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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008069, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498074

RESUMO

Africa is the second most populous continent and has perennial health challenges. Of the estimated 181 million school aged children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), nearly half suffer from ascariasis, trichuriasis, or a combination of these infections. Coupled with these is the problem of tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which is a leading cause of death in the region. Compared to the effect of the human immunodeficiency virus on the development of TB, the effect of chronic helminth infections is a neglected area of research, yet helminth infections are as ubiquitous as they are varied and may potentially have profound effects upon host immunity, particularly as it relates to TB infection, diagnosis, and vaccination. Protection against active TB is known to require a clearly delineated T-helper type 1 (Th1) response, while helminths induce a strong opposing Th2 and immune-regulatory host response. This Review highlights the potential challenges of helminth-TB co-infection in Africa and the need for further research.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , África/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem
2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(1): 65-74, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Little research exists documenting levels of intestinal inflammation among indigenous populations where exposure to macroparasites, like soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), is common. Reduced STH exposure is hypothesized to contribute to increased prevalence of elevated intestinal inflammation in wealthy nations, likely due to coevolutionary histories between STHs and human immune systems that favored anti-inflammatory pathways. Here, we document levels of intestinal inflammation and test associations with STH infection among the Shuar of Ecuador, an indigenous population undergoing socioeconomic/lifestyle changes that influence their hygienic environment. We predict that fecal calprotectin (FC; a measure of intestinal inflammation) will be lower in STH infected individuals and that FC will be negatively associated with infection intensity. METHODS: Stool samples to analyze FC levels and STH infection were collected from 69 Shuar participants (ages 5-75 years). Children (<15 years) and adults (15+ years) were analyzed separately to understand the role of exposure in immune system development and the intestinal inflammatory response. RESULTS: Two species of STH were present: Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. The relationships between infection and intestinal inflammation were age- and species-specific. While no significant relationships were found among adults, children who were singly infected with T. trichiura had lower FC levels than uninfected children. Infection intensity was not significantly associated with FC in children or adults. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results provide limited support for our hypotheses, documenting tentative age- and species-specific associations between FC and infection status. Findings may point to the importance of species-specific STH exposure during immune system development.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Equador , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(6): 1591-1597, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298802

RESUMO

The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection. A finger-prick blood sample was obtained from each student in the field. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 54.3%, with Trichuris trichiura as the most prevalent species (48.9%). The combination T. trichiura/Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6%) was the most common. When T. trichiura or A. lumbricoides appeared as a single infection, light or moderate intensity infections were seen, whereas when multiple species were identified, heavy infections were present. Anemia was detected in those with any kind of STH infection (42.7%), with statistically significant differences (P = 0.004) when compared with uninfected individuals (28.2%). Polyparasite infection with one parasite species at moderate intensity and the other parasite species at light intensity or absent was found to be a significant factor for the odds of being anemic (odds ratio = 2.07). The present study reveals a high level of STH transmission requiring a deworming control program in Corn Islands and pointing to the need of improving the education and sanitary conditions of the population to avoid environmental contamination and reinfection.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaríase/transmissão , Ascaris lumbricoides/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tricuríase/transmissão , Trichuris/classificação
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 535, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are highly prevalent in the Philippines. Mapping the prevalence and high-intensity of STH co-infections can help guide targeted intervention programmes to reduce morbidity, especially among vulnerable school-aged children. In this study, we aimed to predict the spatial distribution of the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura co-infection and infection intensity classes in the Philippines to identify populations most in need of interventions. METHODS: Data on STH infections from 29,919 individuals during the nationwide parasitological survey in 2005 to 2007 were included in the analysis. To geographically predict the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura co-infections and infection intensity classes, Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were built including age, sex, environmental variables and a geostatistical random effect. The number of individuals co-infected and belonging to each of the infection intensity classes in 2017 was forecast by combining our predictive prevalence maps with population density maps. RESULTS: Our models showed that school-aged children (5-19 years) are most at risk of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura co-infections and of moderate/high infection intensity compared to other age groups. We identified target provinces where the likelihood of STH-associated morbidity was highest: Luzon (Bulacan, Benguet, Cavite, Sorsogon, Metropolitan Manila, Pampanga and Rizal), the Visayas (Cebu, Iloilo, Leyte and Negros Occidental), and in Mindanao (Agusan Del Norte, Davao Del Sur, Davao Oriental, Lanao Del Sur, Maguindanao, Misamis Oriental, Sulu and Zamboanga Del Sur). Luzon had the highest estimated number of school-aged children with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura co-infections (estimated total 89,400), followed by the Visayas (38,300) and Mindanao (20,200). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided epidemiological evidence to highlight national priority areas for controlling co-infections and high intensity infections in the Philippines. Our maps could assist more geographically targeted interventions to reduce the risk of STH-associated morbidity in the Philippines.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Interação Espacial , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(8): 397-404, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053259

RESUMO

Background: Co-infection with multiple soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is common in communities with a high STH prevalence. The life histories of STH species share important characteristics, particularly in the gut, and there is the potential for interaction, but evidence on whether interactions may be facilitating or antagonistic are limited. Methods: Data from a pretreatment cross-sectional survey of STH egg deposition in a tea plantation community in Sri Lanka were analysed to evaluate patterns of co-infection and changes in egg deposition. Results: There were positive associations between Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and both Necator americanus (hookworm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), but N. americanus and Ascaris were not associated. N. americanus and Ascaris infections had lower egg depositions when they were in single infections than when they were co-infecting. There was no clear evidence of a similar effect of co-infection in Trichuris egg deposition. Conclusions: Associations in prevalence and egg deposition in STH species may vary, possibly indicating that effects of co-infection are species dependent. We suggest that between-species interactions that differ by species could explain these results, but further research in different populations is needed to support this theory.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaris lumbricoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coinfecção , Infecções por Uncinaria/complicações , Tricuríase/complicações , Trichuris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase , Helmintos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Solo , Sri Lanka , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(2): 570-575, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260648

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the prevalence of enteroparasites in preschool children originating from the seven departments of the Pacific region in Nicaragua. One stool sample of each of 1,217 children, from 6 months to 5 years of age, was collected and personal data were recorded on delivery of the container. Samples fixed in 10% formalin were processed by a formol-acetate concentration and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. The overall prevalence of enteroparasite infections was 68.2% with a total of at least 20 species. Blastocystis hominis (45.5%), Giardia intestinalis (31.7%), Trichuris trichiura (8.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.2%) were the most prevalent protozoa and helminth species in the total study as well as in all departments. Protozoan prevalence presented a statistically significant difference by gender (male: 69.6%; female: 46.7%; P < 0.001), and males presented a higher T. trichiura infection rate than females (male: 9.9%; female 6.4%; P < 0.035). Protozoan prevalence increased with age with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Helminths were always more prevalent in urban areas (P < 0.0002). Protozoan infections result statistically higher than helminth infections so that water-based transmission could be suspected. Based on the differences with respect to species and parasite prevalence between the seven departments in the Pacific region of Nicaragua, the exploration of local factors associated with the transmission of enteroparasites should also be considered to reduce infection.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/complicações , Tricuríase/complicações , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidade , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/parasitologia , Helmintos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/parasitologia , Trichuris/patogenicidade
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(6): e0005708, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650985

RESUMO

Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/deficiência , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Trichuris/patogenicidade , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Animais , Doença Crônica , Neoplasias do Colo/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Incidência , Camundongos
9.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 69(4): 243-247, 2017 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449427

RESUMO

Trichuris trichiura infection is a common helminth infection, which is transmitted via soil, with worldwide distribution, especially in rural areas of developing countries. Occasionally, sporadic cases occur in non-endemic, developed areas due to the widespread of immigration. We experienced a case of Trichuris dysentery syndrome in a young North Korean defector, who had been suffering from chronic abdominal pain for 10 years. He is relatively short and thin compared with his older brother. Unexpectedly, the diagnosis, made by a colonoscopy, revealed numerous, small, white, and gently moving worms at the cecum and ascending colon. After 3 days of albendazole (400 mg once daily) administration, clinical symptoms subsided dramatically. On the follow-up colonoscopy, which was performed two months after the completion of his treatment, complete eradication was identified. Soil-transmitted helminths, including Trichuris trichiura, are disappearing becoming less prevalent in South Korea as a result of both national driving force and environmental improvement. However, these diseases should be considered when we meet foreign patients from developing countries, like North Korea, presenting chronic abdominal pain. Moreover, proper treatment of North Korean defectors and performing cohort studies of them would help to prepare for the possible unification era in the field of gastroenterology.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Adulto , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Ceco/patologia , Colo/parasitologia , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Disenteria/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Óvulo/patologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Trichuris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
11.
Parasite Immunol ; 39(1)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743501

RESUMO

Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T. trichiura clearance, and this served as a positive infectious control. Trichuris trichiura colonization induced equally increased expressions of T-helper (h)1-, Th2-, Th17- and Treg-associated cytokines and transcription factors, measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We observed several indicators of modulation of systemic immunity during the T. trichiura infection. Plasma eosinophils and anti-Trichuris antibodies rose markedly during the inoculation phase, and a shift towards a Th2-dominated T cell response at the expense of the Th1-response was observed in circulating T cells. Taken together, our findings corroborate that helminths modulate regional and systemic human immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas , Tricuríase/imunologia , Trichuris/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Tricuríase/complicações
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 95(4): 856-863, 2016 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573634

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection has been associated with lower cognitive performance of schoolchildren. To identify pathways through which STH infection might affect school performance, baseline data from a large rice-fortification trial in Cambodian schoolchildren were used to investigate associations between STH infection, micronutrient status, anemia, and cognitive performance. Complete data on anthropometry, cognitive performance, and micronutrient status were available for 1,760 schoolchildren, 6-16 years of age. STH infection was identified using Kato-Katz, whereas cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), block design, and picture completion. STH infection was found in 18% of the children; almost exclusively hookwork infection. After adjusting for age and gender, raw cognitive test scores were significantly lower in hookworm-infected children (-0.65; -0.78; -2.03 points for picture completion, RCPM, and block design, respectively; P < 0.05 for all). Hookworm infection was associated with iron status (total body iron), but not with vitamin A and zinc status, nor with inflammation or anthropometry. Body iron was negatively associated with increased intensity of hookworm infection (R = 0.22, P < 0.001). Hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren was associated with lower cognitive performance, an effect most likely mediated through lower body iron. Interventions that are more effective against hookworm infection are needed to contribute to better health and improvement of cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/psicologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Uncinaria/psicologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Ascaríase/complicações , Ascaríase/metabolismo , Ascaríase/psicologia , Camboja , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Coinfecção , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Uncinaria/complicações , Infecções por Uncinaria/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Teníase/complicações , Teníase/metabolismo , Teníase/psicologia , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/metabolismo , Tricuríase/psicologia , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
13.
Arab J Gastroenterol ; 17(2): 67-72, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27426957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Gastric cancer is highly prevalent in Kashmir, as are lower gastrointestinal (LGI) malignancies. Colonic cancer, gastric cancer, and coeliac disease are the most important gastrointestinal (GI) causes of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) worldwide. Approximately 9% of patients with IDA present with a suspicious lesion in the GI tract upon examination. However, the absence of GI symptoms and a possible lesion accounting for blood loss in IDA have not been studied in this zone with a high prevalence of GI malignancy. We aimed to examine IDA patients without GI symptoms to determine the most plausible cause of their blood loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients with IDA and 250 control subjects without IDA and referred for gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled in a cross-sectional, comparative study. Patients presenting with a significant lesion proportionate to their anaemia in the upper GI tract were not examined further, if no further strong indications were present. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients (29%) were found to have malignancy: 13 with gastric cancer and 16 with colonic malignancies. Other apparent causes of GI blood loss included peptic ulcer disease in 10 (10%) patients, haemorrhoids in 22 (25%), polyps in eight (three in the upper GI tract and five in the LGI tract), gastric erosions in eight (8%), and angiodysplasia, diverticulitis, and trichuriasis in two (2%) each. CONCLUSION: In light of the high incidence of GI malignancies in this patient group, a low threshold for GI screening as well as mass screening for IDA is needed.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica Hemorrágica/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiodisplasia/complicações , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diverticulite/complicações , Feminino , Hemorroidas/complicações , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pólipos Intestinais/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tricuríase/complicações , Adulto Jovem
14.
Trop Doct ; 46(2): 100-2, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264463

RESUMO

Trichuris trichiura (T. Trichiura) is a known parasite infestation among tropical children. Humans acquire Trichuriasis infection after ingestion of embryonated eggs via contaminated food or water. Most of them are asymptomatic. A severe form of trichuris infestation is known as Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS). It manifests as mucous diarrhoea, bleeding, malnutrition and stunting, or even life-threatening anaemia. We are reporting an interesting case of a 7-year-old girl who presented with bloody diarrhoea for 2 years. Her growth was stunted as she was not gaining weight. Severe inflammatory bowel disease was suspected clinically. Physical examination revealed marked pallor, pedal oedema and koilonychia along with sparse and hypopigmented hair. On evaluationT. Trichiurahelminths were seen on stool examination and massive worm load was visualised directly on colonoscopy. A diagnosis of TDS was made. She was successfully treated with oral Albendazole (400 mg) and blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Colonoscopia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico , Tricuríase/parasitologia
15.
Trop Biomed ; 32(3): 545-50, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26695216

RESUMO

Trichuris Dysentery Syndrome (TDS) is a severe persistent trichuriasis associated with heavy worm build-up in the colon that continues to be neglected and underestimated in endemic countries. Trichuriasis is most prevalent in children in tropical countries, and that increases the risk of TDS. We reported a series of four preschool children of both genders chronically having TDS over a period ranging from several months to years presenting with anaemia. The hemoglobin levels ranged from 4.6 to 9.1 g/dl on first admissions. Despite treatment, the cases were reported to have failure to thrive with persistent anaemia. It was concluded that TDS should be considered in endemic areas among children presenting with chronic bloody diarrhea and anaemia.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Colo/parasitologia , Disenteria/etiologia , Disenteria/patologia , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Tricuríase/patologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Anemia/etiologia , Anemia/patologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Disenteria/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Falha de Tratamento , Tricuríase/complicações
16.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 309(6): G455-65, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206858

RESUMO

Mucosal inflammation is accompanied by an alteration in 5-HT. Intestinal 5-HT synthesis is catalyzed by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and we have shown that mice deficient in this rate-limiting enzyme have reduced severity of intestinal inflammation in models of chemical-induced experimental colitis. Here, we investigated the effect of blocking peripheral 5-HT synthesis in generation of intestinal inflammation by a using peripheral Tph inhibitor, telotristat etiprate (LX1606), in models of intestinal inflammation. LX1606 was given orally either prophylactically or therapeutically to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis or with infection with Trichuris muris. Severity of intestinal inflammation was measured by assessment of disease activity scores, histological damage, and MPO and inflammatory cytokine levels. LX1606 significantly reduced intestinal 5-HT levels and delayed onset and severity of DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis. This was associated with decreased MPO and proinflammatory cytokine levels compared with vehicle-treated controls. In the infection-induced inflammation model, treatment with LX1606 enhanced worm expulsion as well as increased IL-10 production and goblet cell numbers. LX1606-treated mice had significantly lower MPO and IL-1ß levels compared with controls postinfection. Our results demonstrate that peripheral 5-HT plays an important role in intestinal inflammation and in the generation of immune responses. Pharmacological reduction of peripheral 5-HT may serve as a potential strategy for modulating various intestinal inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Serotonina/biossíntese , Tricuríase/complicações , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células Enterocromafins/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Trichuris , Triptofano Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 129(3): 199-202, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25733444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of helminth infestation during pregnancy and the associated risks of adverse maternal and infant outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of women with a singleton pregnancy of at least 34 weeks was conducted at a teaching hospital in Benin City, Nigeria, between April 1 and September 30, 2010. Socioeconomic and clinical data were obtained. Stool samples were used to determine helminth infection. Birth weight was recorded at delivery. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the link between helminth infestation and maternal and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: Among 178 women, 31 (17.4%) had a helminth infestation (15 [8.4%] had ascariasis, 8 [4.5%] trichuriasis, and 25 [14.0%] hookworm infestation). Multivariate analysis found that helminth infestations was associated with maternal anemia (adjusted odds ratio 12.4; 95% confidence interval 4.2-36.3) and low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio 6.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-21.9). CONCLUSION: Approximately one in five women had a helminth infestation in the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal helminth infestation significantly increased the risks of maternal anemia and low birth weight, indicating that routine administration of anthelminthic drugs during early pregnancy might improve perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/parasitologia , Ascaríase/complicações , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Uncinaria/complicações , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , Tricuríase/complicações , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Microbiol ; 14: 9, 2014 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24433309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global epidemiology of parasitic helminths and mycobacterial infections display extensive geographical overlap, especially in the rural and urban communities of developing countries. We investigated whether co-infection with the gastrointestinal tract-restricted helminth, Trichuris muris, and the intracellular bacterium, Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) BCG, would alter host immune responses to, or the pathological effect of, either infection. RESULTS: We demonstrate that both pathogens are capable of negatively affecting local and systemic immune responses towards each other by modifying cytokine phenotypes and by inducing general immune suppression. T. muris infection influenced non-specific and pathogen-specific immunity to M. bovis BCG by down-regulating pulmonary TH1 and Treg responses and inducing systemic TH2 responses. However, co-infection did not alter mycobacterial multiplication or dissemination and host pulmonary histopathology remained unaffected compared to BCG-only infected mice. Interestingly, prior M. bovis BCG infection significantly delayed helminth clearance and increased intestinal crypt cell proliferation in BALB/c mice. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in systemic helminth-specific TH1 and TH2 cytokine responses and significantly reduced local TH1 and TH2 responses in comparison to T. muris-only infected mice. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that co-infection with pathogens inducing opposing immune phenotypes, can have differential effects on compartmentalized host immune protection to either pathogen. In spite of local and systemic decreases in TH1 and increases in TH2 responses co-infected mice clear M. bovis BCG at the same rate as BCG only infected animals, whereas prior mycobacterial infection initiates prolonged worm infestation in parallel to decreased pathogen-specific TH2 cytokine production.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tricuríase/imunologia , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/microbiologia
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 199(1-2): 73-80, 2014 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24126087

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the population dynamics and potential interactions between Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum in experimentally co-infected pigs, by quantification of parasite parameters such as egg excretion, worm recovery and worm location. Forty-eight helminth naïve pigs were allocated into four groups. Group O was inoculated with 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and Group T with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day. Group OT was inoculated with both 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day and 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day, while Group C was kept as an uninfected control group. All inoculations were trickle infections administered twice weekly and were continued until slaughter. Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of all pigs at day 0, and twice weekly from 2 to 9 weeks post first infection (wpi). Six pigs from each group were necropsied 5 wpi and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were necropsied 10 wpi. The faecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm burdens of O. dentatum were dramatically influenced by the presence of T. suis, with significantly lower mean FECs and worm burdens at 5 and 10 wpi compared to single infected pigs. Furthermore, in the presence of T. suis we found that O. dentatum was located more posteriorly in the gut. The changes in the Trichuris population were less prominent, but faecal egg counts, worm counts 5 wpi (57% recovered vs. 39%) and the proportion of infected animals at 10 wpi were higher in Group OT compared to Group T. The location of T. suis was unaffected by the presence of O. dentatum. These results indicate an antagonistic interaction between T. suis and O. dentatum which is dominated by T. suis.


Assuntos
Esofagostomíase/veterinária , Oesophagostomum/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Tricuríase/veterinária , Trichuris/fisiologia , Animais , Coinfecção , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Esofagostomíase/complicações , Esofagostomíase/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Carga Parasitária , Dinâmica Populacional , Suínos , Tricuríase/complicações , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Ganho de Peso
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