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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248602, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a rapidly spreading coronavirus responsible for the Covid-19 pandemic, which is characterized by severe respiratory infection. Many factors have been identified as risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, with much early attention being paid to body mass index (BMI), which is a well-known cardiometabolic risk factor. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to examine the impact of additional baseline cardiometabolic risk factors including high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and diabetes on the odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in UK Biobank (UKB) study participants. METHODS: We examined the effect of BMI, lipid profiles, diabetes and alcohol intake on the odds of testing positive for SARS-Cov-2 among 9,005 UKB participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from March 16 through July 14, 2020. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and ancestry. RESULTS: Higher BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 odds (p < 0.05) while HDL-C and ApoA-I were associated with decreased odds (p < 0.001). Though the effect of BMI, Type II diabetes and HbA1c were eliminated when HDL-C was controlled, the effect of HDL-C remained significant when BMI was controlled for. LDL-C, ApoB and triglyceride levels were not found to be significantly associated with increased odds. CONCLUSION: Elevated HDL-C and ApoA-I levels were associated with reduced odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, while higher BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c were associated with increased odds. The effects of BMI, type II diabetes and HbA1c levels were no longer significant after controlling for HDL-C, suggesting that these effects may be mediated in part through regulation of HDL-C levels. In summary, our study suggests that baseline HDL-C level may be useful for stratifying SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and corroborates the emerging picture that HDL-C may confer protection against sepsis in general and SARS-CoV-2 in particular.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Idoso , Apolipoproteína A-I/análise , Apolipoproteína B-100/análise , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/análise , LDL-Colesterol/análise , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/análise , Reino Unido
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461983, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611124

RESUMO

One of the main causes for the sparse use of multivariate analytical methods in routine laboratory work is the dependency on the measuring instrument from which the analytical signal is acquired. This issue is especially critical in chromatographic equipment and results in limitations of their applicability. The solution to this problem is to obtain a standardized instrument-independent signal -or instrument-agnostic signal- regardless of the measuring instrument or of the state of the same instrument from which it has been acquired. The combined use of both internal and external standard series, allows us to have external and transferable references for the normalization of both the intensity and the position of each element of the data vector being arranged from the raw signal. From this information, a simple mathematical data treatment process is applied and instrument-agnostic signals can be secured. This paper describes and applies the proposed methodology to be followed for obtaining standardized instrumental fingerprints from two significant fractions of virgin olive oil (volatile organic compounds and triacylglycerols), obtained by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and analysed with two temperature conditions (conventional and high-temperature, respectively). The results of both case studies show how the instrument-agnostic fingerprints obtained are coincidental, regardless of the state of the chromatographic system or the time of acquisition.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/normas , Temperatura Alta , Azeite de Oliva/química , Padrões de Referência , Triglicerídeos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD002777, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital growth of preterm infants remains a challenge in clinical practice. The high nutrient demands of preterm infants often lead to growth faltering. For preterm infants who cannot be fed maternal or donor breast milk or may require supplementation, preterm formulas with fat in the form of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) or long chain triglycerides (LCTs) may be chosen to support nutrient utilization and to improve growth. MCTs are easily accessible to the preterm infant with an immature digestive system, and LCTs are beneficial for central nervous system development and visual function. Both have been incorporated into preterm formulas in varying amounts, but their effects on the preterm infant's short-term growth remain unclear. This is an update of a review originally published in 2002, then in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of formula containing high as opposed to low MCTs on early growth in preterm infants fed a diet consisting primarily of formula.  SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 8), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily, and Ovid MEDLINE(R); MEDLINE via PubMed for the previous year; and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), on 16 September 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effects of feeding high versus low MCT formula (for a minimum of five days) on the short-term growth of preterm (< 37 weeks' gestation) infants. We defined high MCT formula as 30% or more by weight, and low MCT formula as less than 30% by weight. The infants must be on full enteral diets, and the allocated formula must be the predominant source of nutrition. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors assessed each study's quality and extracted data on growth parameters as well as adverse effects from included studies. All data used in analysis were continuous; therefore, mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were reported. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 eligible trials (253 infants) and extracted relevant growth data from 7 of these trials (136 infants). These studies were found to provide evidence of very low to low certainty. Risk of bias was noted, as few studies described specific methods for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding. We found no evidence of differences in short-term growth parameters when high and low MCT formulas were compared. As compared to low MCT formula, preterm infants fed high MCT formula showed little to no difference in weight gain velocity (g/kg/d) during the intervention, with a typical mean difference (MD) of -0.21 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.24 to 0.83; 6 studies, 118 infants; low-certainty evidence). The analysis for weight gain (g/d) did not show evidence of differences, with an MD of 0.00 g/d (95% CI -5.93 to 5.93; 1 study, 18 infants; very low-certainty evidence), finding an average weight gain of 20 ± 5.9 versus 20 ± 6.9 g/d for high and low MCT groups, respectively. We found that length gain showed no difference between low and high MCT formulas, with a typical MD of 0.10 cm/week (95% CI -0.09 to 0.29; 3 studies, 61 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Head circumference gain also showed little to no difference during the intervention period, with an MD of -0.04 cm/week (95% CI -0.17 to 0.09; 3 studies, 61 infants; low-certainty evidence). Two studies reported skinfold thickness with different measurement definitions, and evidence was insufficient to determine if there was a difference (2 studies, 32 infants; very low-certainty evidence). There are conflicting data (5 studies) as to formula tolerance, with 4 studies reporting narrative results of no observed clinical difference and 1 study reporting higher incidence of signs of gastrointestinal intolerance in high MCT formula groups. There is no evidence of effect on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), based on small numbers in two trials. Review authors found no studies addressing long-term growth parameters or neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of very low to low certainty suggesting no differences among short-term growth data for infants fed low versus high MCT formulas. Due to lack of evidence and uncertainty, neither formula type could be concluded to improve short-term growth outcomes or have fewer adverse effects. Further studies are necessary because the results from included studies are imprecise due to small numbers and do not address important long-term outcomes. Additional research should aim to clarify effects on formula tolerance and on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, and should include larger study populations to better evaluate effect on NEC incidence.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Viés , Estatura , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/química , Ganho de Peso
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117339, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436182

RESUMO

The present investigation entails the fabrication and characterization of nanometric emulsion of eugenol (Nm-eugenol) encompassed into chitosan for assessing bio-efficacy in terms of in vitro antifungal actions, antiaflatoxigenic potential, and in situ preservative efficacy against Aspergillus flavus infestation and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mediated loss of dietary minerals, lipid triglycerides and alterations in composition of important macronutrients in stored rice. Nm-eugenol characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR exhibited biphasic burst release of eugenol. Reduction in ergosterol and methylglyoxal (AFB1-inducer) content after Nm-eugenol fumigation depicted biochemical mechanism of antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities. In silico 3D homology docking of eugenol with Ver-1 gene validated molecular mechanism of AFB1 inhibition. Further, significant protection of rice seeds from fungi, AFB1 contamination and preservation against loss of rice minerals, macronutrients and lipids during storage suggested deployment of chitosan as a biocompatible wall material for eugenol encapsulation and application as novel green preservative for food protection.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Nanoestruturas/química , Aflatoxina B1/química , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Grão Comestível , Emulsões , Ergosterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Eugenol/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nutrientes/análise , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Aldeído Pirúvico/antagonistas & inibidores , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 347: 129057, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484957

RESUMO

A lipidomic evaluation was performed on the tilapia muscle, head and viscera, including studying the composition, distribution and stereospecific characteristics of fatty acids and lipid species. The head and viscera lipids were significantly richer than the muscle lipids. Triacylglycerols were the predominant fraction (over 80% of total lipid in the muscle and head). Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids had higher percentages in phospholipids (30.35-52.05% of total fatty acids) than in triacylglycerols (18.11-25.15%). The C52:2 and C52:3 were the most abundant triacylglycerols, which indicates the potential application in infant food. Moreover, 622, 530 and 513 lipids were identified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry in the muscle, head and viscera, respectively. The three tilapia parts were distinguished using multivariate analysis. Five fatty acids and 33 lipid species were considered as the potential biomarkers. This comprehensive analysis will help to evaluate the lipid nutritional values and facilitate exploitation in tilapia consumption and processing.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Triglicerídeos/análise , Vísceras/química , Vísceras/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 340: 128123, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010645

RESUMO

Six commercial red sorghum varieties (Tong Za 117, 141, 142 and 143, Chi Za 109 and 101) were investigated for their triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles, soluble and bound phenolics, and radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities. A total of 21 TAGs were identified in red sorghum oils for the first time. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) in the soluble or bound phenolic fractions differed among red sorghums. Significant correlation among TPC, TFC and DPPH radical scavenging activities was observed in both fractions. Except for caffeic acid, most of phenolic acids in red sorghums are in the bound form. Soluble 3-deoxyanthocyanidins contents (2.12-57.14 µg/g) were significantly higher than those of bound forms (0.01-0.18 µg/g) regardless of sorghum varieties and types of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. Moreover, the stronger anti-inflammatory capacity of soluble phenolic fraction in Tong Za 117 correlated with its higher TPC, TFC and radical scavenging activity than those of its bound counterpart.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Sorghum/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Diterpenos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidrólise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Camundongos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.


Assuntos
Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Verbenaceae/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Ácido Oleico , Etanol/química , Células Hep G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação
8.
Food Chem ; 334: 127601, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712491

RESUMO

Quantitative labeling of oil compositions has become a trend to ensure the quality and safety of blended oils in the market. However, methods for rapid and reliable quantitation of blended oils are still not available. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) was used to profile triacylglycerols in blended oils, and partial least squares regression (PLS-R) was applied to establish quantitative models based on the acquired MALDI-MS spectra. We demonstrated that this new method allowed simultaneous quantitation of multiple compositions, and provided good quantitative results of binary, ternary and quaternary blended oils, enabling good limits of detection (e.g., detectability of 1.5% olive oil in sunflower seed oil). Compared with the conventional GC-FID method, this new method could allow direct analysis of blended oils, analysis of one blended oil sample within minutes, and accurate quantitation of low-abundance oil compositions and blended oils with similar fatty acid contents.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Girassol/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 338: 128067, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950871

RESUMO

Kainth fruit, as traditional medicine, has been used in the Himalayan region for its health-promoting properties. However, the phytochemicals and lipidomes of Kainth Seed Oil (KSO) are still scarce. Here, we investigated the physicochemical characterization of KSO and its nutraceuticals, antioxidant potentials. Kainth seeds contain 19-20% oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 82.22%), particularly linoleic acid (C18:2). Lipidome analysis of KSO using high-resolution mass spectrometry showed that trilinoleate (C54:6) was the dominant triacylglycerol (TAG) species. Further, the characteristics of PUFA-rich oil were validated by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nutraceuticals profiling of KSO depicted the presence of tocopherols (86.72 mg) and phytosterols (32.25 mg) in 100 g oil with significant antioxidant activity. The oil cake contained 19.09% protein and minerals and can be a source for dietary protein. Collectively these results suggest that KSO will be a suitable source for PUFA and nutraceuticals potential.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Pyrus/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lipidômica , Espectrometria de Massas , Fitosteróis/análise , Pyrus/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
10.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(6): 242-255, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197451

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar en la población adulta las tasas de prevalencia brutas y ajustadas por edad y sexo de hipertrigliceridemia (HTG) y valorar su asociación con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, enfermedad renal crónica y enfermedades cardiovasculares y cardiometabólicas. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional transversal realizado en Atención Primaria, con 6.588 sujetos de estudio adultos, seleccionados aleatoriamente con base poblacional. Los pacientes tenían HTG si la concentración de triglicéridos era≥150mg/dL (≥1,7mmol/L) o estaban en tratamiento hipolipidemiante para reducir los triglicéridos. Se valoraron las asociaciones mediante análisis univariado y multivariante, y se determinaron las prevalencias brutas y ajustadas por edad y sexo. RESULTADOS: Las medias aritméticas y geométricas de las concentraciones de triglicéridos fueron respectivamente 120,5 y 104,2mg/dL en la población global, 135,7 y 116,0mg/dL en hombres, y 108,6 y 95,7mg/dL en mujeres. Las prevalencias brutas de HTG fueron 29,6% en población global, 36,9% en hombres y 23,8% en mujeres. Las prevalencias ajustadas por edad y sexo de HTG fueron 27,0% en población global, 34,6% en hombres y 21,4% en mujeres. Las variables independientes que más se asociaban con la HTG fueron hipercolesterolemia (OR: 4,6), c-HDL bajo (OR: 4,1), esteatosis hepática (OR: 2,8), diabetes (OR: 2,0) y obesidad (OR: 1,9). CONCLUSIONES: Las medias de triglicéridos y las prevalencias de HTG se encuentran intermedias entre las de otros estudios nacionales e internacionales. La quinta parte de la población adulta femenina y más de un tercio de la masculina presentaba HTG. Los factores independientes asociados con HTG fueron hipercolesterolemia y c-HDL bajo, y las variables cardiometabólicas diabetes, esteatosis hepática y obesidad


AIM: To determine in the adult population the crude and the sex- and age-adjusted prevalence rates of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and to assess its association with cardiovascular risk factors, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study conducted in Primary Care, with 6,588 adult study subjects, randomly selected on base-population. Patients had HTG if the triglyceride level was≥150mg/dL (≥1.7mmol/L), or were on lipid-lowering therapy to lower triglyceride. Associations were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis, and crude and sex- and age-adjusted prevalence rates were determined. RESULTS: The arithmetic and geometric means of triglyceride levels were respectively 120.5 and 104.2mg/dL in global population, 135.7 and 116.0mg/dL in men, and 108.6 and 95.7mg/dL in women. The crude HTG prevalence rates were 29.6% in global population, 36.9% in men and 23.8% in women. The sex- and age-adjusted HTG prevalence rates were 27.0% in global population, 34.6% in men and 21.4% in women. The independent variables that were most associated with HTG were hypercholesterolemia (OR: 4.6), low HDL-C (OR: 4.1), hepatic steatosis (OR: 2.8), diabetes (OR: 2.0), and obesity (OR: 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: The means of triglyceride levels and HTG prevalence rates are intermediate between those of other national and international studies. A fifth of the female adult population and more than a third of the male population had HTG. The independent factors associated with HTG were hypercholesterolemia and low HDL-C, and the cardiometabolic variables diabetes, hepatic steatosis and obesity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Atenção Primária à Saúde , LDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Triglicerídeos/análise , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1339-1347, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055435

RESUMO

The nutritional composition and chemical properties of the Chinese highland barley bran oil were characterized in this study. The barley bran oil extracted with solvent possessed relatively high acid value and peroxide value, indicating that the oil should be further refined before using. The fatty acid composition of the oil showed that the content of unsaturated fatty acids was 80.12 g/100 g, in which the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was as high as 60.41 g/100 g. The overall triacylglycerol profile showed that the oil contained 27 TAGs including 21 regioisomers. Major TAGs included LLL (21.08 g/100 g), PLL (19.27 g/100 g), LLO (12.24 g/100 g), and LLLn (12.17 g/100 g). The total unsaponifiable matter of the oil reached up to 10.74 g/100 g oil. The total phytosterol content reached 7.90 g/100 g oil, in which ß-sitosterol was the most predominant, with the content of 5.69 g/100 g oil. Other important sterols included campesterol (1.32 g/100 g oil), lanosterol (0.70 g/100 g oil) and stigmasterol (0.19 g/100 g oil).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Hordeum/química , Nutrientes/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , China , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/análise , Lanosterol/análise , Sitosteroides/análise , Estigmasterol/análise
12.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1359-1366, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055442

RESUMO

For the very first time, the nutritional and physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from hackberry Celtis australis fruit were investigated with the aim of possible applications of such wild fruit oil. The physicochemical properties such as peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were examined extensively. The obtained results showed that peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were found to be 4.9 meq O2/kg fat, 0.9 mg KOH/g fat, 193.6 mg KOH/g fat, 141.52 mg I2/g fat and ~5%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid found in this wild fruit is linoleic acid which was calculated to be 73.38%±1.24. In addition, gamma-tocopherol (87%) and ß-sitosterol (81.2%±1.08) were the major tocopherol and sterol compositions found in Celtis australis seed oil. Moreover, equivalent carbon number (ECN) analysis has indicated that the three linoleic acids are the main composition of the triacylglycerols extracted from Celtis australis. Also, the high value of omega 6 and ß-sitosterol make this oil applicable in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ulmaceae/química , Biofarmácia , Fenômenos Químicos , Cosméticos , Peróxidos/análise , Sitosteroides/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , gama-Tocoferol/análise
13.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(5): 200-205, sept.-oct. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196743

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: La esteatosis hepática es un problema de salud pública de incidencia y prevalencia crecientes en nuestra sociedad. OBJETIVO: Determinar si la esteatosis hepática, medida mediante el Fatty Liver Index (FLI), se relaciona con el riesgo metabólico y vascular y, de ser así, identificar qué factor clínico-metabólico explica el mayor riesgo vascular de estos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal que incluye una muestra de 531 varones que acudieron a la unidad de chequeos de la Clínica Universitaria de Navarra. Se determinó el grado de esteatosis mediante el FLI. El riesgo metabólico fue evaluado mediante una escala basada en determinaciones de HDL, LDL, triglicéridos, glucemia, HOMA-IR, índice neutrófilo/linfocitario y presión sistólica; el riesgo vascular, mediante la presencia de placas ateromatosas en carótidas y/o femorales. La asociación dosis-respuesta entre el FLI y ambos riesgos se analizó mediante modelos no paramétricos (splines) y regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La muestra estudiada presenta una edad media de 52,70años, con el 49,3% de ellos presentando un FLI≥60, el 33,6% con síndrome metabólico y el 43,9% con placas ateromatosas en carótidas o femorales. La relación entre el FLI y el riesgo metabólico y vascular fue lineal (metabólico: valor de p no lineal=0,097; valor de p lineal <0,001; vascular: valor de p no lineal=1,000; valor de p lineal=0,028). Por cada 10unidades de incremento del FLI la odds de presentar placas de ateroma aumentaba en un 9,7% (OR=1,097; intervalo de confianza al 95%: 1,010-1,191). Al ajustar por trigliceridemia la asociación desaparecía (OR=1,001). CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes con esteatosis hepática presentan un mayor riesgo metabólico y vascular. El mayor riesgo vascular está asociado con el nivel de triglicéridos. A nivel clínico, este estudio sugiere que estos pacientes podrían beneficiarse del tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia


BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a public health problem with increased incidence and prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the liver steatosis, as measured by the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), is related to metabolic risk and vascular factors and, if so, to identify the clinical-metabolic factor that explains the higher vascular risk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a sample of 531 men who came to the University of Navarra Clinic Check-up Unit. The degree of steatosis was determined by the FLI. The metabolic risk was assessed using a scale based on determinations of HDL, LDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, HOMA-IR, neutrophil/lymphocyte index, and systolic blood pressure. The vascular risk was assessed by the presence of carotid and/or femoral atheromatous plaques. The dose-response association between FLI and both risks was analysed using non-parametric models (splines) and logistic regression. RESULTS: The sample studied had a mean age of 52.70years, with 49.3% having an FLI ≥60, as well as 33.6% with metabolic syndrome, and 43.9% with carotid and/or femoral atheromatous plaques. The relationship between FLI and metabolic risk and vascular was linear (metabolic: non-linear P=.097; linear P<.001; vascular: non-linear P=1.000; linear P=.028). For every 10 units of increase in FLI, the odds of presenting with atheroma plaques increased by 9.7% (OR=1.097; 95% confidence interval 1.010-1.191). When adjusting for triglyceridaemia, the association disappeared (OR=1.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with fatty liver disease had an increased metabolic and vascular risk. The increased vascular risk is associated with the triglyceride level. On a clinical level, this study suggests that these patients could benefit from treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Hipertrigliceridemia/terapia , Triglicerídeos/análise , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Modelos Logísticos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238917, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903285

RESUMO

Potentilla longifolia is a kind of Chaoyao medicine, which is a branch of traditional Chinese medicine. The plant is often referred to as ganyancao or ganyearmcao, which means that it has a significant therapeutic effect on liver inflammation. In previous experiments, we found that a water extract of ganyearmcao inhibited lipid accumulation. In the present study, we isolated one new (ganyearmcaoone A, 1) and eight known compounds (2-9) from a water extract of the dried roots of ganyearmcao; all of the compounds were isolated for the first time from this medicinal plant. We elucidated the chemical structures of these compounds using comprehensive analyses of HR-ESI-MS and 1D, 2D NMR. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the nine compounds on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells; we did so using photographic and quantitative assessments of the lipid content with oil red O staining and by measuring triglyceride levels. Compared with the control, compounds 6 and 9 significantly inhibited differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and lipid accumulation. Compound 1 showed potential inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation. Molecular docking results indicated that compounds 6 and 9 may efficiently bind to AMPK and its downstream kinase (SCD1), thereby inhibiting lipid accumulation. Our results demonstrate that ganyearmcao and its components may play an important role in treating diseases related to lipid accumulation in the future.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Potentilla/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 993-1000, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788518

RESUMO

In this study, seed oils of Thladiantha nudiflora and Thladiantha dubia were found to contain 55.5 and 44.4% mole of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acids, respectively. The presence of moieties of conjugated fatty acids was confirmed by a series from physical methods: UV, IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) isolated of the seed oils were studied by RP-HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detections. It was shown that all 15 TAGs of Thladiantha dubia contain moieties of conjugated fatty acids - punicic, (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid (35.6% mole) and 8.9% mole α-eleostearic, (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoic acid. Meanwhile, 24 TAGs of Thladiantha nudiflora seed oil contain both acids in approximately equal proportions (27.4:28.2 % mole). The enrichment for polyunsaturated fatty acids of the hydrolysis product of the seed oils due to urea inclusion complex formation was discussed.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461380, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823093

RESUMO

Microwave-ultrasonic assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction (MUAAEE) was applied to extract tiger nut oil (TNO). The conditions of MUAAEE were optimized by Plackett-Burman design followed Box-Behnken design. An oil recovery of 85.23% was achieved under optimum conditions of a 2% concentration of mixed enzyme including cellulase, pectinase and hemicellulase (1/1/1, w/w/w), particle size <600 µm, microwave power 300 W, ultrasonic power 460 W, radiation temperature 40 °C, time 30 min, enzymolysis temperature 45 °C, pH 4.9, liquid-to-solid ratio 10 mL/g and time 180 min. Oil by MUAAEE revealed the similar fatty acid compositions, triglyceride compositions, thermal behaviour and flavour compared with oil by Soxhlet extraction (SE), while the oil quality of MUAAEE is superior to that of SE. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that structural disruption of tiger nut caused by MUAAEE facilitated the oil extraction. Results suggest that MUAAEE could be an efficient and environment-friendly method for extraction of TNO.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Enzimas/metabolismo , Micro-Ondas , Nozes/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ultrassom , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Celulase/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Poligalacturonase/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/análise , Água/química
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20817, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590767

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although there are several reports on the effect of herbal medicine on weight loss in adults, evidence supporting its efficacy and safety in obese pediatrics is insufficient. Herein, we clinically investigated the preliminary experience of community-based healthcare program in cases of childhood obesity treated with an herbal complex, Slim-diet (SD), along with lifestyle modification. PATIENT CONCERNS: Seventeen subjects with childhood obesity participated in a community-based healthcare program, which consisted of twice-a-week play type physical activity and dietary counseling program with simultaneous twice-a-day administration of SD for 4 weeks. DIAGNOSES: The data of 13 obese pediatrics (body mass index [BMI] ≥ the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex) in their 3rd to 6th grade who finally completed at least 6 visits out of a total of 8 visits of the program including baseline and endpoint assessments were analyzed. INTERVENTIONS: Participants received 20 g of SD daily. Simultaneously, play-type physical activity program with an exercise therapist and dietary counseling with a dietitian for lifestyle modification were conducted at every visit. Body composition, blood chemistry, the Korean Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire (KYPAQ) score, and the preference for salt density and sugar content were assessed at baseline and endpoint. OUTCOMES: After SD administration, body mass index decreased from 26.74 ±â€Š2.11 kg/m to 26.50 ±â€Š2.20 kg/m (P < .05) with statistically significant increases in height, weight, and skeletal muscle mass. The results of blood chemistry and the KYPAQ score showed no significant change. The preferences for salt density were improved in 8, maintained in 2, and worsened in 3 participants and those for sugar content were improved in 6 and maintained in 7 participants with no worsening. LESSONS: In the present study, we showed the clinical effects of SD with lifestyle modification in patients with childhood obesity who participated in community-based healthcare program. Further clinical studies investigating the effects of SD are required.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/normas , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/análise , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , República da Coreia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461161, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376015

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing less common fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from the seeds of three plants (Santalum album, Crepis foetida, and Leucas aspera). These FAs had allenic (laballenic acid, Lb) and acetylenic (crepenynic, C; ximenynic acids, Xi) bonds. TAGs were analyzed on reversed-phase and chiral columns. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry identified TAGs by positive electrospray ionization (ESI+). Twenty-two molecular species of TAGs isolated from the seed oil of Santalum album were separated by RP-HPLC and chiral HPLC methods and identified by positive electrospray ionization tandem MS detection (ESI+-MS). Two major enantiomers, i.e., sn-OOLb and sn-LLLb (O represents oleic acid; and L represents linoleic acid), were synthesized from the appropriate phosphatidylcholines. This allowed the identification of enantiomers after separation by chiral chromatography by tandem mass spectrometry. Similarly, TAGs from the seeds of Crepis foetida, and Leucas aspera were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Four enantiomers (sn-OOC, sn-LLC, sn-OOXi, and sn-LLXi) were synthesized. A total of six and three enantiomers of TAGs containing crepenynic and ximenynic acids, respectively, were identified by chiral column analysis. The retention times of TAGs containing allenic and acetylenic bonds were always greater on the reversed-phase column than TAGs with the same number of carbon atoms and the same unsaturation (e.g., LLL versus LLLb). From the chiral column, the regioisomers and enantiomers were eluted in the order of symmetric-asymmetric-asymmetric (i.e., sn-OCO, sn-COO, and sn-OOC). Through tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify and distinguish regioisomer [DAG]+-type ions, i.e., [MNH4NH3RCOOH]+, that can be considered diagnostic. Unfortunately, enantiomers and TAGs with the same numbers of carbon atoms and the same unsaturation levels have identical mass spectra, such as LLL and LLLb.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/química , Alquinos/análise , Alquinos/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácidos Oleicos/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8689, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457304

RESUMO

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1 A (UGT1A) enzymes are capable of detoxifying a broad range of endo- and xenobiotic compounds, which contributes to antioxidative effects, modulation of inflammation and cytoprotection. In the presence of low-function genetic UGT1A variants fibrosis development is increased in various diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of common UGT1A polymorphisms in NASH. Therefore, htgUGT1A-WT mice and htgUGT1A-SNP mice (carrying a common human haplotype present in 10% of the white population) were fed a high-fat Paigen diet for 24 weeks. Serum aminotransferase activities, hepatic triglycerides, fibrosis development and UGT1A expression were assessed. Microscopic examination revealed higher hepatic fat deposition and a significant induction of UGT1A gene expression in htgUGT1A-WT mice. In agreement with these observations, lower serum aminotransferase activities and lower expression levels of fibrosis-related genes were measured in htgUGT1A-SNP mice. This was accompanied by reduced PPARα protein levels in htgUGT1A-WT but not in SNP mice. Our data demonstrate a protective effect of a UGT1A SNP haplotype, leading to milder hepatic steatosis and NASH. Higher PPARα protein levels in animals with impaired UGT1A activity are the likely result of reduced glucuronidation of ligands involved in PPARα-mediated fatty acid oxidation and may lead to the observed protection in htgUGT1A-SNP mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Gilbert/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibrose , Doença de Gilbert/metabolismo , Doença de Gilbert/patologia , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise
20.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 688: 108431, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461102

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most prevalent inborn error of amino acid metabolism. The disease is due to the deficiency of phenylalanine (Phe) hydroxylase activity, which causes the accumulation of Phe. Early diagnosis through neonatal screening is essential for early treatment implementation, avoiding cognitive impairment and other irreversible sequelae. Treatment is based on Phe restriction in the diet that should be maintained throughout life. High dietary restrictions can lead to imbalances in specific nutrients, notably lipids. Previous studies in PKU patients revealed changes in levels of plasma/serum lipoprotein lipids, as well as in fatty acid profile of plasma and red blood cells. Most studies showed a decrease in important polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely DHA (22:6n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and EPA (20:5n-6). Increased oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation have also been observed in PKU. Despite the evidences that the lipid profile is changed in PKU patients, more studies are needed to understand in detail how lipidome is affected. As highlighted in this review, mass spectrometry-based lipidomics is a promising approach to evaluate the effect of the diet restrictions on lipid metabolism in PKU patients, monitor their outcome, namely concerning the risk for other chronic diseases, and find possible prognosis biomarkers.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fenilcetonúrias/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipoproteínas/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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