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1.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 105, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination programs have been launched worldwide to halt the spread of COVID-19. However, the identification of existing, safe compounds with combined treatment and prophylactic properties would be beneficial to individuals who are waiting to be vaccinated, particularly in less economically developed countries, where vaccine availability may be initially limited. METHODS: We used a data-driven approach, combining results from the screening of a large transcriptomic database (L1000) and molecular docking analyses, with in vitro tests using a lung organoid model of SARS-CoV-2 entry, to identify drugs with putative multimodal properties against COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of thousands of FDA-approved drugs considered, we observed that atorvastatin was the most promising candidate, as its effects negatively correlated with the transcriptional changes associated with infection. Atorvastatin was further predicted to bind to SARS-CoV-2's main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and was shown to inhibit viral entry in our lung organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: Small clinical studies reported that general statin use, and specifically, atorvastatin use, are associated with protective effects against COVID-19. Our study corroborrates these findings and supports the investigation of atorvastatin in larger clinical studies. Ultimately, our framework demonstrates one promising way to fast-track the identification of compounds for COVID-19, which could similarly be applied when tackling future pandemics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Atorvastatina/química , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Organoides/virologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Trifluoperazina/química , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vesiculovirus/genética , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Life Sci ; 283: 119849, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343539

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin frequently complicates treatment outcome. Aberrantly activated calcium/calmodulin pathway can eventually trigger signaling cascades that mediate cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that trifluoperazine, a strong calmodulin antagonist, may alleviate this morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heart failure and cardiotoxicity were assessed via echocardiography, PCR, immunohistochemistry, histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy. Whereas liver and kidney structural and functional alterations were evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that combination treatment with trifluoperazine could overcome doxorubicin-induced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Moreover, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathological examination showed that trifluoperazine mitigated doxorubicin-induced cardiac atrophy, inflammation and myofibril degeneration. Transmission electron microscopy further confirmed the marked restoration of the left ventricular ultrastructures by trifluoperazine pretreatment. In addition, Masson's trichrome staining revealed that trifluoperazine could significantly inhibit doxorubicin-induced left ventricular remodeling by fibrosis. Of note, doxorubicin induced the expression of myocardial nuclear NF-κB-p65 and caspase-3 which were markedly inhibited by trifluoperazine, suggesting that cardioprotection conferred by trifluoperazine involved, at least in part, suppression of NF-κB and apoptosis. Furthermore, biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that trifluoperazine improved doxorubicin-induced renal and hepatic impairments both functionally and structurally. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present in vivo study is the first to provide evidences underscoring the protective effects of trifluoperazine that may pave the way for repurposing this calmodulin antagonist in ameliorating organ toxicity by doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade , Cardiotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Cardiotoxinas/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805714

RESUMO

Trifluoperazine (TFP), an antipsychotic drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration, has been show to exhibit anti-cancer effects. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by a progressive obliteration of small pulmonary arteries (PAs) due to exaggerated proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). However, the therapeutic potential of TFP for correcting the cancer-like phenotype of PAH-PASMCs and improving PAH in animal models remains unknown. PASMCs isolated from PAH patients were exposed to different concentrations of TFP before assessments of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The in vivo therapeutic potential of TFP was tested in two preclinical models with established PAH, namely the monocrotaline and sugen/hypoxia-induced rat models. Assessments of hemodynamics by right heart catheterization and histopathology were conducted. TFP showed strong anti-survival and anti-proliferative effects on cultured PAH-PASMCs. Exposure to TFP was associated with downregulation of AKT activity and nuclear translocation of forkhead box protein O3 (FOXO3). In both preclinical models, TFP significantly lowered the right ventricular systolic pressure and total pulmonary resistance and improved cardiac function. Consistently, TFP reduced the medial wall thickness of distal PAs. Overall, our data indicate that TFP could have beneficial effects in PAH and support the view that seeking new uses for old drugs may represent a fruitful approach.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Monocrotalina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Survivina/genética , Survivina/metabolismo
4.
FASEB J ; 35(3): e21381, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617091

RESUMO

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a pathological process that fibrotic components are excessively deposited in the renal interstitial space due to kidney injury, resulting in impaired renal function and chronic kidney disease. The molecular mechanisms controlling renal fibrosis are not fully understood. In this present study, we identified Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1), a transcription factor also called p8, as a novel regulator promoting renal fibrosis. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) time-dependently induced Nupr1 mRNA and protein expression in mouse kidneys while causing renal damage and fibrosis. Nupr1 deficiency (Nupr1-/- ) attenuated the renal tubule dilatation, tubular epithelial cell atrophy, and interstitial collagen accumulation caused by UUO. Consistently, Nupr1-/- significantly decreased the expression of type I collagen, myofibroblast markers smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA), fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1), and vimentin in mouse kidney that were upregulated by UUO. These results suggest that Nupr1 protein was essential for fibroblast activation and/or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during renal fibrogenesis. Indeed, Nupr1 was indispensable for TGF-ß-induced myofibroblast activation of kidney interstitial NRK-49F fibroblasts, multipotent mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells, and the EMT of kidney epithelial NRK-52E cells. It appears that Nupr1 mediated TGF-ß-induced α-SMA expression and collagen synthesis by initiating Smad3 signaling pathway. Importantly, trifluoperazine (TFP), a Nupr1 inhibitor, alleviated UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Nupr1 promotes renal fibrosis by activating myofibroblast transformation from both fibroblasts and tubular epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Rim/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miofibroblastos/fisiologia , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/fisiologia , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 534: 107-113, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316543

RESUMO

Measurement of autophagic flux in vivo is critical to understand how autophagy can be used to combat disease. Neurodegenerative diseases have a special relationship with autophagy, which makes measurement of autophagy in the brain a significant research priority. Currently, measurement of autophagic flux is possible through use of transgenic constructs, or application of a lysosomal inhibitor such as chloroquine. Unfortunately, chloroquine is not useful for measuring autophagic flux in the brain and the use of transgenic animals necessitates cross-breeding of transgenic strains and maintenance of lines, which is costly. To find a drug that could block lysosomal function in the brain for the measurement of autophagic flux, we selected compounds from the literature that appeared to have similar properties to chloroquine and tested their ability to inhibit autophagic flux in cell culture and in mice. These chemicals included chloroquine, quinacrine, mefloquine, promazine and trifluoperazine. As expected, chloroquine blocked lysosomal degradation of the autophagic protein LC3B-II in cell culture. Quinacrine also inhibited autophagic flux in cell culture. Other compounds tested were not effective. When injected into mice, chloroquine caused accumulation of LC3B-II in heart tissue, and quinacrine was effective at blocking LC3B-II degradation in male, but not female skeletal muscle. None of the compounds tested were useful for measuring autophagic flux in the brain. During this study we also noted that the vehicle DMSO powerfully up-regulated LC3B-II abundance in tissues. This study shows that chloroquine and quinacrine can both be used to measure autophagic flux in cells, and in some peripheral tissues. However, measurement of flux in the brain using lysosomal inhibitors remains an unresolved research challenge.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Mefloquina/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Promazina/farmacologia , Quinacrina/farmacologia , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia
6.
Cell ; 181(4): 784-799.e19, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413299

RESUMO

Swelling of the brain or spinal cord (CNS edema) affects millions of people every year. All potential pharmacological interventions have failed in clinical trials, meaning that symptom management is the only treatment option. The water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes and mediates water flux across the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers. Here we show that AQP4 cell-surface abundance increases in response to hypoxia-induced cell swelling in a calmodulin-dependent manner. Calmodulin directly binds the AQP4 carboxyl terminus, causing a specific conformational change and driving AQP4 cell-surface localization. Inhibition of calmodulin in a rat spinal cord injury model with the licensed drug trifluoperazine inhibited AQP4 localization to the blood-spinal cord barrier, ablated CNS edema, and led to accelerated functional recovery compared with untreated animals. We propose that targeting the mechanism of calmodulin-mediated cell-surface localization of AQP4 is a viable strategy for development of CNS edema therapies.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Edema/metabolismo , Edema/terapia , Animais , Aquaporina 4/fisiologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Edema/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11085-11096, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358191

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest adult brain cancer, and all patients ultimately succumb to the disease. Radiation therapy (RT) provides survival benefit of 6 mo over surgery alone, but these results have not improved in decades. We report that radiation induces a glioma-initiating cell phenotype, and we have identified trifluoperazine (TFP) as a compound that interferes with this phenotype conversion. TFP causes loss of radiation-induced Nanog mRNA expression, and activation of GSK3 with consecutive posttranslational reduction in p-Akt, Sox2, and ß-catenin protein levels. TFP did not alter the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of glioma-initiating cells (GICs). Continuous treatment with TFP and a single dose of radiation reduced the number of GICs in vivo and prolonged survival in syngeneic and patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models of GBM. Our findings suggest that the combination of a dopamine receptor antagonist with radiation enhances the efficacy of RT in GBM by preventing radiation-induced phenotype conversion of radiosensitive non-GICs into treatment-resistant, induced GICs (iGICs).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/radioterapia , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1 , Trifluoperazina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta Catenina
8.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(6): 265-272, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365382

RESUMO

The link between Ca2+ dysregulation, mitochondria damages, oxidative stress and cellular derangement is particularly evident in neurotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic agents. In the current study, we investigated effects of trifluoperazine (TFP) as an inhibitor of calmodulin against the cytotoxicity induced by cytarabine (Ara-C) and Ifosfamide (IFOS) on isolated rat neurons and also the mechanisms involved in this toxicity. Isolated rat neurons were pretreated with TFP (100 µM) for 5 min at 37°C, then Ara-C (226 µM) and IFOS (290 µM) were added in separate experiments. After 3 h, the cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lysosomal membrane destabilization, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were measured. Ara-C and IFOS treatments caused a significant decrease in cellular viability, which was accompanied by ROS generation, GSSG/GSH ratio, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal and mitochondrial damages. On the other hand, TFP (100 µM) pre-treatment attenuated Ara-C and IFOS -induced decrease in cell viability. In addition, TFP (100 µM) pre-treatment significantly protected against Ara-C and IFOS -induced increase in ROS generation, lysosomal and mitochondrial damages, lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio. Our data provided insights into the mechanism of protection by TFP against Ara-C and IFOS neurotoxicity, which is related, to neuronal ROS formation and mitochondrial damages.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Citarabina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ifosfamida/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/uso terapêutico
9.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 127, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179850

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a prevailing genetic disorder of intellectual disability and autism. There is no efficacious medication for FXS. Through in silico screening with a public database, computational analysis of transcriptome profile in FXS mouse neurons predicts therapeutic value of an FDA-approved drug trifluoperazine. Systemic administration of low-dose trifluoperazine at 0.05 mg/kg attenuates multiple FXS- and autism-related behavioral symptoms. Moreover, computational analysis of transcriptome alteration caused by trifluoperazine suggests a new mechanism of action against PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase) activity. Consistently, trifluoperazine suppresses PI3K activity and its down-stream targets Akt (protein kinase B) and S6K1 (S6 kinase 1) in neurons. Further, trifluoperazine normalizes the aberrantly elevated activity of Akt and S6K1 and enhanced protein synthesis in FXS mouse. Together, our data demonstrate a promising value of transcriptome-based computation in identification of therapeutic strategy and repurposing drugs for neurological disorders, and suggest trifluoperazine as a potential treatment for FXS.


Assuntos
Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/tratamento farmacológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/enzimologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/enzimologia , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 524(1): 224-230, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983428

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are found in low-grade gliomas, and the product of the IDH mutant (MT), 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), is the first known oncometabolite. However, the roles of the IDH wild type (WT) in high-grade glioblastoma, which rarely has the IDH mutation, are still unknown. To investigate possible pathways related to IDH WT in gliomas, we carried out bioinformatics analysis, and found that IDH1 has several putative calmodulin (CaM) binding sites. Pull-down and quantitative dissociation constant (Kd) measurements using recombinant proteins showed that IDH1 WT indeed binds to CaM with a higher affinity than IDH1 R132H MT. This biochemical interaction was demonstrated also in the cellular environment by immunoprecipitation with glioblastoma cell extracts. A synthetic peptide for the suggested binding region interfered with the interaction between CaM and IDH1, confirming the specificity of the binding. Direct binding between the synthetic peptide and CaM was observed in an NMR binding experiment, which additionally revealed that the peptide initially binds to the C-lobe of CaM. The physiological meaning of the CaM-IDH1 WT binding was shown with trifluoperazine (TFP), a CaM antagonist, which disrupted the binding and inhibited survival and migration of glioblastoma cells with IDH1 WT. As CaM signaling is activated in glioblastoma, our results suggest that IDH1 WT may be involved in the CaM-signaling pathway in the tumorigenesis of high-grade gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/química , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia
11.
Oncol Rep ; 43(2): 681-688, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922247

RESUMO

Nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1)/p8, a transcriptional regulator, has the ability to facilitate lung cancer cell survival. Adeno­associated virus (AAV)­based vectors are efficient vehicles for gene transfer and expression. In this study, an AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA vector was constructed that effectively inhibited the expression of NUPR1 in a tumor xenograft model derived from lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Trifluoperazine (TFP), which is an antipsychotic drug, has the ability to bind to NUPR1 and mimic NUPR1 deficiency in cancer cells. It was also found that the combination of TFP and AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA delivery led to significant tumor growth inhibition in nude mice bearing human lung cancer xenografts. Moreover, AAV­mediated NUPR1 shRNA therapy induced premature senescence in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest a putative role for the combination of AAV­NUPR1 shRNA and TFP in lung cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Trifluoperazina/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dependovirus/genética , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262032

RESUMO

Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the primary treatment for metastatic bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC). Most patients inevitably encounter drug resistance and resultant disease relapse. Reduced apoptosis plays a critical role in chemoresistance. Trifluoperazine (TFP), an antipsychotic agent, has demonstrated antitumor effects on various cancers. This study investigated the efficacy of TFP in inhibiting cisplatin-resistant bladder UC and explored the underlying mechanism. Our results revealed that cisplatin-resistant UC cells (T24/R) upregulated the antiapoptotic factor, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). Knockdown of Bcl-xL by siRNA resensitized cisplatin-resistant cells to the cisplatin cytotoxic effect. TFP (10-45 µM) alone elicited dose-dependent cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and G0/G1 arrest on T24/R cells. Co-treatment of TFP potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in T24/R cells. The phenomenon that TFP alleviated cisplatin resistance to T24/R was accompanied with concurrent suppression of Bcl-xL. In vivo models confirmed that TFP alone effectively suppressed the T24/R xenograft in nude mice. TFP co-treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin on the T24/R xenograft. Our results demonstrated that TFP effectively inhibited cisplatin-resistant UCs and circumvented cisplatin resistance with concurrent Bcl-xL downregulation. These findings provide a promising insight to develop a therapeutic strategy for chemoresistant UCs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Camundongos , Trifluoperazina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Urotélio/metabolismo , Urotélio/patologia , Proteína bcl-X/genética
13.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 15756-15765, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081173

RESUMO

The development of cancer in patients with schizophrenia is affected by genetic and environmental factors and antipsychotic medication. Several studies found that schizophrenia was associated with decreased risk of some cancers, and the neuroleptic medication might help to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Phenothiazine drugs including trifluoperazine (TFP) are widely used antipsychotic drugs and showed some antitumor effects, we here investigated the potential application of TFP in the treatment of colon cancer. A series doses of TFP were treated to the colon cancer cell line HCT116 and the inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of TFP for HCT116 was determined by cell counting kit-8. The results indicated that the treatment of TFP impaired the cell vitality of HCT116 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the Edu assay demonstrated that the proliferation was also inhibited by TFP, which was accompanied with the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The expression of CCNE1, CDK4, and antiapoptosis factor BCL-2 was downregulated but the proapoptosis factor BAX was upregulated. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine could significantly reverse the TFP-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the ability of migration and invasion of HCT116 was found to be suppressed by TFP, which was associated with the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The function of TFP in vivo was further confirmed. The results showed that the administration of TFP remarkably abrogated the tumor growth with decreased tumor volume and proliferation index Ki-67 level in tumor tissues. The EMT phenotype was also confirmed to be inhibited by TFP in vivo, suggesting the promising antitumor effects of TFP in CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Trifluoperazina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fatores de Tempo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 42(4): 521-536, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although EGFR activation is a hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM), anti-EGFR therapy has so far not yielded the desired effects. Targeting PI3K/Akt has been proposed as a strategy to increase the cellular sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors. Here we evaluated the contribution of FOXO3a, a key Akt target, in the response of GBM cells to EGFR inhibition. METHODS: FOXO3a activation was assessed by immunofluorescence and gene reporter assays, and by evaluating target gene expression using Western blotting and qRT-PCR. Cellular effects were evaluated using cell viability and apoptosis assays, i.e., Annexin V/PI staining and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. Drug synergism was evaluated by performing isobolographic analyses. Gene silencing experiments were performed using stable shRNA transfections. RESULTS: We found that EGFR inhibition in GBM cells led to FOXO3a activation and to transcriptional modulation of its key targets, including repression of the oncogene FOXM1. In addition, we found that specific FOXO3a activation recapitulated the molecular effects of EGFR inhibition, and that the FOXO3a activator trifluoperazine, a FDA-approved antipsychotic agent, reduced GBM cell growth. Subsequent isobolographic analyses of combination experiments indicated that trifluoperazine and erlotinib cooperated synergistically and that their concomitant treatment induced a robust activation of FOXO3a, leading to apoptosis in GBM cells. Using gene silencing, we found that FOXO3a is essential for the response of GBM cells to EGFR inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that FOXO3a activation is a crucial event in the response of GBM cells to EGFR inhibition, suggesting that FOXO3a may serve as an actionable therapeutic target that can be modulated using FDA-approved drugs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ativação Transcricional/genética , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Trifluoperazina/uso terapêutico
15.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(6): 972-984, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911127

RESUMO

Bacterial virulence factors are attractive targets for the development of therapeutics. Type IV pili, which are associated with a remarkable array of properties including motility, the interaction between bacteria and attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces, represent particularly appealing virulence factor targets. Type IV pili are present in numerous bacterial species and are critical for their pathogenesis. In this study, we report that trifluoperazine and related phenothiazines block functions associated with Type IV pili in different bacterial pathogens, by affecting piliation within minutes. Using Neisseria meningitidis as a paradigm of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that require Type IV pili for pathogenesis, we show that piliation is sensitive to altered activity of the Na+ pumping NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) complex and that these compounds probably altered the establishment of the sodium gradient. In vivo, these compounds exert a strong protective effect. They reduce meningococcal colonization of the human vessels and prevent subsequent vascular dysfunctions, intravascular coagulation and overwhelming inflammation, the hallmarks of invasive meningococcal infections. Finally, they reduce lethality. This work provides a proof of concept that compounds with activity against bacterial Type IV pili could beneficially participate in the treatment of infections caused by Type IV pilus-expressing bacteria.


Assuntos
Fímbrias Bacterianas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fímbrias Bacterianas/fisiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/lesões , Vasos Sanguíneos/microbiologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Humanos , Camundongos , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Pele/patologia , Transplante de Pele , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia
16.
J Clin Invest ; 129(6): 2500-2513, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920390

RESUMO

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are emerging as attractive drug targets by virtue of their prevalence in various diseases including cancer. Drug development targeting IDPs is challenging because they have dynamical structure features and conventional drug design is not applicable. NUPR1 is an IDP playing an important role in pancreatic cancer. We previously reported that Trifluoperazine (TFP), an antipsychotic agent, was capable of binding to NUPR1 and inhibiting tumors growth. Unfortunately, TFP showed strong central nervous system side-effects. In this work, we undertook a multidisciplinary approach to optimize TFP, based on the synergy of computer modeling, chemical synthesis, and a variety of biophysical, biochemical and biological evaluations. A family of TFP-derived compounds was produced and the most active one, named ZZW-115, showed a dose-dependent tumor regression with no neurological effects and induced cell death mainly by necroptosis. This study opens a new perspective for drug development against IDPs, demonstrating the possibility of successful ligand-based drug design for such challenging targets.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Trifluoperazina , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Células PC-3 , Trifluoperazina/análogos & derivados , Trifluoperazina/síntese química , Trifluoperazina/química , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Protoplasma ; 256(4): 1165-1169, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675652

RESUMO

Glutamate (Glu), a neurotransmitter in animal, is a novel signaling molecule in plants, which takes part in cellular metabolism, seed germination, plant growth, development, and long-distance information transfer. However, whether Glu can enhance the heat tolerance in maize seedlings and its relation to calcium signaling is still elusive. In this study, maize seedlings were pretreated with Glu and then exposed to heat stress. The results showed that Glu pretreatment enhanced the survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat tolerance, indicating that Glu could increase the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. The Glu-induced heat tolerance was weakened by exogenous calcium chloride, plasma membrane Ca2+ channel blocker (LaCl3), Ca2+ chelator (ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethylether)-N,N, N΄,N΄-tetraacetic acid), calmodulin antagonists (trifluoperazine and chlopromazine), and plant glutamate receptor-like antagonists (MgCl2 and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline- 2,3-(1H,4H)- dione). These findings for the first time reported that Glu could increase the heat tolerance of maize seedlings by plant glutamate receptor-like channels-mediated calcium signaling.


Assuntos
Glutamatos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Calmodulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Magnésio , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Glutamato , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
J Gen Physiol ; 151(1): 9-17, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442775

RESUMO

Despite extensive efforts spanning multiple decades, the development of highly effective Ca2+ sensitizers for the heart remains an elusive goal. Existing Ca2+ sensitizers have other targets in addition to cardiac troponin (cTn), which can lead to adverse side effects, such as hypotension or arrhythmias. Thus, there is a need to design Ca2+-sensitizing drugs with higher affinity and selectivity for cTn. Previously, we determined that many compounds based on diphenylamine (DPA) were able to bind to a cTnC-cTnI chimera with moderate affinity (Kd ∼10-120 µM). Of these compounds, 3-chlorodiphenylamine (3-Cl-DPA) bound most tightly (Kd of 10 µM). Here, we investigate 3-Cl-DPA further and find that it increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of force development in skinned cardiac muscle. Using NMR, we show that, like the known Ca2+ sensitizers, trifluoperazine (TFP) and bepridil, 3-Cl-DPA is able to bind to the isolated N-terminal domain (N-domain) of cTnC (Kd of 6 µM). However, while the bulky molecules of TFP and bepridil stabilize the open state of the N-domain of cTnC, the small and flexible 3-Cl-DPA molecule is able to bind without stabilizing this open state. Thus, unlike TFP, which drastically slows the rate of Ca2+ dissociation from the N-domain of isolated cTnC in a dose-dependent manner, 3-Cl-DPA has no effect on the rate of Ca2+ dissociation. On the other hand, the affinity of 3-Cl-DPA for a cTnC-TnI chimera is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of TFP or bepridil, likely because 3-Cl-DPA is less disruptive of cTnI binding to cTnC. Therefore, 3-Cl-DPA has a bigger effect on the rate of Ca2+ dissociation from the entire cTn complex than TFP and bepridil. Our data suggest that 3-Cl-DPA activates the cTn complex via a unique mechanism and could be a suitable scaffold for the development of novel treatments for systolic heart failure.


Assuntos
Bepridil/farmacologia , Difenilamina/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Troponina C/metabolismo , Troponina I/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(1): 63-72, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms underlying the capability of ADAM15 to transform FasL-mediated death-inducing signals into prosurvival activation of Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). METHODS: Caspase 3/7 activity and apoptosis rate were determined in RASFs and ADAM15-transfected T/C28a4 cells upon Fas/CD95 triggering using enzyme assays and annexin V staining. Phosphorylated Src and FAK were analyzed by immunoblotting. Interactions of ADAM15 and CD95 with calmodulin (CaM), Src, or FAK were analyzed by pull-downs using CaM-Sepharose and coimmunoprecipitations with specific antibodies. Protein binding assays were performed using recombinant CaM and ADAM15. Immunofluorescence was performed to investigate subcellular colocalization of ADAM15, Fas/CD95, and CaM. RESULTS: The antiapoptotic effect of ADAM15 in FasL-stimulated cells was demonstrated either by increased apoptosis of cells transfected with an ADAM15 construct lacking the cytoplasmic domain compared to cells transfected with full-length ADAM15 or by reduced apoptosis resistance of RASFs upon RNA interference silencing of ADAM15. Fas ligation triggered a Ca2+  release-activated Ca2+ /calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (CRAC/Orai1) channel-dependent CaM recruitment to Fas/CD95 and ADAM15 in the cell membrane. Simultaneously, Src associated with CaM was shown to become engaged in the ADAM15 complex also containing cytoplasmic-bound FAK. Accordingly, Fas ligation in RASFs led to ADAM15-dependent phosphorylation of Src and FAK, which was associated with increased survival. Pharmacologic interference with either the CaM inhibitor trifluoperazine or the CRAC/Orai inhibitor BTP-2 simultaneously applied with FasL synergistically enhanced Fas-mediated apoptosis in RASFs. CONCLUSION: ADAM15 provides a scaffold for formation of CaM-dependent prosurvival signaling complexes upon CRAC/Orai coactivation by FasL-induced death signals and a potential therapeutic target to break apoptosis resistance in RASFs.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/genética , Apoptose/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas ADAM/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Calmodulina/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteína ORAI1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ORAI1/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Interferência de RNA , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
20.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(10): 1006, 2018 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258182

RESUMO

Women with aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are at high risk of brain metastasis, which has no effective therapeutic option partially due to the poor penetration of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. Trifluoperazine (TFP) is an approved antipsychotic drug with good bioavailability in brain and had shown anticancer effect in several types of cancer. It drives us to investigate its activities to suppress TNBC, especially the brain metastasis. In this study, we chose three TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and 4T1 to assess its anticancer activities along with the possible mechanisms. In vitro, it induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via decreasing the expression of both cyclinD1/CDK4 and cyclinE/CDK2, and stimulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In vivo, TFP suppressed the growth of subcutaneous xenograft tumor and brain metastasis without causing detectable side effects. Importantly, it prolonged the survival of mice bearing brain metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 indicated TFP could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis of cancer cells in vivo. Taken together, TFP might be a potential available drug for treating TNBC with brain metastasis, which urgently needs novel treatment options.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase G1/ética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
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