proteobacteria gradually dominated the microorganisms. The growths of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were inhibited when 150 µg/L of TCS was added. Moreover, the differences in the microbial community structures of the R-control and R-TCS groups gradually expanded, no obvious difference was observed in the final stage, and the interrelationships of microbes in the latter weakened. The long-term addition of TCS impairs the growth of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triclosan , Reatores Biológicos , Fósforo , Proteobactérias , Esgotos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144615, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383503

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental phenols such as bisphenol A, benzophenones, 2-phenylphenol, triclosan, and triclocarban is of concern, because of their endocrine disrupting properties and broad application in consumer products. The current body burden of the 3-17-year-old population in Germany to these substances was assessed in first-morning void urine samples (N = 515-516) collected within the population-representative German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerES V). Bisphenol A was the most prominent phenol analysed here, ubiquitously found in almost all samples with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 1.905 µg/L (1.669 µg/gcreatinine) and a maximum (MAX) urinary concentration of 399 µg/L. Benzophenone-3 and benzophenone-1 were quantified in 35% and 41% of the samples. GM was below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for benzophenone-3 and 0.559 µg/L (0.489 µg/gcrea) for benzophenone-1, MAX concentrations were 845 µg/L and 202 µg/L, respectively. In 16% of the samples triclosan was found in quantifiable amounts resulting in a GM below LOQ and a MAX concentration of 801 µg/L. Benzophenone-8, 2-phenylphenol and triclocarban were quantified in none or only 1% of the samples. Benzophenone-1 and -3 concentrations were found to be associated with frequent application of personal care products. A comparison with the previous cycle of the survey, GerES IV (2003-2006), showed a decrease of urinary bisphenol A concentrations, mainly in young children. Despite this decrease, the concentration of bisphenol A exceeded the human biomonitoring (HBM) value HBM-I of 0.1 mg/L in 0.11% of the samples. For triclosan, all urinary concentrations were well below the HBM-I value of 2 mg/L. To minimise environmental health risks, it is therefore necessary to maintain a further declining trend for bisphenol A and continue monitoring the exposure to environmental phenols, as well as to monitor substitutes such as bisphenol F and S.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Triclosan , Adolescente , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Alemanha , Humanos , Fenóis
20.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128223, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297179

RESUMO

Triclosan (TCS) has attracted increasing concern due to its ubiquitous occurrence in aquatic environments as well as its potential adverse effects on human health. This study investigated the toxicity and transformation characteristics of triclosan ozonation and chlorination. The results showed that two hydroxylated by-products were formed via nucleophilic substitution during ozonation, while three chlorinated compounds were generated via electrophilic substitution during chlorination. The toxicity results demonstrated that the parent compound, triclosan, exhibited mild genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity. The chlorination of triclosan resulted in a 30-fold increase in anti-estrogenic activity owing to the generation of toxic polychlorinated transformation by-products. In addition, the chlorination by-products were found to be genotoxic like the parent compound. Fortunately, in contrast to chlorination, ozonation could mitigate the genotoxicity and anti-estrogenic activity of triclosan-containing water.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Triclosan , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Halogenação , Humanos , Ozônio/toxicidade , Triclosan/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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