Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.708
Filtrar
1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Food Chem ; 307: 125568, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630021

RESUMO

Sacha inchi oil is derived from the seeds of Plukenetia volubilis L. and has great nutritional value due to its high contents of active polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (PUTAGs). In this study, we developed a methodology combined Paternò-Büchi reaction nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PB-nanoESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify CC locations and isomers of PUTAGs in sacha inchi oil. Benzophenone was used as the PB reagent, and the optimized solvent composition (methanol:chloroform = 9:1) allowed for PUTAGs and their PB products to be detected with higher intensities. In addition, we made efforts to interpret the MS2 spectra for identification lipid species. A series of C57-PUTAGs and C59-PUTAGs were detected and identified via high-resolution PB-nanoESI-MS, and the predominant PUTAGs were TAG 18:1(Δ9)_18:3(Δ9,12,15)_18:3(Δ9,12,15) and TAG 18:2(Δ9,12)_18:2(Δ9,12)_18:3 (Δ9,12,15), which demonstrated that the PB-nanoESI-MS approach in this study provides help in promoting the development of structural determination of triacylglycerols in food chemistry.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Triglicerídeos/química
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1605: 460365, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402108

RESUMO

The analysis of triacylglycerols and phospholipids - phosphatidylcholines allowed the use of shotgun lipidomics to identify very long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in microalgae. These fatty acids were determined in triacylglycerols by positive electrospray ionization of neutral loss scans of different fatty acids, e.g. 24:0, 24:1ω9, 24:6ω3, 26:0, 26:1ω9, 28:0, 28:1ω9, 28:2ω6, and 28:8ω3. Likewise, very long-chain fatty acids in phosphatidylcholines were identified by negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the selected ion-monitoring of the two most important ions (R1COO- and R2COO-). The limit of detection was determined at 10 nmol/L (∼11 pg/µL) in triacylglycerols and 8.6 nmoles/L (∼8 pg/µL) in phosphatidylcholines. The use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is suitable for very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with up to 8 double bonds due to the time of analysis as well as for reasons of lower thermal stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids towards saturated fatty acids, but gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is better suited for the analysis of saturated very long-chain fatty acids.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limite de Detecção , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Padrões de Referência , Triglicerídeos/análise
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 827-835, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413239

RESUMO

Fifty traditional Tibetan ghee (TTG) varieties were collected and analyzed their systematic characteristic indices, including physicochemical parameters, minerals, fatty acid composition, and thermal behavior. Results show that TTG contains a large amount of fat (71.68%-93.3%) and a small quantity of protein (0.51%-1.81%). The acid and peroxide values of TTG vary from 0.02 to 1.30 mg/g and 0.07 to 5.93 meq/kg, respectively. The content of minerals varied with altitude level and region significantly (p < 0.05), and the regional variations of fatty acids in TTG were also observed significantly, these differences may be due to the high unsaturated fatty acids level in the cow diets.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ghee/análise , Metais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Tibet , Triglicerídeos/análise
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4114-4123, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424542

RESUMO

We hypothesized that oleic acid (OA) in the absence of a thiazolidinedione (i.e., a synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ [PPARγ] agonist) would increase adipogenic gene expression in bovine muscle satellite cells (BSC). The BSC were cultured in differentiation medium containing 10 µM ciglitazone (CI), 100 µM OA, or 100 µM OA plus 10 µM CI (CI-OA). Control (CON) BSC were cultured only in differentiation media (containing 2% horse serum). The presence of myogenin, desmin, and paired box 7 proteins was confirmed in the BSC by immunofluorescence staining, demonstrating that we had isolated myogenic cells. The OA BSC had lesser paired box 3 (Pax3) and myogenic differentiation 1 expression but greater Pax7 and mygogenin (MYOG) expression (P < 0.05), than the CON BSC. The CI BSC had greater Pax3, Pax7, and MYOG expression than CON BSC (P < 0.05), suggesting that CI would promote BSC myogenesis under pro-myogenic conditions (i.e., when cultured with horse serum). However, both the OA and CI treatments upregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and C/EBPß, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, lipoprotein lipase, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3 gene expression, as well as media adiponectin concentration (P < 0.05). The CI, OA, and CI-OA treatments also increased triacylglycerol and lipid droplet accumulation, in spite of upregulation (relative to CON BSC) of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase alpha-1, perilipin 2 (PLIN2), and PLIN3 in BSC and downregulation of G protein-coupled protein receptor 43, acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 3, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (P < 0.05). These results indicate that OA in the absence of a synthetic PPARγ agonist can effectively increase adipogenic gene expression in BSC.


Assuntos
Ácido Oleico/administração & dosagem , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Adiponectina/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura , Regulação para Baixo , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/genética , RNA/análise , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 792-798, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184702

RESUMO

Introducción: los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) deben ser considerados como un grupo de alto riesgo cardiovascular, ya que existen múltiples factores que incrementan la presencia de dislipidemia. Objetivo: determinar si el cociente androide/ginecoide (CA/G) tiene utilidad como factor cardiometabólico para dislipidemia en pacientes pediátricos con insuficiencia renal crónica Materiales y métodos: estudio de una cohorte. Se incluyeron pacientes con ERC terminal en diálisis peritoneal y hemodiálisis. A cada paciente se le realizó determinación de la composición corporal, índice de masa corporal (IMC) y perfil de lípidos. Posteriormente, se realizó somatometría y perfil de lípidos a los 6 y 12 meses de seguimiento. Análisis estadístico: para identificar la diferencia entre las variables somatométricas y bioquímicas iniciales, a los 6 y 12 meses se aplicó la prueba de Friedman. El coeficiente de Spearman determinó la correlación de variables corporales y bioquímicas. Resultados: se analizaron 21 pacientes. Las concentraciones séricas de los triglicéridos a 12 meses de seguimiento aumentaron significativamente (6 vs. 12 meses; p = 0,05), sin evidencia de un incremento en el score Z del IMC (p = 0,98) o colesterol total (p = 0,49). La grasa corporal, su porcentaje y score Z del IMC no se correlacionaron con los cambios en los niveles del colesterol y triglicéridos a los 6 y 12 meses; sin embargo, el CA/G presentó una asociación estadísticamente significativa con la modificación en las concentraciones séricas de los triglicéridos a los 6 (r = 0,65, p = 0,003) y 12 meses de seguimiento (r = 0,54, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: el CA/G mostró asociación al incremento en la concentración sérica de triglicéridos a 12 meses de seguimiento


Background: there are multiple factors that increase the presence of dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: to determine if the android/gynecoid ratio (A/GR) has utility as a cardiometabolic factor for dyslipidemia in pediatric patients with chronic renal failure. Materials and methods: cohort study. Patients with terminal CKD in peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were included. Determinations of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and lipid profile were assessed for each patient. Subsequently, somatometry and lipid profile were performed at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis: to identify the difference between the initial somatic and biochemical variables, and at 6 and 12 months, the Friedman test was applied. The Spearman coefficient determined the correlation of bodily and biochemical variables. Results: twenty-one patients were analyzed. Triglycerides (TGL) serum at 12 months of follow-up increased significantly (6 vs 12 months, p = 0.05), without evidence of an increase in the Z score of the BMI (p = 0.98) or total cholesterol (p = 0.49). Body fat, fat percentage and Z score BMI did not correlate with changes in cholesterol and triglyceride levels at 6 and 12 months; however, the A/GI presented a statistically significant association with the change in serum concentrations of TGL at 6 (r = 0.65, p = 0.003) and 12 months of follow-up (r = 0.54, p = 0.02). Conclusions: the A/GI showed an association with the increase in the serum concentration of TGL at 12 months of follow-up


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Diálise Renal , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação Nutricional , Absorciometria de Fóton , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Estatística , Triglicerídeos/análise , Antropometria , Análise Multivariada
7.
Food Chem ; 300: 125203, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330367

RESUMO

Microwave (MW) radiation was applied to perform the separation of triacylglycerols (TGs) in oil samples. The novelty of the work lies in the application of MW radiation to assist the separation of several non-polar compounds employing a totally organic mobile phase. Once the influence of the evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) variables on the sensitivity was optimized, the TGs separation was compared conditioning the column with either a conventional HPLC or a MW oven. Contrary to previous applications in which the mobile phase contained water, the improvement in sensitivity using MW was not as significant in comparison with conventional heating but it allowed a shortening in the retention times of several TGs in about 50% respect elution at room temperature. The method was finally applied for the quantification of most common TGs in almond, tiger nut, and argan oil.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Espalhamento de Radiação , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
8.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 769-779, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292339

RESUMO

In order to reveal changes in fatty acids and triglycerides during the pickling process of white-fleshed and dark-fleshed fish with high-fat, to compare the changes of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids (FAs) in round scad (Decapterus maruadsi, dark-fleshed) and hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus, white-fleshed) during salt-dried processing, ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques were used to quantify. Lipid oxidation was evaluated via peroxide values (POVs), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). A total of 31 and 27 FAs, 45 and 44 TAGs were quantified in round scad and hairtail, respectively. DHA (C22:6n3), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1n9) were the main FAs in round scad. POO (16:0/18:1/18:1), PPO (16:0/16:0/18:1), POD (16:0/18:1/22:6), and PPaO (16:0/16:1/18:1) were dominant TAGs in both species. Salt-dried processing significantly affected (p < 0.001) 7/5 FAs and 24/29 TAGs in round scad/hairtail. MUFAs changed significantly (p < 0.05) in dark-fleshed round scad; only SFAs and PUFAs changed in white-fleshed hairtail. Both species exhibited near-identical TAG compositions with different variation trends. More significant changes were observed in FAs at the half-dried stages and in TAGs (p < 0.05) at the salted stage. This coincided with the changing stages of POV and TBARS values that also increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the salted stages but peaked at the half-dried stages of both species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Perciformes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 719-728, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292343

RESUMO

This work focused on physicochemical property assaying, fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles, and unsaponifiable matters composition of the Chinese evening primrose oil. The cold press oil possessed very low acid value and peroxide value, and relatively high iodine value. Fatty acid composition results indicated that this oil was especially high in linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Characterization of TAG composition was achieved by a two-dimensional HPLC coupling of nonaqueous reverse-phase and silver ion HPLC with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS method. There was a total of 38 TAGs including 27 regioisomers which had been determined. Unsaponifiable matters composition results revealed that this oil possessed a number of phytosterols, in which ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol were most predominant.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Oenothera biennis/química , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácido gama-Linolênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Sementes/química
10.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2121-2127, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269247

RESUMO

The effects of thermal oxidation at 65 °C for 24 days on oxidation indices, fatty acid positional distribution, thermal properties, vitamin E composition and sterol composition of kenaf seed oil are investigated. The results showed that total oxidation value (TOTOX) of the oil increased from initial 8.83 to 130.74 at the end of 24 days storage. Linoleic acid at sn-1, 3 positon of kenaf seed oil was less stable than the one at sn-2 positon. Oxidative degradation changed the melting profile of kenaf seed oil, the value of endothermic enthalpy reduced from 58.17 to 20.25 J/g after 24 days of storage. Moreover, the content of vitamin E and total sterol decreased by 84.26% and 38.47%, respectively. Tocotrienols were more stable than tocopherols during the accelerated storage. Correlation analysis indicated vitamin E content was significantly related to p-anisidine value, while sterol content was significantly related to peroxide value. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Kenaf seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds. Heating process and long-term storage cause oil oxidation and bioactive compounds degradation. The oxidation process of kenaf seed oil is simulated with accelerated storage. The study evaluates fatty acid composition and distribution, vitamin E and sterol content, melting thermal characteristics of kenaf seed oil at different oxidation levels. The research shows the stability of fatty acid is related with its type and position in backbone of triacylglycerol molecule. There are good correlation among oxidation level, vitamin E and sterol content, and melting enthalpy value of kenaf seed oil.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibiscus/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Oxirredução , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocotrienóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Vitamina E/análise
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261805

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome in patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) of all patients who received one SGA for at least six months, excluding patients who were taking other medications that are associated with significant effect on metabolic syndrome. Relevant clinical information was collected prior to starting the SGA and after six months of continuous use of the same SGA. Results: A total of 91 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients (72%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia. After six months of taking the SGA, 44% of patients experienced elevated systolic pressure, 54.9% had elevated triglyceride, and 31.9% had impaired glucose levels (p value < 0.05). Prior to initiating SGA therapy, 14.3% of patients had metabolic syndrome, while 37.4% had metabolic syndrome after six months of therapy, and it was more prominent in males compared to female patients (p value < 0.05). Conclusion: This study found a strong correlation between SGA use and the appearance of metabolic alterations, such as weight gain, glucose intolerance, and increased triglyceride levels. These findings highlight the importance of assessing metabolic deregulations to minimize SGA associated metabolic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Talanta ; 204: 533-541, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357330

RESUMO

In this study, we used MALDI-TOF-MS to profile and characterise the triacylglycerol (TAG) species of anhydrous bovine milk fat (AMF) and its low melting (olein) and high melting (stearin) fractions obtained by dry fractionation. Silver-ion solid phase extraction (Ag+-SPE) cartridges were utilised to separate the TAGs according to saturation degree. Then, several TAG species were selected and fragmented via post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation. MALDI-TOF-MS TAG profiles and fragmentation patterns were compared to the TAG and fatty acid (FA) compositions obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). We found that, olein was rich in medium length chain TAG species like CN38:0 and CN40:1, whereas stearin was rich in saturated long chain TAG species from CN42:0 to CN52:0. Separation of the TAGs based on saturation degree allowed successful selection of the TAG parent-ion for fragmentation by eliminating the interferences of TAG species that have the same carbon number but vary in number of double bonds. The TAG fragmentation patterns indicated significant differences between AMF, olein and stearin as a result of the dry fractionation process. Compared to AMF, olein yielded in higher fragments of short-chain saturated and middle-chain unsaturated FAs. Whereas, stearin yielded in saturated and monounsaturated long chain FA fragments. Fragmentation of unsaturated long chain TAGs showed that the TAGs in olein contained more C18:1 and C18:2 than that of AMF and stearin. Stearin on the other hand, contained higher amount of TAG species containing C16:0. These results were in line with the FA compositions obtained from GC-FID and suggest that Ag+-SPE cartridges coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS offer an informative and practical approach to characterise fats and oils with complex TAG composition.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Triglicerídeos/química
13.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(6): 327-332, jun.-jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185712

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar los cambios en las concentraciones de glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos sanguíneos en relación con un ejercicio aerobio moderado en mujeres sedentarias de distinto peso corporal, expuestas a una dieta rica en hidratos de carbono de alto o bajo índice glucémico. Diseño: Tipo cruzado. Emplazamiento: Se realizó en el Laboratorio de Fisiología del Ejercicio de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Participantes: Participaron 26 mujeres jóvenes sedentarias que no realizaron ejercicio en el último año. Se excluyeron 4 de peso adecuado (PA) y 2 con obesidad (OB) por no consumir los hidratos de carbono indicados (1 g/kg de peso) ni completar el ejercicio programado. Quedaron n = 10 en cada grupo (PA/OB). Intervención: Se aplicaron 2 tratamientos de 55 min de ejercicio aerobio cada uno, un día después de consumir hidratos de carbono de alto o de bajo índice glucémico. Mediciones principales: Se determinaron glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos plasmáticos, antes y después del ejercicio programado. Resultados: Glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos fueron más altos en OB que en PA al inicio del estudio. La glucosa se normalizó en OB de 5,8 ± 0,35 a 5,3 ± 0,23mmol/L (p = 0,001), solo por ingerir alimentos de bajo índice glucémico; los triglicéridos incrementaron de 139,5 ± 66 a 150,8 ± 67,2mg/dl (p = 0,004), al término del ejercicio, habiendo consumido alimentos de bajo índice glucémico. Conclusión: La elevación de triglicéridos secundaria al ejercicio posterior al consumo de bajo índice glucémico parece indicar aumento de oxidación lipídica en OB


Objective: To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. Diseño: Cross-over type. Site: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Participants: Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study. Four of adequate weight (AW) and 2 with obesity (OB) were excluded for not consuming the suggested carbohydrates (1 gr/kg of weight) nor completed the programed exercise. There were n = 10 in each group (AW/OB). Intervention: Two treatments of 55 minutes of aerobic exercise each were applied one day after consuming either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates. Main measurements: Plasmatic glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were determined before and after the scheduled exercise. Results: Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were higher in OB than in AW at baseline. Glucose was normalized in OB from 5.8 ± 0.35 to 5.3 ± 0.23 mmol/L (P = .001), only by eating foods with low glycemic index; triglycerides increased from 139.5 ± 66.0 to 150.8 ± 67.2mg/dl (P = .004) at the end of the exercise, after consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrates. Conclusion. Elevation of triglycerides secondary to exercise after consumption of low glycemic index seems to indicate an increase of lipid oxidation in OB


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Índice Glicêmico , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício , Consumo de Alimentos , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/análise , Insulina/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , México , Sobrepeso
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 377-384, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150631

RESUMO

Among the primary neoplasias that affect the liver, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and the third leading cause of death related to cancer. Several risk factors predispose individuals to HCC such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), whose incidence has significantly increased worldwide. ß-ionone (ßI) isoprenoid is a known chemopreventive of hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the effects of this compound on NAFLD isolated or in association with hepatocarcinogenesis have not yet been evaluated. A high-fat emulsion administered for 6 weeks resulted in NAFLD in male rats, and oral treatment with ßI during this period significantly attenuated its development. Moreover, the presence of NAFLD potentiated hepatocarcinogenesis induced by the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model in these animals by increasing the number and percentage of the liver section area occupied by placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-positive persistent preneoplastic lesions (pPNLs), that are thought to evolve into HCC. This indicates that this NAFLD/RH protocol is suitable for studies of the influence of NAFLD on the HCC development. Therefore, here we also investigated the chemopreventive effect of ßI under these two associated conditions. In this context, ßI reduced the number and percentage of the liver section area occupied by pPNLs, as well as cell proliferation and the number of oval cells, which are considered potential targets for the development of HCC. Thus, ßI presents not only a promising inhibitory effect on NAFLD isolated but also chemopreventive activity when it is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Norisoprenoides/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Norisoprenoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/análise
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(7): 649-658, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178460

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera, C. japonica and C. sinensis are three representative crops of the genus Camellia. In this work, we systematically investigated the lipid characteristics of these seed oils collected from different regions. The results indicated significant differences in acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), saponification value (SV) and relative density of the above-mentioned camellia seed oils (p < 0.05). The C. japonica seed oils showed the highest AV (1.7 mg/g), and the C. sinensis seed oils showed the highest PV (17.4 meq/kg). The C. japonica seed oils showed the lowest IV (79.9 g/100 g), SV (192.7 mg/g) and refractive index (1.4633) of all the oils, while the C. sinensis seed oils showed the lowest relative density (0.911 g/cm3). The major fatty acids in the camellia seed oils were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2); the oleic acid in C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils accounted for more than 80% of the total fatty acids. The oleic acid levels in the C. oleifera and C. japonica oils were higher than those in the C. sinensis seed oils, while the linoleic acid levels in the former were lower than those in the latter one. Differences also exist in the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, although the most abundant TAG molecular species in the camellia seed oils was trioleoylglycerol (OOO). Seven sterol species, squalene and α-tocopherol were detected in the camellia seed oils, however, the contents of tocopherol and unsaponifiable molecules in the C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils were significantly lower than those in the C. sinensis seed oil. These results demonstrated that the varieties of Camellia affected the seed oil lipid characteristics.


Assuntos
Camellia/química , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Palmítico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Camellia/classificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Ácido Linoleico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Palmítico/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/análise , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Esqualeno/análise , Esqualeno/isolamento & purificação , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Trioleína/análise , Trioleína/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/isolamento & purificação
16.
Food Chem ; 297: 124976, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253293

RESUMO

Milk fat is arguably one of the most complex fats found in nature and varies widely between animal species. Analysis of its digestion products is tremendously challenging, due to the complexity, diversity, and large range of concentrations of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and their digestion products (i.e. diacylglycerols (DAGs), monoacylglycerols (MAGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs)). Therefore, a method combined the solid phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and multi-dimension mass spectrometry (MDMS) was developed to identify and semi-quantify the TAGs, DAGs and MAGs in milk fat after in vitro digestion. Up to 105, 64, 14 and 30 species of TAGs, DAGs, MAGs, and FFAs were determined with their concentrations of 0.01-22.3, 0.01-39.2, 0.01-47.8, and 0.04-191.0 mg/g fat, respectively, during the in vitro digestion of cow and sheep milk. The validation of the method shows that this method was precise and reliable.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/análise , Leite/química , Ovinos/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/veterinária , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Diglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Monoglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
17.
Food Chem ; 297: 124951, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253340

RESUMO

The shelf lives of hot-air-dried (HD) and freeze-dried (FD) Penaeus vannamei were predicted by accelerated storage testing combined with Arrhenius Equation. Meanwhile, the changes in lipid profiles and colour of the dried shrimps during storage were investigated. The predicted shelf life of FD shrimp was more than 1.47-fold than that of HD shrimp. Compared to HD shrimp, FD shrimp had lower levels of oxidation parameters such as peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (TBARS) during storage. In addition, FD shrimp had less reduction in lipid components such as triacylglycerol (TAG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and all fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after storage. Moreover, FD shrimp showed a less significant decrease in redness value and increase in yellowness value. Therefore, FD shrimps have better quality stability during storage and then possess longer shelf life than HD shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Radicais Livres/análise , Radicais Livres/química , Liofilização , Lipídeos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Xantofilas/análise
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7408-7420, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178180

RESUMO

The high metabolic demand during the transition into lactation places cows at greater risk of metabolic and infectious disease than at any other time in their lactation cycle. Additionally, a change occurs in the innate immune response during this period, which contributes to increased risk of disease. In the current study, we compared the transcriptomes of neutrophils from dairy cows divergent in their metabolic health post-calving. Cows (n = 5 per risk group) were selected from a parent experiment (n = 45 cows). Those with high or low concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids, plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate, and liver triacylglycerol in both wk 1 and 2 were deemed to be at "high risk" (HR) or "low risk" (LR) of metabolic dysfunction, respectively. Circulating neutrophils were isolated at 3 time points during the transition period (d 0 and wk 1 and 4 post-calving), and gene expression was analyzed using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression between the risk groups was determined using edgeR (http://bioconductor.org), and pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Ingenuity Systems, Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Statistical analysis indicated no interaction between risk and week. Therefore, the overall effect of risk was analyzed across all time points. In total, 3,500 genes were differentially expressed between the HR and LR cows (false discovery rate < 0.05). Of these, 2,897 genes were identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and used for pathway analysis. Of the relevant pathways identified, neutrophils isolated from HR cows showed downregulation of genes involved in the recruitment of granulocytes, interferon signaling, and apoptosis, and upregulation of genes involved in cell survival. The results indicate that metabolically stressed cows had reduced neutrophil function during the peripartum period, highlighting a potential relationship between subclinical metabolic disease and innate immune function that suggests that metabolic health negatively affects the innate immune system and may contribute to the state of immunosuppression during the peripartum period. In this way, the metabolic stress among the HR cows may reduce their ability to combat infection during the transition period.


Assuntos
Bovinos/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Período Periparto/imunologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Lactação/fisiologia , Fígado/química , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Triglicerídeos/análise , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6842-6852, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178185

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to investigate the changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) composition as affected by alterations in the cows' diet due to seasonal variations and genetic factors. For this study, 50 milk fat samples in winter and 50 in summer were used from 25 cows with the DGAT1 KK genotype and 25 cows with the DGAT1 AA genotype. The samples were analyzed for milk fat content (%), fat composition, and TAG composition. We found that the content of TAG species CN54 was higher and that of CN34 and CN36 lower in summer than in winter. This seasonal variation in TAG profile was related to seasonal changes in the fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 cis-9, total unsaturated fatty acids, and total long-chain fatty acids, most likely resulting from dietary differences between seasons. Furthermore, we quantified the effect of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on TAG profile and detected a significant effect on TAG species CN36, with higher values for the DGAT1 KK genotype. When adjusting for differences in fat content, we found no significant effects of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on TAG profile. We detected a significant interaction between DGAT1 K232A polymorphism and season for TAG species CN42 and CN52; in summer, the KK genotype was associated with higher levels for CN42 than the AA genotype, whereas in winter, the difference between the genotypes was small. For CN52, in summer the AA genotype was associated with higher levels than the KK genotype. In winter, the difference between the genotypes was also small. We show that, regardless of preference for DGAT1 genotype (AA or KK) and depending on the availability of FA according to season, UFA (C18:1 cis-9), short-chain FA (C6:0 and C10:0), and medium-chain FA might be esterified on the glycerol backbone of the TAG, keeping the structure characteristics of each TAG species. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the interaction effect of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism and season on the TAG composition in milk fat.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Genótipo , Leite/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Estações do Ano
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7087-7101, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178188

RESUMO

Our objectives were to (1) determine whether the abomasal infusion of behenic acid (C22:0) elevated hepatic ceramide relative to palmitic acid (C16:0) or docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) infusion; (2) assess whether the abomasal infusion of choline chloride or l-serine elevated hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) in cows abomasally infused with C16:0; and (3) characterize the PC lipidome in cows abomasally infused with C22:6n-3, relative to C16:0 or C22:0 infusion. In a 5 × 5 Latin square design, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows (214 ± 4.9 DIM; 3.2 ± 1.1 parity) were enrolled in a study with 6-d periods. Abomasal infusates consisted of (1) palmitic acid (PA; 98% C16:0); (2) PA + choline chloride (PA+C; 50 g/d choline chloride); (3) PA + l-serine (PA+S; 170 g/d l-serine); (4) behenic acid (BA; 92% C22:0); and (5) an algal oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 44% C22:6n-3). Emulsion infusates provided 301 g/d of total fatty acids containing a minimum of 40 g/d of C16:0. Cows were fed a corn silage-based diet. Milk was collected on d -2, -1, 5, and 6. Blood was collected and liver biopsied on d 6 of each period. Although we did not detect differences in milk yield, milk fat yield and content were lower in cows infused with DHA relative to PA. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were lower with DHA treatment relative to PA or BA. Cows infused with DHA had lower plasma insulin concentrations relative to cows infused with PA only. For objective 1, hepatic ceramide-d18:2/22:0 was highest in cows infused with BA relative to other treatments. For objective 2, plasma free choline concentrations were greater in PA+C cows relative to PA; however, we did not observe this effect with PA+S. Plasma total PC concentrations were similar for all treatments. Regarding the hepatic lipidome, a total of 18 hepatic PC were higher (e.g., PC-16:1/18:2) and 25 PC were lower (e.g., PC-16:0/22:6) with PA+C infusion relative to PA. In addition, 17 PC were higher (e.g., PC-20:3/22:5) and 21 PC were lower (e.g., PC-18:0/22:6) with PA+S infusion relative to PA. For objective 3, hepatic concentrations of many individual saturated PC (e.g., PC-18:0/15:0) were lower with DHA relative to other treatments. Hepatic concentrations of highly unsaturated PC with very-long-chain fatty acids (e.g., PC-14:0/22:6) were higher in DHA-infused cows relative to PA, PA+C, PA+S, or BA. The abomasal infusion of emulsions containing palmitic acid, palmitic acid with choline chloride or serine, behenic acid, or docosahexaenoic acid influence the hepatic ceramide and PC profiles of lactating cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Palmítico/administração & dosagem , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Abomaso/metabolismo , Animais , Ceramidas/análise , Colina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Fígado/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/metabolismo , Serina/administração & dosagem , Silagem/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA