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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 320: 108518, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000117

RESUMO

Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen in infant formula. This study was designed to explore the inhibitory effect of TGML on C. sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula (RIF). Firstly, the growth curve of C. sakazakii in RIF treated by TGML and the effect of different temperatures (4, 10, 21, 30 and 37 °C), pH values (5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and ionic strengths (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mM) on its activity were assessed. The results showed that the inhibitory effect of TGML on C. sakazakii was dose-dependent, and 1, 2 and 5 µg/mL TGML delayed the visible growth of pathogen by 4, 12 and 24 h, respectively. Storage temperature above or below room temperature enhanced the bioactivity of TGML. And a decrease in pH also increased the antibacterial effect of TGML. However, the effect of ionic strength on its activity was not obvious. Subsequently, the antibacterial effect of TGML in physiological gastric acid and simulated gastric juice in vitro was further explored. We found that only 5 µg/mL TGML could inhibit the growth of pathogen below the infectious dose (10,000 CFU in total) in simulated gastric juice during the whole gastric emptying period (3.5-21 h), weaker than its antibacterial effect in physiological gastric acid and room temperature culture. Finally, the effect of TGML and the above environmental factors on the color and aroma of infant milk was evaluated by a 12-person panel. The results revealed that TGML did not affect the sensory flavor of milk, and the color and odor scores of infant milk under different environmental conditions did not show any significant differences. Therefore, it is concluded that TGML has a good inhibitory effect on C. sakazakii in RIF and a high sensory acceptability for consumers. Adjusting the temperature or lowering the pH enhances its bacteriostatic activity. However, the presence of infant gastric juice can impair the bioactivity of TGML. Overall, this study will provide some new ideas for controlling and eliminating the potential risk of C. sakazakii infection during infant feeding.


Assuntos
Cronobacter sakazakii/efeitos dos fármacos , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Lauratos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cronobacter sakazakii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suco Gástrico , Humanos , Lactente , Lauratos/química , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/química
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(12): 6653-6660, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810930

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on chemically-induced hepatic carcinogenesis (HCC) in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a first set of experiments, mice were treated with diethylnitrosoamine intraperitoneally at two weeks of age. They were fed chow containing MCT or a normal chow diet and sacrificed after 28 weeks. Incidence of hepatic tumor was compared between the two groups. Expression of oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in liver tissues were examined. In a second set of experiments, the histopathological findings of the intraperitoneal adipose tissue were assessed, and expression of adipocytokines in the fat tissue was measured. In a third set of experiments, plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (HB) concentration was measured in both animals fed chow containing MCT and a normal chow diet. Mouse HCC cells were co-cultured with ß-HB, and the numbers of tumor cells were counted at days 3 and 7. RESULTS: In the first set of experiments, the tumor count observed in the control group was significantly blunted in the MCT group. Maximum tumor diameter also decreased in the MCT group compared to the control group. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was significantly decreased by MCT. Furthermore, expression of 4-hydroxynonenal was lower in the MCT group compared to the control group. In the second set of experiments, hypertrophy of the adipocytes was suppressed, and the concentration of adiponectin and leptin in the adipose tissue decreased by MCT. In the third set of experiments, plasma ß-HB concentration increased in the MCT group as expected. ß-HB significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells. CONCLUSION: MCT administration markedly suppresses the incidence of chemically-induced HCC by inhibition of inflammation and increase of ketone bodies.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carcinógenos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/induzido quimicamente , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dietilnitrosamina , Hipertrofia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Estresse Oxidativo , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
3.
J Physiol Sci ; 69(6): 969-979, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595463

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of activated ghrelin with dietary octanoic acids or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) administration to underweight patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eleven severe and very severe COPD patients received a 5-day treatment with edible MCT. Sequentially, 10 patients received a 3-week combination treatment with MCT and intravenous acyl ghrelin. Five-day MCT treatment increased endogenous acyl ghrelin (p = 0.0049), but the total ghrelin level was unchanged. MCT-ghrelin combination treatment improved the peak oxygen uptake (p = 0.0120) during whole treatment course. This effect was attributed to the resultant improvements in cardiac function by O2 pulse, and to the difference between inspired and expired oxygen concentration rather than minute ventilation. Addition of dietary MCT to ghrelin treatment improved the aerobic capacity of underweight COPD patients, likely by mechanisms of increased O2 delivery through improvements in primary cardiocirculatory and muscular crosstalk.


Assuntos
Grelina/farmacologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Magreza/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Grelina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/química
4.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 184: 110528, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590050

RESUMO

Lipid deposition induced various diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver and hyperlipemia. The excessive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and the deposition of fat were the two most critical causes. Here, we developed Fe3O4@OA@Poloxamer nanoparticles (NPs) with amphiphilic structures, which exhibited an excellent role in eliminating excess TG. Hydrophobic TG was adsorbed efficiently by Fe3O4@OA@Poloxamer NPs through the "liposuction effect" and the formation of NPs@TG complex was then conducted. The NPs@TG complex was further enclosed by the endosome based on the endocytosis and subsequently was taken into the lysosome, degrading with the help of lipases. Meanwhile, the "nano-enzyme effect" of Fe3O4 NPs recovered the lipid-regulated proteins including PPARα, further triggering biodegradation pathways of TG, although the lipid-regulated proteins were obviously inhibited in the high-fat hepatocytes models. These two mechanisms of Fe3O4@OA@Poloxamer NPs together achieved the down-regulation of TG in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, our findings provided a novel thought in treating these diseases associated with lipid deposition, that is, nanoparticles modified by specific structure exhibit a superior TG removal.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Poloxâmero/química , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/química , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipectomia , Masculino , Ácido Oleico/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poloxâmero/farmacologia , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Propriedades de Superfície , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(12): 4951-4956, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630180

RESUMO

Postexercise skeletal muscle repair is dependent on the actions of satellite cells (SCs). The signal(s) responsible for activation of these normally quiescent cells in the horse remain unknown. The objective of the experiment was to determine whether submaximal exercise or tributyrin (TB) supplementation is sufficient to stimulate SC activation. Adult geldings were fed a control diet (n = 6) or a diet containing 0.45% TB (n = 6). After 30 d, the geldings performed a single bout of submaximal exercise. Middle gluteal muscle biopsies and blood were collected on days -1, 1, 3, and 5 relative to exercise. Diet had no effect on any parameter of physical performance. Total RNA isolated from the gluteal muscle of TB fed geldings contained greater (P < 0.05) amounts of myogenin mRNA than controls. Satellite cell isolates from TB supplemented horses had a greater (P = 0.02) percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunopositive (PCNA+) SC than controls after 48 h in culture. Submaximal exercise was sufficient to increase (P < 0.05) the percentage of PCNA(+) cells in all isolates obtained during recovery period. No change in the amount of gluteal muscle Pax7 mRNA, a lineage marker of SCs, occurred in response to either diet or exercise. Our results indicate that both submaximal exercise and TB prime SCs for activation and cell cycle reentry but are insufficient to cause an increase in Pax7 expression during the recovery period.


Assuntos
Cavalos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Miogenina , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(5): 4119-4124, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545435

RESUMO

Aberrant lipid metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms by which hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gasotransmitter, regulates lipid metabolism remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the protective effects of H2S during high glucose (HG)­induced lipid accumulation in 3T3­L1 adipocytes may be mediated by AMP­activated protein kinase (AMPK). Triglyceride (TG) content and the production of H2S were determined using adipogenesis colorimetric assay kits and H2S synthesis methods. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein­1 and adiponectin were evaluated by ELISA. Total AMPK and phosphorylated AMPK levels were assessed by western blot analysis. HG increased the cellular level of TG and decreased H2S production in 3T3­L1 adipocytes. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) protected against the HG­induced accumulation of TG in 3T3­L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, NaHS suppressed HG­induced TG accumulation by activating AMPK. Collectively, the findings of the present study suggested that HG induced lipid accumulation in 3T3­L1 adipocytes, and AMPK activation may underlie the lipid­lowering effects of H2S.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glucose/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415396

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with cytotoxicity and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high-proportion medium chain triglyceride (MCT) on body fat distribution and levels of leptin and adiponectin during chemotherapy of children with ALL.New-onset ALL children treated at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between March 2016 and March 2017 were enrolled. Children were divided into the MCT and control groups. For the MCT group, high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation was added to the diet, while no MCT was added for the control group. The MCT group was further divided into subgroups A and B based on the amount of supplement. Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, bone marrow concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio were measured before and on days 19 and 46 of chemotherapy. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured on admission and discharge.Waist circumference in the control group increased by day 46 (P = .047), but did not change in the MCT group. The BMI of the children in the control group was higher than those in the MCT group on admission (P = .003), but not different at discharge. No significant differences in hip circumference, leptin levels, adiponectin levels, and body weight were observed between the 2 groups.This preliminary study suggests that short-term supplementation of high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation may help reduce the centripetal distribution of adipose induced by the application of glucocorticoids in children with ALL. This will have to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(3): 652-665, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combined supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), l-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol was previously shown to increase muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether treatment with MCTs alone is sufficient to increase muscle strength and function and activities of daily living (ADL) in such individuals. METHODS: We enrolled 64 elderly nursing home residents (85.5 ± 6.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blinded intervention trial. The participants were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the first group received supplemental l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 µg) enriched with 6 g/d of MCTs (LD + MCT group) as a positive control, the second group received 6 g/d of MCTs (MCT group) as a target, and the third group received 6 g/d of long-chain triglycerides (LCT group) as a negative control. Changes in muscle mass, strength, function, and ADL were monitored 4 times: at baseline, at 1.5 and 3 mo after initiation of the intervention (intervention), and 1.5 mo after termination of the intervention (washout). RESULTS: The 64 participants randomly assigned to the 3 groups were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Forty-eight participants completed the study and were included in a per-protocol analysis. At 3 mo, participants in the MCT group had a 48.1% increase in 10-s leg open and close test performance [intention-to-treat adjusted means: MCT 2.28 n/10 s (1.37, 3.19) compared with LCT -0.59 n/10 s (-1.52, 0.35), P < 0.05], a 27.8% increase in a 30-s repetitive saliva swallowing test [MCT 0.5 n/30 s (0.1, 1.0) compared with LCT -0.5 n/30 s (-0.9, 0.0), P < 0.05], and a 7.5% increase in Functional Independence Measure score, a questionnaire for assessing ADL [MCT 5.6 points (1.3, 9.9) compared with LCT -6.6 points (-11.3, -2.0), P < 0.05]. CONCLUSION: MCTs (6 g/d) could increase the muscle strength and function of frail elderly individuals and also improve their ADL. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry as UMIN000023302.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Força da Mão , Sarcopenia/dietoterapia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem
9.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319633

RESUMO

Consuming medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may reduce subsequent energy intake and increase satiety compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT) but this may be dependent on the physical form in which MCT is ingested. Twenty-nine participants completed four trials where they consumed a breakfast containing either LCT or MCT in solid (Con-S and MCT-S, respectively) or liquid (Con-L and MCT-L, respectively) form. Appetite ratings and gastric emptying (GE) were taken at baseline and at 15 min intervals for 4 h. Energy intake was assessed at an ad libitum meal and via weighed food records for the remainder of the day. Ad libitum energy intake was highest in Con-L (4101 ± 1278 kJ vs. Con-S, 3323 ± 1196; MCT-S, 3516 ± 1058; MCT-L, 3257 ± 1345; p = 0.001). Intake over the whole day was significantly lower in MCT-L (7904 ± 3244) compared to Con-L (9531 ± 3557; p = 0.001). There were significant differences in GE times (p < 0.05), with MCT breakfasts delaying GE to a greater extent than LCT, and MCT-L having the longest GE times. There were no differences in appetite sensations. MCT reduce subsequent intake without affecting subjective sensations of appetite when consumed in liquid form.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6091-6099, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198968

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the impact of different feed additives on reproductive performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and blood metabolic profile of broiler breeder with different egg-laying rate. A total of 512 AA broiler breeders (48 wk old) were used in a 2 × 4 factorial design which encompassed 2 egg-laying rate levels [average (AR) and low (LR)] and 4 different dietary groups [control (no additive), 6 × 108 CFU/kg Enterococcus faecium (EF), 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO), and 1,000 mg/kg tributyrin (TRI)]. As expected, the LR breeders presented higher egg weight, eggshell thickness (P < 0.05), and feed conversion ratio as well as lower egg-laying and qualified egg rate than the AR breeders (P < 0.01). Dietary supplementation with the 3 additives improved egg weight (P ≤ 0.01). Dietary APO addition improved albumen height and Haugh units (P < 0.05) in both AR and LR breeders. Compared with APO and TRI, dietary EF addition increased eggshell thickness (P ≤ 0.01). An effect of the egg-laying rate and dietary additives on eggshell thickness (P < 0.01) was noted, with the addition of EF enhancing the eggshell thickness, which is more pronounced in the AR group. The duodenum of AR breeders presented a lower crypt depth and a higher villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05); moreover, an effect of the laying rate and dietary additives on crypt depth was noted (P < 0.05), with the addition of APO to the diet resulting in a lower crypt depth. Compared with the APO and TRI, dietary EF addition increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level in serum (P < 0.05). Overall, the results gathered in this study indicate that LR breeders have lower production performance, eggshell thickness and decreased gastrointestinal tract functionality in compared with the AR breeders. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and decrease duodenal morphology, while EF improved eggshell quality and FSH secretion, and the improvement was more pronounced in the breeders with an average egg-laying rate.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Enterococcus faecium/química , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia
11.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 34(3): e2694, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-part study assessed the impact of GSK2981710, a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) that liberates ketone bodies, on cognitive function, safety, and tolerability in healthy older adults. METHODS: Part 1 was a four-period dose-selection study (n = 8 complete). Part 2 was a two-period crossover study (n = 80 complete) assessing the acute (Day 1) and prolonged (Day 15) effects of GSK2981710 on cognition and memory-related neuronal activity. Safety and tolerability of MCT supplementation were monitored in both parts of the study. RESULTS: The most common adverse event was diarrhoea (100% and 75% of participants in Parts 1 and 2, respectively). Most adverse events were mild to moderate, and 11% participants were withdrawn due to one or more adverse events. Although GSK2981710 (30 g/day) resulted in increased peak plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations, no significant improvements in cognitive function or memory-related neuronal activity were observed. CONCLUSION: Over a duration of 14 days, increasing plasma BHB levels with daily administration of GSK2981710 had no effects on neuronal activity or cognitive function. This result indicates that modulating plasma ketone levels with GSK2981710 may be ineffective in improving cognitive function in healthy older adults, or the lack of observed effect could be related to several factors including study population, plasma BHB concentrations, MCT composition, or treatment duration.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos
12.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 317(1): E53-E64, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990747

RESUMO

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin secreted from enteroendocrine K cells and potentiates insulin secretion from pancreatic ß-cells. GIP also enhances long-chain triglyceride (LCT) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Long-term intake of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet is known to induce less body weight and fat mass gain than that of LCT diet. However, the effect of MCT diet feeding on GIP secretion and the effect of GIP on body weight and fat mass under MCT diet-feeding condition are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of single MCT oil administration on GIP secretion and compared the effect of long-term MCT and LCT diet on body weight and fat mass gain in wild-type (WT) and GIP-knockout (GIP KO) mice. Single administration of LCT oil induced GIP secretion but that of MCT oil did not in WT mice. Long-term intake of LCT diet induced GIP hypersecretion and significant body weight and fat mass gain compared with that of control fat (CF) diet in WT mice. In contrast, MCT diet did not induce GIP hypersecretion, and MCT diet-fed mice showed smaller increase in body weight and fat mass gain compared with CF diet-fed mice. In GIP KO mice, body weight and fat mass were markedly attenuated in LCT diet-fed mice but not in MCT diet-fed mice. Our results suggest that long-term intake of MCT diet stimulates less GIP secretion and suppresses body weight and fat mass gain compared with that of LCT diet.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/classificação , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Triglicerídeos/química , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4155-4164, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879815

RESUMO

The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of feeding triglyceride and fatty acid (FA) supplements enriched in palmitic acid (PA; C16:0) on production and nutrient digestibility responses of mid-lactation dairy cows. Fifteen Holstein cows (137 ± 49 d in milk) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of a control diet (CON; no added PA) or 1.5% FA added as either a FA supplement (PA-FA) or a triglyceride supplement (PA-TG). The PA supplements replaced soyhulls, and diets were balanced for glycerol content. Periods were 21 d in length with sample and data collection occurring during the final 5 d. Compared with CON, PA treatments increased dry matter (66.5 vs. 63.9%) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) apparent digestibility (42.0 vs. 38.2%). Although PA treatments tended to increase 18-carbon FA apparent digestibility (79.1 vs. 77.9%), PA treatments decreased 16-carbon (63.1 vs. 75.8%) and total FA (72.0 vs. 76.5%) apparent digestibilities compared with CON. The PA treatments increased milk fat content (3.60 vs. 3.41%), milk fat yield (1.70 vs. 1.60 kg/d), yield of 16-carbon milk FA (570 vs. 471 g/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (47.6 vs. 46.5 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (47.4 vs. 46.6 kg/d) compared with CON. The PA treatments did not affect dry matter intake (28.5 vs. 29.2 kg/d), milk yield (47.0 vs. 47.4 kg/d), milk protein yield (1.42 vs. 1.45 kg/d), milk lactose yield (2.29 vs. 2.31 kg/d), yield of <16-carbon milk FA (360 vs. 370 g/d), yield of >16-carbon milk FA (642 vs. 630 g/d), body weight (720 vs. 723 kg), or body condition score (3.14 vs. 3.23). We did not observe differences in digestibilities of dry matter, NDF, and 18-carbon FA between PA-TG and PA-FA. In contrast, PA-FA increased 16-carbon (68.6 vs. 57.6%) and total FA apparent digestibility (73.8 vs. 70.1%) compared with PA-TG. This resulted in PA-FA supplementation increasing the apparent digestibility of the PA supplement by ∼10 percentage points compared with PA-TG. Compared with PA-TG, PA-FA increased 16-carbon FA intake by 60 g/d, absorbed 16-carbon FA by 86 g/d, and absorbed total FA by 85 g/d. Compared with PA-TG, PA-FA increased dry matter intake (29.1 vs. 27.8 kg/d), yield of 16-carbon milk FA (596 vs. 545 g/d), and tended to increase milk yield (47.6 vs. 46.4 kg/d), milk fat yield (1.70 vs. 1.66 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (48.1 vs. 47.2 kg/d). In conclusion, the production response of dairy cows to PA tended to be greater for a FA supplement compared with a triglyceride supplement. Overall, PA increased NDF digestibility, milk fat yield, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency in mid-lactation dairy cows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Lactose/metabolismo , Leite , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(7): 1061-1071, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844432

RESUMO

Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the main plasma carrier of triacylglycerol that is elevated in pathological conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity and dyslipidemia. How variations in triacylglycerol levels influence structural stability and remodeling of VLDL and its metabolic product, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), is unknown. We applied a biochemical and biophysical approach using lipoprotein remodeling by lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein, along with thermal denaturation that mimics key aspects of lipoprotein remodeling in vivo. The results revealed that increasing the triacylglycerol content in VLDL promotes changes in the lipoprotein size and release of the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Similarly, increased triacylglycerol content in LDL promotes lipoprotein remodeling and fusion. These effects were observed in single-donor lipoproteins from healthy subjects enriched in exogenous triolein, in single-donor lipoproteins from healthy subjects with naturally occurring differences in endogenous triacylglycerol, and in LDL and VLDL from pooled plasma of diabetic and normolipidemic patients. Consequently, triacylglycerol-induced destabilization is a general property of plasma lipoproteins. This destabilization reflects a direct effect of triacylglycerol on lipoproteins. Moreover, we show that TG can act indirectly by increasing lipoprotein susceptibility to oxidation and lipolysis and thereby promoting the generation of free fatty acids that augment fusion. These in vitro findings are relevant to lipoprotein remodeling and fusion in vivo. In fact, fusion of LDL and VLDL enhances their retention in the arterial wall and, according to the response-to-retention hypothesis, triggers atherosclerosis. Therefore, enhanced fusion of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins suggests a new causative link between elevated plasma triacylglycerol and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas LDL/química , Lipoproteínas VLDL/química , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Estrutura Molecular , Desnaturação Proteica
15.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626010

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer affects the large intestine, leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. Lower incidence of colorectal cancer is associated with increased fibre intake. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are fibres that increase production of butyrate by the intestinal microbiota. Tributyrin, a prodrug of butyric acid, exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects on colorectal cancer. Our aim was to characterise the effects of diets rich in FOS and tributyrin within the context of a colon carcinogenesis model, and characterise possible support of tumorigenesis by WAT. C57/BL6 male mice were divided into four groups: a control group (CT) fed with chow diet and three colon carcinogenesis-induced groups fed either with chow diet (CA), tributyrin-supplemented diet (BUT), or with FOS-supplemented diet. Colon carcinogenesis decreased adipose mass in subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal tissues, while also reducing serum glucose and leptin concentrations. However, it did not alter the concentrations of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α in WAT. Additionally, the supplements did not revert the colon cancer affected parameters. The BUT group exhibited even higher glucose tolerance and levels of IL-6, VEGF, and TNF-α in WAT. To conclude our study, FOS and butyrate supplements were not beneficial. In addition, butyrate worsened adipose tissue inflammation.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Toxicology ; 412: 48-54, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503584

RESUMO

The prevalence of skin allergies could be partly due to the increased exposure to chemicals from consumer products. Chemicals that can enhance hypersensitivity caused by other chemicals are the focus of this study. We have demonstrated that phthalate esters with short chain alcohols enhance fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in a mouse model. We have also found that tributyrin, a triacylglycerol (TAG) with three butyric acids, enhances sensitization to FITC. To elucidate such an enhanced skin sensitization might be based on a general feature of TAG, we compared tributyrin and triolein, a natural TAG, as to an adjuvant effect on FITC-CHS. Triolein is the dominant TAG in olive oil and contains long chain mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike tributyrin and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), triolein did not exhibit an adjuvant effect. With triolein, enhancement of FITC-presenting CD11c+ dendritic cell trafficking to draining lymph nodes was weak, and the activation status of DC, as revealed as CD86 expression, was low. We found a difference in the pattern of skin cytokine production, i.e., that thymic stromal lymphopoietin was produced with DBP and interleukin-1ß with tributyrin. Triolein did not induce either of these cytokines. This illustrates that the adjuvant effect of tributyrin on FITC-CHS is not a general phenomenon for TAGs. Although beneficial effects may be expected through oral administration of tributyrin, the effect on skin immune systems should be considered.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Alérgenos/toxicidade , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dibutilftalato/farmacologia , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/toxicidade , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Feminino , Linfonodos/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/imunologia
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 173: 226-232, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300828

RESUMO

Microemulsions are widely studied as potential ocular drug delivery vehicles. In the present study we show the versatility of possible use microemulsions as ocular delivery vehicle. The ME is loaded with a hydrophilic drug, riboflavin phosphate (RFP) and a lipophilic, docosahexaenoic acid in triglyceride form (TG-DHA), each separately. These drugs treat keratoconus and dry eye syndrome, respectively. The advantage of using ME loaded with RFP is in overcoming eye epithelium debridement during collagen cross-linking therapy for treatment of keratoconus. ME loaded with lipophilic TG-DHA provides convenient dosage in liquid aqueous form of administration of highly lipophilic TG-DHA, which is known as a protective molecule in dry eye syndrome. The capability of RFP-loaded MEs was demonstrated in terms of improvement of biomechanical strength of the rabbit cornea, as a result of successful penetration of RFP through the intact epithelium. TG-DHA-loaded microemulsion applied topically onto an eye with induced dry eye syndrome showed the significant relief of the dry eye condition.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/farmacologia , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Colágeno/química , Colágeno/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/fisiopatologia , Emulsões , Epitélio Anterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Anterior/metabolismo , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ceratocone/metabolismo , Ceratocone/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Coelhos , Triglicerídeos/química , Raios Ultravioleta
18.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 316(3): G332-G337, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520691

RESUMO

Dietary fat, and particularly fatty acids (FAs) from hydrolyzed triglycerides (TGs), reduces appetite, whereas paradoxically, a high-fat diet leads to excess calorie intake. We therefore hypothesized that the appetite-regulating effects of FAs are perturbed in obesity. Ten men with severe obesity [median body mass index (BMI) of 51.0 kg/m2 (range of 47.9-69.0)] and 10 men without obesity [BMI of 24.6 kg/m2 (range of 21.7-26.8)] were recruited for a double-blind randomized crossover study. On two occasions, participants were given isocaloric (2,660 kJ) and isovolemic (80 ml) loads of either oleic acid (long-chain FA) or olive oil (TG) containing radiolabeled lipid and water markers. Postload scintigraphy, blood sampling, and assessment of appetite were performed for 10 h, after which an ad libitum meal was served. Compared with olive oil, oleic acid slowed gastric mean emptying time (GMET) for lipids ( P < 0.001), accelerated orocoecal transit time (OCTT; P = 0.005), increased postload cholecystokinin section ( P < 0.001), and suppressed ad libitum energy intake ( P = 0.028) in men with severe obesity, and similar effects were seen in the nonobese group (no group × lipid interactions). However, independent of lipid loads, GMET and OCTT were slower (GMETlipid P = 0.046; GMETwater P = 0.003; OCTT P = 0.001), and basal and postload secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was attenuated ( P = 0.045 and P = 0.048, respectively) in men with severe obesity compared with men without obesity. We conclude that the more potent appetite-regulating effects of oleic acid versus olive oil are unimpaired in men with severe obesity. However, regardless of lipid formulations, severe obesity is associated with slowed gastrointestinal transit and attenuated GLP-1 secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Orally ingested fatty acids more efficiently reduce appetite and energy intake than triglycerides also in men with severe obesity. Men with severe obesity have delayed gastrointestinal transit and attenuated early gut hormone responses after an oral lipid load compared with men without obesity.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Adulto , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553406

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effects of medium-chain triglyceride oil on the high fructose diet-provoked hepatic abnormalities in mice. We used C57bl/6 mice of 3-months-old divided into four groups for 12 weeks: control (C), control with MCT (C-MCT), fructose (F), and fructose with MCT (F-MCT). We investigated food and water intake, body mass, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma and liver biochemistry, hepatic protein and gene expression. There were no changes in body mass, food intake and glucose tolerance among the groups. The F group presented increased water intake and blood pressure associated with hepatic steatosis and elevated de novo lipogenesis, beta-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammation in the liver. Surprisingly, the C-MCT group also showed hepatic steatosis and inflammation in the liver, and the F-MCT group had no exacerbations of fructose-induced abnormalities, showing marked hepatic steatosis, lipogenesis de novo and hepatic inflammation. The MCT oil groups also presented increased beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, MCT oil showed detrimental hepatic effects and should be used with caution, especially in the presence of hepatic alterations.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Frutose/farmacologia , Hepatite Animal/induzido quimicamente , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Animal/genética , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(8): 979-988, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590392

RESUMO

Agents that inhibit angiogenic factors may prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, the objective of this study was to kinetically evaluate the antiangiogenic activity of tributyrin (TB), a butyric acid prodrug, in the promotion stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. For this purpose, the resistant hepatocyte (RH) model was used for induction of preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. During the promotion phase, the animals received TB or maltodextrin (MD) as control daily. The rats were killed at three time-points (P1, P2 and P3). Increased expression of Vegfa and Vegfr2 was observed during promotion phase of hepatocarcinogenesis, which was not reversed by TB treatment. However, TB treatment reduced the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 34-positive vessels at P3 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive vessels at P2 compared with MD. Enhanced levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) were detected at P3 when compared with P1 and P2 in the MD treatment. TB treatment reduced the levels of HIF-1α and pERK at P3 relative to the MD control. Experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) showed that sodium butyrate (NaBu) inhibited cell migration and tube formation, confirming the antiangiogenic activity of its prodrug TB. In conclusion, antiangiogenic activity of TB is an early event that already occurs in preneoplastic livers, reinforcing its potential chemopreventive effects against HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Actinas/genética , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Ratos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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