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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 315, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-produced specialised metabolites are a powerful part of a plant's first line of defence against herbivorous insects, bacteria and fungi. Wild ancestors of present-day cultivated tomato produce a plethora of acylsugars in their type-I/IV trichomes and volatiles in their type-VI trichomes that have a potential role in plant resistance against insects. However, metabolic profiles are often complex mixtures making identification of the functionally interesting metabolites challenging. Here, we aimed to identify specialised metabolites from a wide range of wild tomato genotypes that could explain resistance to vector insects whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We evaluated plant resistance, determined trichome density and obtained metabolite profiles of the glandular trichomes by LC-MS (acylsugars) and GC-MS (volatiles). Using a customised Random Forest learning algorithm, we determined the contribution of specific specialised metabolites to the resistance phenotypes observed. RESULTS: The selected wild tomato accessions showed different levels of resistance to both whiteflies and thrips. Accessions resistant to one insect can be susceptible to another. Glandular trichome density is not necessarily a good predictor for plant resistance although the density of type-I/IV trichomes, related to the production of acylsugars, appears to correlate with whitefly resistance. For type VI-trichomes, however, it seems resistance is determined by the specific content of the glands. There is a strong qualitative and quantitative variation in the metabolite profiles between different accessions, even when they are from the same species. Out of 76 acylsugars found, the random forest algorithm linked two acylsugars (S3:15 and S3:21) to whitefly resistance, but none to thrips resistance. Out of 86 volatiles detected, the sesquiterpene α-humulene was linked to whitefly susceptible accessions instead. The algorithm did not link any specific metabolite to resistance against thrips, but monoterpenes α-phellandrene, α-terpinene and ß-phellandrene/D-limonene were significantly associated with susceptible tomato accessions. CONCLUSIONS: Whiteflies and thrips are distinctly targeted by certain specialised metabolites found in wild tomatoes. The machine learning approach presented helped to identify features with efficacy toward the insect species studied. These acylsugar metabolites can be targets for breeding efforts towards the selection of insect-resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Metaboloma/genética , Solanum/genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Ecótipo , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202673

RESUMO

Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by several key regulators, and plants hormones such as gibberellin, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and cytokinins have been shown to regulate trichome formation by affecting the transcription or activities of the key regulators. We report here the identification of two abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes, SMALLER TRICHOMES WITH VARIABLE BRANCHES (SVB) and SVB2 as trichome formation regulator genes in Arabidopsis. The expression levels of SVB and SVB2 were increased in response to ABA treatment, their expression levels were reduced in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5, and they have similar expression pattern. In addition to the trichome defects reported previously for the svb single mutant, we found that even though the trichome numbers were largely unaffected in both the svb and svb2 single mutants generate by using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, the trichome numbers were greatly reduced in the svb svb2 double mutants. On the other hand, trichome numbers were increased in SVB or SVB2 overexpression plants. RT-PCR results show that the expression of the trichome formation key regulator gene ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) was affected in the svb svb2 double mutants. Our results suggest that SVB and SVB2 are ABA responsive genes, and SVB and SVB2 function redundantly to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tricomas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/classificação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Mutação , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Transporte Proteico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Analyst ; 146(16): 5169-5176, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291780

RESUMO

With the development of molecular biology, more and more mutants of plants have been constructed, where gene mutants have been found to influence not only the biological processes but also biophysical behaviors of plant cells. Trichomes are an important appendage, which has been found to act as an active mechanosensory switch transducing mechanical signals into physiology changes, where the mechanical property of trichomes is vital for such functions. Up to now, over 40 different genes have been found with the function of regulating trichome cell morphogenesis; however, the effect of gene mutants on trichome mechanosensory function remains elusive. In this study, we found that EXO70H4, one of the most up-regulated genes in the mature trichome, not only affects the thickness of the trichome cell wall but also the mechanical property (i.e., the Young's modulus) of trichomes. Finite element method simulation results show that the buckling instability and stress concentration (e.g., exerted by insects) cannot occur on the base of the mutant exo70H4 trichome, which might further interrupt the mechanical signal transduction from branches to the base of trichomes. These results indicated that the mutant exo70H4 trichome might lack the ability to act as an active mechanosensory switch against chewing insect herbivores. Our findings provide new information about the effect of gene mutation (like crop mutants) on the mechano-sensibility and capability to resist the agricultural pests or lodging, which could be of great significance to the development of agriculture.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298931

RESUMO

Rhus potaninii Maxim is an economically and medicinally important tree species in China. It produces galls (induced by aphids) with a high abundance of tannins. Here, we discuss the histology, cellular structures and their distribution, and the macromolecular components of secretive glandular trichomes on the leaves of R. potaninii. A variation in the density of glandular trichomes and tomenta was found between the adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf in different regions and stages of the leaf. The glandular trichomes on R. potaninii trees comprise a stalk with no cellular structure and a head with 8-15 cells. Based on staining, we found that the secretion of glandular trichomes has many polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and acidic lipids but very few neutral lipids. The dense glandular trichomes provide mechanical protection for young tissues; additionally, their secretion protects the young tissues from pathogens by a special chemical component. According to transcriptome analysis, we found enhanced biosynthetic and metabolism pathways of glycan, lipids, toxic amino acids, and phenylpropanoids. This shows a similar tendency to the staining. The numbers of differentially expressed genes were large or small; the averaged range of upregulated genes was greater than that of the downregulated genes in most subpathways. Some selectively expressed genes were found in glandular trichomes, responsible for the chitinase activity and pathogenesis-related proteins, which all have antibacterial activity and serve for plant defense. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the components of the secretion from glandular trichomes on the leaf surface of R. potaninii.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Rhus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Tricomas/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipídeos/genética , Fenol/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
6.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110953, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134846

RESUMO

Lysin motif receptor-like kinases (LYKs) are involved in the recognition of chitin and activation of plant immune response. In this study, we found LYK4 to be strongly induced in resistant Sinapis alba compared with susceptible Brassica juncea on challenge with Alternaria brassicicola. In silico analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that despite the presence of canonical protein kinase fold, B.juncea LYK4 (BjLYK4) lacks several key residues of a prototype protein kinase which renders it catalytically inactive. Transient expression analysis confirmed that fluorescently tagged BjLYK4 localizes specifically to the plasma membrane. Overexpression (OE) of BjLYK4 in B. juncea enhanced tolerance against A. brassicicola. Interestingly, the OE lines also exhibited a novel trichome dense phenotype and increased jasmonic acid (JA) responsiveness. We further showed that many chitin responsive WRKY transcription factors and JA biosynthetic genes were strongly induced in the OE lines on challenge with the pathogen. Moreover, several JA inducible trichome developmental genes constituting the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB activator complex were also upregulated in the OE lines compared with vector control and RNA interference line. These results suggest that BjLYK4 plays an essential role in chitin-dependent activation of defense response and chitin independent trichome development likely by influencing the JA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Alternaria/fisiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Mostardeira/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo
7.
New Phytol ; 231(5): 2050-2064, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043829

RESUMO

Plant glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) produce various specialized metabolites. Increasing GST density represents a strategy to enhance the yield of these chemicals; however, the gene regulatory network that controls GST initiation remains unclear. In a previous study of Artemisia annua L., we found that a HD-ZIP IV transcription factor, AaHD1, promotes GST initiation by directly regulating AaGSW2. Here, we identified two AaHD1-interacting transcription factors, namely AaMIXTA-like 2 (AaMYB16) and AaMYB5. Through the generation and characterization of transgenic plants, we found that AaMYB16 is a positive regulator of GST initiation, whereas AaMYB5 has the opposite effect. Notably, neither of them regulates GST formation independently. Rather, they act competitively, by interacting and modulating AaHD1 promoter binding activity. Additionally, the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) was shown to be associated with the AaHD1-AaMYB16/AaMYB5 regulatory network through transcriptional regulation via a JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) protein repressor. These results bring new insights into the mechanism of GST initiation through regulatory complexes, which appear to have similar functions in a range of vascular plant taxa.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Artemisia annua/genética , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 234, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichome initiation in Arabidopsis is regulated by a MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) transcriptional activator complex formed by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor GLABRA1 (GL1), MYB23 or MYB82, the bHLH transcription factor GLABRA3 (GL3), ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) or TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8), and the WD40-repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1). However, the functions of the rice homologs of the MBW complex proteins remained uncharacterized. RESULTS: Based on amino acid sequence identity and similarity, and protein interaction prediction, we identified OsGL1s, OsGL3s and OsTTG1s as rice homologs of the MBW complex proteins. By using protoplast transfection, we show that OsGL1D, OsGL1E, OsGL3B and OsTTG1A were predominantly localized in the nucleus, OsGL3B functions as a transcriptional activator and is able to interact with GL1 and TTG1. By using yeast two-hybrid and protoplast transfection assays, we show that OsGL3B is able to interact with OsGL1E and OsTTG1A, and OsGL1E and OsTTG1A are also able to interact with GL3. On the other hand, we found that OsGL1D functions as a transcription activator, and it can interact with GL3 but not OsGL3B. Furthermore, our results show that expression of OsTTG1A in the ttg1 mutant restored the phenotypes including alternations in trichome and root hair formation, seed color, mucilage production and anthocyanin biosynthesis, indicating that OsTTG1A and TTG1 may have similar functions. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the rice homologs of the Arabidopsis MBW complex proteins are able to form MBW complexes, but may have conserved and non-conserved functions.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo
9.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117184, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962307

RESUMO

The B-type cyclin gene, CycB2, serves as a negative regulator of glandular trichome initiation. Through targeted knockout of NtCycB2 in Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, we created a variety, HK326, which exhibits significantly increased density and larger glandular heads of long glandular trichomes. Under Cd-stress, HK326 exhibited enhanced Cd tolerance, as demonstrated by a robust root system, strengthened cell membrane stability, and higher photosynthetic parameters. HK326 exhibited enhanced Cd-stress tolerance due to a strong excretion capacity of long glandular trichomes by forming calcium oxalate crystals. Cd mainly accumulated in tobacco shoots rather than remained in roots. Specifically, Cd levels of the HK326 shoot surface were nearly two-fold of those of K326, resulting in less Cd internally in the roots and shoots. Gene expression patterns revealed 11 Cd transporter genes that were upregulated after Cd-stress in shoots, roots, and trichomes. Among them, the NtHMA2 gene encoding heavy metal ATPases and involved in the transport of divalent heavy metal cations was expressed consistently and significantly higher in HK326 than K326, both before and after Cd-stress. NtHMA2 expression was strong in trichomes, moderate in shoots, while weak in roots. The results indicate that NtHMA2 may be involved in Cd excretion from glandular trichomes. Our findings suggest HK326 may be an appropriate candidate plant for Cd-stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Tabaco , Tricomas , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0242633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793557

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa has been cultivated since antiquity as a source of fibre, food and medicine. The recent resurgence of C. sativa as a cash crop is mainly driven by the medicinal and therapeutic properties of its resin, which contains compounds that interact with the human endocannabinoid system. Compared to other medicinal crops of similar value, however, little is known about the biology of C. sativa. Glandular trichomes are small hair-like projections made up of stalk and head tissue and are responsible for the production of the resin in C. sativa. Trichome productivity, as determined by C. sativa resin yield and composition, is only beginning to be understood at the molecular level. In this study the proteomes of glandular trichome stalks and heads, were investigated and compared to the proteome of the whole flower tissue, to help further elucidate C. sativa glandular trichome biochemistry. The data suggested that the floral tissue acts as a major source of carbon and energy to the glandular trichome head sink tissue, supplying sugars which drive secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The trichome stalk seems to play only a limited role in secondary metabolism and acts as both source and sink.


Assuntos
Cannabis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Cannabis/química , Flores/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos , Metabolismo Secundário , Tricomas/química
11.
New Phytol ; 231(3): 1220-1235, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904185

RESUMO

Trichome initiation and leaf growth are two critical developmental processes in the plant life cycle, which need to be optimized in accordance with developmental stage and immediate surroundings. To a large extent, this optimization is achieved by fine-tuning of hormonal pathways, including the gibberellin (GA) pathway. However, the mechanism by which plants control GA homeostasis to optimize these two developmental processes is unknown. Here, we report that HAT1, a HD-ZIP II transcription factor, negatively regulates GA-mediated trichome initiation and cotyledon expansion. Both protein and transcript levels indicated that HAT1 was induced by GA, while an increased abundance of HAT1, in turn, was found to suppress GA biosynthesis and signaling, thus forming a regulatory negative feedback loop that controls GA homeostasis to fine-tune trichome development and cotyledon expansion. We also found that HAT1 interacts with DELLAs, including GAI and RGA. GAI inhibits both protein stability and the binding activity of HAT1 to its target genes. Overexpression of HAT1 in della5 can completely suppress the enhanced trichome initiation and enlarged cotyledon of della5. Our findings demonstrate that HAT1 functions as a critical repressor to regulate GA-mediated trichome initiation and cotyledon growth; in addition, we describe a novel mechanism by which the plant regulates trichome initiation and cotyledon expansion through a HAT1-DELLA regulatory module under various GA concentrations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Giberelinas , Histona Acetiltransferases , Homeostase , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição , Tricomas/metabolismo
12.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(2)2021 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668609

RESUMO

Plant stinging hairs have fascinated humans for time immemorial. True stinging hairs are highly specialized plant structures that are able to inject a physiologically active liquid into the skin and can be differentiated from irritant hairs (causing mechanical damage only). Stinging hairs can be classified into two basic types: Urtica-type stinging hairs with the classical "hypodermic syringe" mechanism expelling only liquid, and Tragia-type stinging hairs expelling a liquid together with a sharp crystal. In total, there are some 650 plant species with stinging hairs across five remotely related plant families (i.e., belonging to different plant orders). The family Urticaceae (order Rosales) includes a total of ca. 150 stinging representatives, amongst them the well-known stinging nettles (genus Urtica). There are also some 200 stinging species in Loasaceae (order Cornales), ca. 250 stinging species in Euphorbiaceae (order Malphigiales), a handful of species in Namaceae (order Boraginales), and one in Caricaceae (order Brassicales). Stinging hairs are commonly found on most aerial parts of the plants, especially the stem and leaves, but sometimes also on flowers and fruits. The ecological role of stinging hairs in plants seems to be essentially defense against mammalian herbivores, while they appear to be essentially inefficient against invertebrate pests. Stinging plants are therefore frequent pasture weeds across different taxa and geographical zones. Stinging hairs are usually combined with additional chemical and/or mechanical defenses in plants and are not a standalone mechanism. The physiological effects of stinging hairs on humans vary widely between stinging plants and range from a slight itch, skin rash (urticaria), and oedema to sharp pain and even serious neurological disorders such as neuropathy. Numerous studies have attempted to elucidate the chemical basis of the physiological effects. Since the middle of the 20th century, neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, histamine, serotonin) have been repeatedly detected in stinging hairs of Urticaceae, but recent analyses of Loasaceae stinging hair fluids revealed high variability in their composition and content of neurotransmitters. These substances can explain some of the physiological effects of stinging hairs, but fail to completely explain neuropathic effects, pointing to some yet unidentified neurotoxin. Inorganic ions (e.g., potassium) are detected in stinging hairs and could have synergistic effects. Very recently, ultrastable miniproteins dubbed "gympietides" have been reported from two species of Dendrocnide, arguably the most violently stinging plant. Gympietides are shown to be highly neurotoxic, providing a convincing explanation for Dendrocnide toxicity. For the roughly 648 remaining stinging plant species, similarly convincing data on toxicity are still lacking.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/efeitos adversos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Neurotransmissores/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricomas/efeitos adversos , Urticaceae/efeitos adversos , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Herbivoria , Humanos , Irritantes/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Tricomas/metabolismo , Urticaceae/metabolismo
13.
Plant J ; 106(3): 753-765, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577109

RESUMO

The fruit trichomes of Cucurbitaceae are widely desired in many Asian countries and have been a key determinant of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivar selection for commercial production and breeding. However, our understanding of the initiation and development of cucumber trichomes is still limited. Here, we found that the cucumber TINY BRANCHED HAIR (TBH) gene is preferentially expressed in multicellular trichomes. Overexpression of CsTBH in tbh mutants restored the trichome phenotype and increased the percentage of female flowers, whereas silencing of CsTBH in wild-type plants resulted in stunted trichomes with a lower rate of female flowers. Furthermore, we provide evidence that CsTBH can directly bind to the promoters of cucumber 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate Synthase (CsACS) genes and regulate their expression, which affects multicellular trichome development, ethylene accumulation, and sex expression. Two cucumber acs mutants with different trichome morphology and sex morphs compared with their near-isogenic line further support our findings. Collectively, our study provides new information on the molecular mechanism of CsTBH in regulating multicellular trichome development and sex expression through an ethylene pathway.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Tricomas/metabolismo
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 70, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichomes play a key role in the development of plants and exist in a wide variety of species. RESULTS: In this paper, it was reviewed that the structure and morphology characteristics of trichomes, alongside the biological functions and classical regulatory mechanisms of trichome development in plants. The environment factors, hormones, transcription factor, non-coding RNA, etc., play important roles in regulating the initialization, branching, growth, and development of trichomes. In addition, it was further investigated the atypical regulation mechanism in a non-model plant, found that regulating the growth and development of tea (Camellia sinensis) trichome is mainly affected by hormones and the novel regulation factors. CONCLUSIONS: This review further displayed the complex and differential regulatory networks in trichome initiation and development, provided a reference for basic and applied research on trichomes in plants.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Plantas/genética , Tricomas/anatomia & histologia , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Plant Physiol ; 185(4): 1595-1616, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585860

RESUMO

Nectar is a primary reward mediating plant-animal mutualisms to improve plant fitness and reproductive success. Four distinct trichomatic nectaries develop in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), one floral and three extrafloral, and the nectars they secrete serve different purposes. Floral nectar attracts bees for promoting pollination, while extrafloral nectar attracts predatory insects as a means of indirect protection from herbivores. Cotton therefore provides an ideal system for contrasting mechanisms of nectar production and nectar composition between different nectary types. Here, we report the transcriptome and ultrastructure of the four cotton nectary types throughout development and compare these with the metabolomes of secreted nectars. Integration of these datasets supports specialization among nectary types to fulfill their ecological niche, while conserving parallel coordination of the merocrine-based and eccrine-based models of nectar biosynthesis. Nectary ultrastructures indicate an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum positioned parallel to the cell walls and a profusion of vesicles fusing to the plasma membranes, supporting the merocrine model of nectar biosynthesis. The eccrine-based model of nectar biosynthesis is supported by global transcriptomics data, which indicate a progression from starch biosynthesis to starch degradation and sucrose biosynthesis and secretion. Moreover, our nectary global transcriptomics data provide evidence for novel metabolic processes supporting de novo biosynthesis of amino acids secreted in trace quantities in nectars. Collectively, these data demonstrate the conservation of nectar-producing models among trichomatic and extrafloral nectaries.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Néctar de Plantas/biossíntese , Tricomas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539358

RESUMO

Aphid feeding behavior and performance on a given host plant are influenced by the plants' physical and chemical traits, including structural characters such as trichomes and nutritional composition. In this study, we determined the feeding behavior and performance of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) on the stem, the adaxial (upper), and the abaxial (lower) leaf surfaces during early vegetative growth of soybean plants. Using the electrical penetration graph technique, we found that aphids feeding on the stem took the longest time to begin probing. Once aphids began probing, the sieve elements were more conducive to feeding, as evidenced by less salivation on the stem than either leaf surface. In whole-plant assays, stems harbored higher aphid populations, and aphids had shorter development time on stems than the adaxial and the abaxial leaf surfaces. We compared trichome density and length on the stem, the adaxial, and the abaxial leaf surfaces to investigate whether plant trichomes affected aphid feeding and performance. There were higher density and longer trichomes on stems, which likely resulted in aphids taking a longer time to probe. Still a negative impact on aphid population growth was not observed. Analysis of phloem sap composition revealed that vascular sap-enriched exudates from stems had higher sugars and amino acids than exudates from leaves. In artificial diet feeding assays, the population of aphids reared on a diet supplemented with stem exudates was higher than on a diet supplemented with leaf petiole exudates which is in agreement with results of the whole-plant assays. In summary, our findings suggest that the performance of soybean aphids on a specific plant location is primarily driven by accessibility and the quality of phloem composition rather than structural traits.


Assuntos
Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Floema/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Floema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Tricomas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(2): 204-214, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447946

RESUMO

Secondary metabolites produced in glandular trichomes of tomato are involved in interactions with herbivores. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) glandular trichomes accumulate a blend of abundant monoterpenes and smaller amounts of a few sesquiterpenes. These mono- and sesquiterpenes are synthesized by three terpene synthases, TPS20 as well as TPS9 and TPS12, respectively. To study effects of these terpenes on performance and choice behavior of potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), we utilized two tomato trichome mutants, hairless and odorless-2, that are differently affected in mono- and sesquiterpene production. Non-choice assays demonstrated that longevity and fecundity of M. euphorbiae were increased when kept on the trichome mutants. A principal component analysis of these aphid performance parameters and terpene production in the trichome mutants indicated that longevity and fecundity of M. euphorbiae were negatively correlated with production of the TPS12-derived sesquiterpenes ß-caryophyllene and α-humulene. While we had previously shown that addition of pure ß-caryophyllene/α-humulene to an artificial feeding diet affected M. euphorbiae apterae survivorship and feeding behavior, no such effects were observed here upon addition of a mixture of pure TPS20-derived monoterpenes. In olfactometer assays M. euphorbiae alates displayed differential choice behaviors towards the hairless and odorless-2 mutants suggesting a role of TPS20-derived monoterpenes in aphid attraction, which was further confirmed using a mixture of pure monoterpenes. Our analyses revealed contrasting roles of glandular trichome-derived terpenes in S. lycopersicum. While TPS12-derived sesquiterpenes contribute to host plant resistance against M. euphorbiae, TPS20-derived monoterpenes appear to be exploited as cue for host plant orientation by aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Animais , Fertilidade , Longevidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/metabolismo , Olfatometria
18.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110796, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487333

RESUMO

Flavonoids are small molecular secondary metabolites, which have a variety of biological functions. Transcriptional regulations of key enzyme genes play critical roles in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, SlMYB14, was isolated from tomato and characterized. The nucleus-localized SlMYB14 functions as a transcriptional activator in yeast. The expression of SlMYB14 could be induced by methyl jasmonic acid, wounding and ABA. SlMYB14 works downstream of SlMYC2 in the jasmonate signaling pathway. Overexpression of SlMYB14 under the control of CaMV35S promoter in tomato led to increased accumulation of flavonoids. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that the transcript levels of several structural genes associated with flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in transgenic tomato plants. Gel-shift assays confirmed that SlMYB14 protein could bind to the promoter regions of SlPAL genes. It was also found that overexpression of SlMYB14 improved the tolerance of transgenic plants to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), an environmental organic pollutant which could cause serious oxidative damage to plant. These results suggest that SlMYB14 participates in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and might play a role in maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plant. SlMYB14 gene also has the potential to contribute to the phytoremediation of 2,4,6-TCP-contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Clorofenóis/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/fisiologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Tricomas/metabolismo
19.
J Exp Bot ; 72(5): 1691-1701, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165526

RESUMO

Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) synthesize and secrete large quantities of secondary metabolites, some of which have well-established commercial value. An example is the anti-malarial compound artemisinin, which is synthesized in the GSTs of Artemisia annua. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding the processes that regulate GST density as a strategy to increase artemisinin production. In this study, we identified a GST-specific WRKY transcription factor from A. annua, AaGSW2, which is positively regulated by the direct binding of the homeodomain proteins AaHD1 and AaHD8 to the L1-box of the AaGSW2 promoter. Overexpression of AaGSW2 in A. annua significantly increased GST density, while AaGSW2 knockdown lines showed impaired GST initiation. Ectopic expression of AaGSW2 homologs from two mint cultivars, Mentha spicata and Mentha haplocalyx, in A. annua also induced GST formation. These results reveal a molecular mechanism involving homeodomain and WRKY proteins that controls glandular trichome initiation, at least part of which is shared by A. annua and mint.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Artemisia annua/genética , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo
20.
Nat Plants ; 6(10): 1275-1288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020609

RESUMO

Polar growth requires the precise tuning of Rho GTPase signalling at distinct plasma membrane domains. The activity of Rho of plant (ROP) GTPases is regulated by the opposing action of guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Whereas plant-specific ROPGEFs have been shown to be embedded in higher-level regulatory mechanisms involving membrane-bound receptor-like kinases, the regulation of GAPs has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that three Arabidopsis ARMADILLO REPEAT ONLY (ARO) proteins are essential for the stabilization of growth sites in root hair cells and trichomes. AROs interact with ROP1 enhancer GAPs (RENGAPs) and bind to the plasma membrane via a conserved polybasic region at the ARO amino terminus. The ectopic spreading of ROP2 in aro2/3/4 mutant root hair cells and the preferential interaction of AROs with active ROPs and anionic phospholipids suggests that AROs recruit RENGAPs into complexes with ROPs to confine ROP signalling to distinct membrane regions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas do Domínio Armadillo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas rho de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polaridade Celular , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tricomas/citologia , Tricomas/metabolismo
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