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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11167-11178, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542928

RESUMO

Milk contains a number of beneficial fatty acids including short and medium chain and unsaturated conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acids. In this study, microRNA sequencing of mammary tissue collected in early-, peak-, mid-, and late-lactation periods was performed to determine the miRNA expression profiles. miR-16a was one of the differentially expressed miRNA and was selected for in-depth functional studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism. The mimic of miR-16a impaired fat metabolism [triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol] while knock-down of miR-16a promoted fat metabolism in vitro in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). In addition, the in vitro work with BMECs also revealed that miR-16a had a negative effect on the cellular concentration of cis 9-C18:1, total C18:1, C20:1, and C22:1 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, these data suggesting a negative effect on fatty acid metabolism extend the discovery of the key role of miR-16a in mediating adipocyte differentiation. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis, target gene 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting, we identified large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) as a target of miR-16a. Transfection of siRNA-LATS1 into BMECs led to increases in TAG, cholesterol, and cellular fatty acid concentrations, suggesting a positive role of LATS1 in mammary cell fatty acid metabolism. In summary, data suggest that miR-16a regulates biological processes associated with intracellular TAG, cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis through LATS1. These data provide a theoretical and experimental framework for further clarifying the regulation of lipid metabolism in mammary cells of dairy cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 91-97, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400790

RESUMO

The organophosphorus pesticide, triazophos (TAP) was banned to use in agriculture in several countries due to its high toxicity. However, TAP was still widely used and frequently detected in foods. Recently, many studies reported the endocrine-disrupting effect of pesticides, especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were exposed to TAP at the dose of 0.164 and 1.64 mg/kg bodyweight (~1/500th and 1/50th of LD50) for 24 weeks and serum contents of hormones were measured. TAP exposure significantly reduced serum contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and epinephrine in rats (p < .05), leading to the delay in glucose homeostasis during the insulin tolerance test and decrease in serum contents of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein. Molecular docking results suggested TAP may be an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor which decreased significantly in the liver of rats, resulting in the decreased expression of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and PEPCK1. This study revealed that TAP is a potential endocrine disruptor, especially in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system and may disturb the metabolism by affecting glucocorticoid receptor. This study provided new evidence about the toxicity of TAP and it was necessary to strictly control the usage of TAP in food.


Assuntos
Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Organotiofosfatos/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180646, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411259

RESUMO

The hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) on alcohol-induced liver steatosis were investigated in Wistar rats. Chronic alcoholic fatty liver was induced by administration of 52% alcohol to male Wistar rats at the dose of 1% body weight for 7 weeks. Then animals were simultaneously treated with 50% ethanol solutions of EEP or normal saline at the dose of 0.1% body weight for 4 further weeks. Serological analyses and liver histopathology studies were performed to investigate the development of steatosis. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the alterations of hepatic gene expression profiling. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of EEP helped to restore the levels of various blood indices, liver function enzymes and the histopathology of liver tissue to normal levels. Results from the microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis were significantly down-regulated by EEP treatment, while the transcriptional expressions of functional genes participating in fatty acids oxidation were markedly increased. The ability of EEP to reduce the negative effects of alcohol on liver makes propolis a potential natural product for the alternative treatment of alcoholic fatty liver.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Própole/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apiterapia/métodos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/genética , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Própole/química , Própole/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9532-9542, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369265

RESUMO

Murine mammary gland is an ideal model for studying the development and milk synthesis in dairy animals. MicroRNAs play an important role in milk synthesis and mammary gland development; however, the molecular mechanism of miR-142-3p continues to be poorly understood. Here, we knocked down miR-142-3p expression in vitro and vivo, increased the prolactin receptor expression and activated many downstream cellular proteins, such as mammalian target of rapamycin, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1, cyclin D1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5. Additionally, miR-142-3p knockdown in mouse mammary gland epithelial cells increased proliferation but not viability, induced cell cycle progression, decreased apoptosis, and increased the expression of triglycerides and ß-casein. Moreover, miR-142-3p knockdown in murine mammary gland tissue in vivo affected the structure and function of the mammary gland, which showed an increased number of lobules and ducts and was more capable of producing milk. However, overexpression of miR-142-3p had the opposite effects. In summary, these data reveal that miR-142-3p regulates milk synthesis and the structure of murine mammary glands via PRLR-mediated multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Receptores da Prolactina/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9683-9693, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379160

RESUMO

Schizochytrium sp. A-2 is a heterotrophic marine fungus used for the commercial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the pattern of the distribution of DHA and how DHA is channeled into phospholipid (PL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) are unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed the distribution of DHA in TAG and PL during the growth of the cell. The migration of DHA from PL to TAG was presumed during the fermentation cycle. DHA and docosapentaenoic acid were accumulated in both TAG and phosphatidylcholine (PC), whereas eicosapentaenoic acid was mainly deposited in PC. RNA seq revealed that malic enzyme may provide lipogenic NADPH. In addition, long-chain acyl-CoA synthase and acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase may participate in the accumulation of DHA in PL. No phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase was identified from the genome sequence. In contrast, phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-mediated acyl-CoA-independent TAG synthesis pathway and phospholipase C may contribute to the channeling of DHA from PC to TAG.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/genética , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/genética , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipases Tipo C/genética , Fosfolipases Tipo C/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8485-8492, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304752

RESUMO

How short-chain fatty acids (FAs) affect cell membrane morphology and milk fat biosynthesis in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is yet unclear. This study investigated the primary bovine MEC response to different FAs. We observed that the cell surface ultrastructures were influenced by chain length and degree of saturability of FAs. The CD36, FATP1, and FABP3 gene expression was affected independent of the type of FA. FASN, LPIN1, PPARα, and PPARγ transcripts were more sensitive to the short-chain FAs (acetic and ß-hydroxybutyric acids). Furthermore, short-chain FAs inclined to regulate FA degradation-, elongation-, and metabolism-associated pathways, while long-chain FAs (stearic and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linolenic acids) modulated extracellular matrix-receptor interaction-, transcriptional misregulation-, microRNA-, and ribosome biogenesis-related pathways. However, triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytoplasm was not changed by all of the FAs. Overall, FAs with different chain lengths and degrees of saturability could differentially alter primary bovine MEC cell morphology and influence protein profiles involved in milk fat synthesis pathways.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Gorduras/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD36/genética , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Bovinos/genética , Gorduras/química , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Leite/química , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116644, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301418

RESUMO

AIMS: (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) is a triptolide analog with excellent capability against cancers, cerebral ischemic injury and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we discovered its hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ameliorating liver lipid accumulation. MAIN METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHFr) diet for 29 weeks to induce the pathological phenomena of NAFLD. Then the mice were treated with LLDT-8 (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg) or Vehicle for 8 weeks. Finally, the serum biochemical indexes, liver histological features, fatty acids (FAs) profile and related gene expression in liver were detected to investigate the effect of LLDT-8 on lipid accumulation and its possible mechanism. KEY FINDINGS: LLDT-8 treatment significantly inhibited hepatic injury featured by the decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), the lessening of hepatic ballooning and macrovesicular steatosis. Moreover, LLDT-8 could downregulate the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which further led to the lower ratios of C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 and thus inhibited lipid synthesis. LLDT-8 treatment also could upregulate liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acadl) and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acadm) expression levels involved in fatty acids oxidation (FAO) and markedly promoted lipolysis. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a novel application of LLDT-8 in improving NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108755, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319077

RESUMO

Effective control of white adipose tissue accumulation would provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity, which poses a growing global problem. The plant chemical mangiferin stimulates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits adipogenesis and has therefore been considered a therapeutic target for obesity and related diseases. We previously reported the anti-inflammatory properties of 6'-O-acetyl mangiferin (OAM). In this study, we evaluated the potential of OAM as an AMPK activator in vitro in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. OAM inhibited adipogenesis as indicated by lower intracellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation as well as reduced adipogenic gene and protein expression upon treatment. OAM-treated 3T3-L1 cells excreted more glycerol, indicating increased lipolysis, which was supported by increased expression of lipolysis-related genes, including adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. We determined that OAM upregulates lipolysis via phosphorylation-dependent activation of AMPK. Further, OAM upregulated the ß-oxidation pathway as indicated by enhanced expression of phosphorylated acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1. In conclusion, OAM markedly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation by enhancing lipolysis via AMPK activation and by upregulating ß-oxidation. Thus, OAM has potential as a drug for the prevention and/or improvement of obesity and related diseases and deserves further study.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Iris (Planta)/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Iris (Planta)/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
9.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 133-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272101

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) can mediate the signaling of R-Smads and regulate different biological functions, including adipocyte differentiation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can be involved in many important biological processes, including fat metabolism, as miRNA sponges. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of fat deposition and to provide useful information for the prevention and treatment of lipid-related diseases. lncRNA sequencing was performed to compare and analyze, for the first time, the expression of lncRNAs in BMP2-induced and non-BMP2-induced preadipocytes from Junmu1 pigs. In addition, functional annotation and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed lncRNA target genes were carried out. lncRNAs and mRNAs were compared and analyzed. lncRNAs were identified that may regulate adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The results give a theoretical basis for further studies on fat deposition mechanisms and provide potential therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 299: 125164, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319345

RESUMO

Control of lipid digestibility by various food components has received great attention in recent decades. However, there is limited literature on investigating the synergistic effect of exogenous emulsifiers and endogenous sodium cholate (SC) on lipid digestion in a simulated physiological crowded medium. In this work, the synergistic interaction of Tween80 and SC according to the regular solution theory, and the hydrolysis of lipid emulsions containing tricaprylin, glyceryltrioleate or soybean oil in crowding medium was studied. The results show that emulsions stabilized by a combination of Tween80 and SC showed higher digestion rate and transformation than those with Tween80 or SC. The digestion rate could be increased by polyethylene glycols (PEGn) with varying crowding degree. The denaturation temperature of the lipase was increased in macromolecular crowded medium. This work allows for better understanding of the interaction between the amphiphiles and the macromolecular crowding effect on lipase digestion in the physiological environment.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/farmacocinética , Lipídeos/farmacocinética , Polissorbatos/farmacocinética , Colato de Sódio/farmacocinética , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Digestão , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Polietilenoglicóis , Polissorbatos/química , Colato de Sódio/química , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7197-7203, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240934

RESUMO

Nutritional profiles and consumer preferences differ between wild and farmed fish, and identification of fish sources can be difficult. We analyzed the metabolite molecules of wild and farmed red sea bream ( Pagrus major) to identify specific metabolic differences. The total lipid content and molecular composition of wild and farmed red sea bream muscles were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry imaging. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher in farmed fish. Wild fish contained saturated-fatty-acid-containing triacylglycerols as a major molecular species, while docosahexaenoic-acid-containing triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher in farmed fish than in wild fish. The localization of each muscle-fiber-type-specific marker demonstrated that wild fish exhibit myosin heavy chain (MHC)-type-IIb-specific phospholipids, while farmed fish exhibit MHC-type-IIa-specific phospholipids in their white muscle. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses separated the identified myosins and revealed that farmed fish possess additional myosin isoforms when compared to wild fish. In addition, we found a farmed-fish-specific distribution of anserine in their white muscle. These molecules can be used as new molecular markers for determining the geographic origins of wild versus farmed red sea bream.


Assuntos
Dourada/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Pesqueiros , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7336-7347, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184119

RESUMO

The current research aimed to explore the impact of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) on fat metabolism and investigate whether this action of (-)-HCA was associated with modulation of glucose-6-phosphote isomerase (GPI) expression in chicken embryos. We constructed a recombinant plasmid (sh2-GPI) to inhibit GPI expression, and then embryos were treated with (-)-HCA. Results showed that (-)-HCA reduced lipid droplet accumulation, triglyceride content, and lipogenesis factors mRNA level and increased lipolysis factors mRNA expression, while this effect caused by (-)-HCA was markedly reversed when the chicken embryos were pretreated with sh2-GPI. (-)-HCA increased phospho (p)-acetyl-CoA carboxylase, enoyl-CoA hydratase short chain-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A, p-AMP-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α protein expression, and this action of (-)-HCA also dispelled when the chicken embryos were pretreated with sh2-GPI. These data demonstrated that (-)-HCA decreased fat deposition via activation of the AMPK pathway, and the fat-reduction action of (-)-HCA was due to the increasing of GPI expression in chicken embryos.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha/enzimologia , Citratos/farmacologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/metabolismo , Galinhas , Citratos/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Gene ; 711: 143924, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212050

RESUMO

The MnSOD Ala16Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has shown to be associated to inflammatory pathways and many metabolic disorders, such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an emergent problem among patients with epilepsy. However, little is known about interaction between MnSOD Ala16Val SNP and metabolic comorbities in epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the relationship between MnSOD Ala16Val SNP with epilepsy and its influence on MetS, inflammation, apoptosis and DNA damage parameters. Ninety subjects were evaluated (47 epilepsy patients and 43 healthy controls) by questionnaires and laboratorial exams. Levels of inflammatory, apoptotic and DNA damage markers, as well as MnSOD polymorphism were assessed. An increased proportion of VV genotype in epilepsy group when compared to control group was observed. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Acetylcholinesterase, caspase-8, and Picogreen levels were increased in VV epilepsy group. An important correlation between TNF-α vs caspase-8, and Cholesterol vs. Triglycerides was observed in the epilepsy group with VV genotype. Our findings suggest that the MnSOD Ala16Val SNP might have an important role in epilepsy, mainly in patients with generalized seizures and particularly with VV genotype. The metabolic parameters also presented significant results in epilepsy group with VV genotype, which applying attention in view of further consequences and disorders that could be developed.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Convulsões/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 8/genética , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1900-1908, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183867

RESUMO

The quality of canola oil is affected by different extraction methods. The effect of cold-pressed canola oil (CPCO) diet and traditional refined bleached deodorized canola oil (RBDCO) diet on lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis in mice were investigated. The body weight, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α concentration, serum lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress were increased in mice fed with CPCO diet, which had higher unsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids but lower saturated fatty acid than RBDCO, after 12 weeks,. Moreover, CPCO significantly increased tocopherols and phytosterols content in liver and reduced liver cholesterol contents and lipid vacuoles accumulation than RBDCO. Also, serum proinflammatory cytokines, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coenzyme A reductase expression level, lipogenic enzymes, and transcriptional factors such as sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase in the liver were also markedly downregulated from CPCO diet mice. Overall, CPCO can reduce lipid accumulation and hepatic steatosis by regulating oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in Kun Ming mice compared with RBDCO. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results suggested that more bioactive components were contained in cold-pressed canola oil (CPCO) rather than refined bleached deodorized canola oil (RBDCO). CPCO could lower the risk of obesity and hyperlipidemia, reduce lipid accumulation, and prevent hepatic steatosis. It could be considered as a kind of better edible oil than RBDCO.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/dietoterapia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem ; 297: 124925, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253266

RESUMO

A novel lipase gene (McLipB) was cloned from a thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lipase (McLipB) shared the highest identity of 46% with the Candida rugosa lipase LIP4. The extracellular lipase activity of 4304 U/mL with protein concentration of 7.7 mg/mL was achieved in a 5-L fermentor. The optimal pH and temperature of McLipB were 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase showed high specificity towards triglycerides with short and medium chain fatty acids, and had non-position specificity. McLipB hydrolyzed butter to produce mainly butyric acid, hexanoic acid and a small amount of octanoic acid and decanoic acid. Furthermore, it degraded more than 90% dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and dihexyl phthalate to their corresponding monoalkyl phthalates. The properties of McLipB indicate that it has great application potential for production of lipolyzed milkfat flavor and biodegradation of phthalate esters.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Candida/enzimologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Lipase/genética , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Alinhamento de Sequência , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura Ambiente , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110558, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175915

RESUMO

Effects of Spirulina platensis 55% ethanol extract (SPL55) on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats were investigated. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that SPL55 was enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, serum and liver lipid levels, including total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats of SPL55. Analysis of tissue sections showed that SPL55 treatment could markedly inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. Moreover, SPL55 regulated the mRNA and protein expression levels of SREBP-1c, HMG-CoA, PEPCK, ACC, and AMPK genes involved in lipid metabolism. Furthermore, SPL55 led to decrease the abundances of Turicibacter, Clostridium_XlVa, and Romboutsia, which were positive correlation with lipid metabolism indicators, and has also enriched Alloprevotella, Prevotella, Porphyromonadaceae, and Barnesiella. These results provided evidence that SPL55 might be developed as a functional food to ameliorate lipid metabolic disorders and hyperlipidaemia.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Spirulina/química , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/patologia , Microalgas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110576, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199990

RESUMO

Ivermectin, a member of the avermectins, is one of the most used anti-parasitic agents, and acts by binding to glutamate-gated chloride channels in invertebrate nerve cells. There is limited information, however, on the effects of ivermectin in non-neural cell, such as adipocytes. The present work aimed to investigate the role of ivermectin in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Ivermectin inhibited the differentiation of preadipocytes and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. In particular, the treatment of ivermectin at the middle to late adipogenic differentiation period (day 2-8) was correlated with the inhibition of fat accumulation. Ivermectin treatment also significantly modulated the mRNA expression of key markers in adipogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, uptake, and oxidation, and enhanced the gene expression of two subunits of the glycine receptor (GlyR). Specifically, the protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were reduced. Interestingly, the suppression of TG accumulation by ivermectin was partially abolished by rosiglitazone, a specific PPARγ agonist, but Z-guggulsterone, a selective FXR antagonist, failed to rescue the ivermectin-induced effect on adipogenesis. Lastly, ivermectin prevented adipogenesis induced by permethrin and fipronil. In conclusion, ivermectin inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes partially via PPARγ & GlyR-dependent, but not FXR-dependent, pathway.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores da Glicina/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 353-361, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207574

RESUMO

Fatty liver is widely observed during Takifugu fasciatus production, but the mechanisms underlying fatty liver formation remain unknown. The present study was conducted to determine the potential effects of copper (Cu) on hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in T. fasciatus after 21 days of exposure to Cu (levels: 0, 20 and 100 µg/L). Copper exposure decreased the weight gain rate (WG) in T. fasciatus, but increased the values of the viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) compared with the control. The time-dependent Cu accumulation in tissues increased as the Cu concentration increased. The order of Cu accumulation was liver > intestine > muscle. The lipid content, triglyceride (TG) content and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity increased after Cu exposure compared with the control. In addition, more lipid droplets and greater vacuolization were observed in the liver after exposure to 20 µg/L Cu than after 100 µg/L Cu. The expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (g6pd, 6pgd, lpl, fas and acc), lipolysis (hsl and cpt 1) and transcription (ppar α and ppar ©) was dependent on Cu. An analysis of the intestinal microbiome community showed that the highest values of the Chao 1 index, ACE, Shannon index and Simpson index were obtained in fish exposed to 20 µg/L Cu, whereas the lowest values were obtained after the 100 µg/L Cu treatment. The Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) plots of the data revealed structural differences in the groups treated with Cu compared with the control group. At the phylum level, the intestinal microbiota in the Cu-treated and control fish were dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was observed in fish treated with 20 µg/L Cu compared with other groups, while the lowest ratio was observed in fish exposed to 100 µg/L Cu. Our study revealed the mechanisms by which Cu exposure altered (i) lipid deposition in the body and (ii) the intestinal microbiome, which may contribute to maintain the health status of T. fasciatus for the aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Takifugu , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/farmacocinética , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Takifugu/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Takifugu/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2365, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147540

RESUMO

Sensory perception modulates health and aging across taxa. Understanding the nature of relevant cues and the mechanisms underlying their action may lead to novel interventions that improve the length and quality of life. We found that in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to dead conspecifics in the environment induced cues that were aversive to other flies, modulated physiology, and impaired longevity. The effects of exposure to dead conspecifics on aversiveness and lifespan required visual and olfactory function in the exposed flies. Furthermore, the sight of dead flies was sufficient to produce aversive cues and to induce changes in the head metabolome. Genetic and pharmacologic attenuation of serotonergic signaling eliminated the effects of exposure on aversiveness and lifespan. Our results indicate that Drosophila have an ability to perceive dead conspecifics in their environment and suggest conserved mechanistic links between neural state, health, and aging; the roots of which might be unearthed using invertebrate model systems.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Morte , Longevidade , Percepção Olfatória , Serotonina/metabolismo , Percepção Visual , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Drosophila simulans , Metaboloma , Fosfolipase C beta/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(20): 5079-5088, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201454

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that lipid metabolism plays important roles in the occurrence and progression of CRC. The identification of potential biomarkers for CRC progression is critical for precise diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the potential lipid markers in relation to CRC progression. The plasma of patients with stage I/II CRC (n = 20) and stage III/IV CRC (n = 20) was collected. Lipidomic screening was performed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. After multivariate data analysis, including orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, determination of the fold change, and the Mann-Whitney U test, eight lipid species with altered levels with p < 0.05 and fold change greater than 2 were selected as potential lipid biomarkers. Compared with patients with early-stage CRC, patients with advanced-stage CRC showed significantly higher levels of cholesteryl ester (20:4) and some triglycerides with a saturated fatty acid chain and a lower level of fatty acid ester of hydroxy fatty acid 27:1 (9:0-18:1) in plasma. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic including these potential lipid biomarkers yielded a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 80% for separation of early-stage CRC patients from advanced-stage CRC patients. In all, this is the first report showing that the levels of triglycerides, the major contents of lipid droplets, increase in plasma of advanced-stage CRC patients compared with early-stage CRC patients. These data indicate that lipid droplets may be target organelles for the study of CRC progression and treatment. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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