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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 845-855, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833766

RESUMO

The kinetics and mechanism of the stepwise cis-trans isomerization reactions of all-trans-ß-carotene dissolved in MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil at temperatures in the range of 80-160 °C have been analyzed using multiresponse modeling. Quantitation of the cis-isomers was performed using HPLC-DAD and quantitation at the reaction isosbestic point at 421 nm. Multiresponse kinetic modeling using the Bayesian criterion was initially performed at 120 °C to determine the best model. Subsequently, the reparametrized Arrhenius equation was used to calculate the activation energies of all reactions. The equilibrium constants for the individual isomerization reactions were determined from the rate constants and the final product distributions. The enthalpies and entropies of the isomerization reactions were determined from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants. The 13-cis and 13,13'-di-cis isomers were found to be the fastest formed isomers followed by the 9-cis, 9,13-di-cis, and 13,15-di-cis isomers, where the latter was found to be formed from 13-cis and not the 15-cis isomer. The relative free energies of the ß-carotene isomers were determined as all-trans < 13-cis < 9-cis < 13,13'-di-cis < 9,13-di-cis ≈ 15-cis < 13,15-di-cis. The entropic contribution of each reaction was found to play an important role in the ordering. It is concluded that the ß-carotene system is quite labile at temperatures ranging from 80 to 160 °C and resulting in equilibrium distributions of the cis-trans isomers.


Assuntos
Triglicerídeos/química , beta Caroteno/química , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125328, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404868

RESUMO

To control the oral bioavailability of curcumin, we fabricated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using tristearin and polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated emulsifiers. Lipolysis of prepared SLNs via simulated gastrointestinal digestion was modulated by altering the types and concentrations of emulsifiers. After digestion, the size/surface charge of micelles formed from SLN digesta were predictable and >91% of curcumin was bioaccessible in all of the SLNs. The curcumin permeation rate through mucus-covered gut epithelium in vitro was dependent on the size/surface charge of the micelles. Curcumin loaded in long-PEGylated SLNs rapidly permeated the epithelium due to the neutral surface charge of the micelles, resulting in a >12.0-fold increase in bioavailability compared to curcumin solution in a rat model. These results suggest that the bioavailability of curcumin can be controlled by modulating the interfacial properties of SLNs, which will facilitate the development of curcumin formulations for use in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Emulsificantes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/química
3.
Food Chem ; 302: 125306, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416004

RESUMO

Plasma, the fourth stage of matter, is a partially or wholly ionized state of gas. Degree of lipid oxidation and effects of antioxidants were evaluated in bulk oils at plasma treatment. Significant changes in the conjugated dienoic acid were induced after 10 min of plasma treatment, which corresponded to treatment for 2.5 h at 100 °C and 48 h at 60 °C. Tocopherol stability in the stripped corn oil was significantly higher than that in medium-chain triacylglycerol after the plasma treatment. The antioxidant capacities of 10 µM of α-tocopherol and sesamol were higher than that of ß-carotene, and synergistic effects among α-tocopherol, sesamol, and ß-carotene were not observed. Added α-tocopherol and sesamol decreased CDA formation by 33 and 30% compared to control samples after plasma treatment. Moisture content in oils decreased significantly about 20% moisture after 6 min plasma treatment. Lipid oxidation could be an important issue in plasma-treated lipid-rich products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Óleo de Milho/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Benzodioxóis/química , Temperatura Alta , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Tocoferóis/química , Triglicerídeos/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , beta Caroteno/química
4.
Food Chem ; 307: 125568, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630021

RESUMO

Sacha inchi oil is derived from the seeds of Plukenetia volubilis L. and has great nutritional value due to its high contents of active polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (PUTAGs). In this study, we developed a methodology combined Paternò-Büchi reaction nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PB-nanoESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to identify CC locations and isomers of PUTAGs in sacha inchi oil. Benzophenone was used as the PB reagent, and the optimized solvent composition (methanol:chloroform = 9:1) allowed for PUTAGs and their PB products to be detected with higher intensities. In addition, we made efforts to interpret the MS2 spectra for identification lipid species. A series of C57-PUTAGs and C59-PUTAGs were detected and identified via high-resolution PB-nanoESI-MS, and the predominant PUTAGs were TAG 18:1(Δ9)_18:3(Δ9,12,15)_18:3(Δ9,12,15) and TAG 18:2(Δ9,12)_18:2(Δ9,12)_18:3 (Δ9,12,15), which demonstrated that the PB-nanoESI-MS approach in this study provides help in promoting the development of structural determination of triacylglycerols in food chemistry.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Triglicerídeos/química
5.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 145: 113-120, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682903

RESUMO

Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are highly relevant as pharmaceutical formulations significantly enhancing the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). These formulations often are complex mixtures of APIs, various lipids, and other excipients (e.g. surfactants). In their simplest form, LBDDS contain one API being dissolved in a pure lipid, which often is a triglyceride (TG). In this work, solubilities of the APIs indomethacin, ibuprofen, and fenofibrate in pure TGs of different chain lengths (C chain 8-18) and degree of saturation were investigated. Solubilities of APIs in TGs were measured via differential scanning calorimetry, hot-stage microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and Raman spectroscopy. The influence of fatty-acid chain length and degree of saturation on the API solubility in the TGs was investigated. APIs showed a higher solubility in saturated (wIBU = 10.5 wt% at 25 °C in tricaprylin) TGs compared to unsaturated ones (wIBU = 4.0 wt% at 25 °C in triolein). The fatty-acid chain length of TGs only slightly affects the solubility of ibuprofen and fenofibrate, but strongly influences the eutectic temperature of the API/TG mixtures. API solubilities in TGs and TG mixtures (mixtures of tricaprylin and tricaprin) were successfully modeled using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) accounting for the intermolecular API/TG interactions providing a deep understanding of the energetic and structural impact of the TGs on API solubility.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Excipientes/química , Fenofibrato/química , Ibuprofeno/química , Indometacina/química , Lipídeos/química
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 199: 111606, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522112

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop Eudragit® RL 100 nanocapsules loaded with desonide (DES) using açai oil (AO) or medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil core. Pre-formulation study showed that AO and MCT are suitable for nanocapsules preparation. The nanocapsules prepared with AO and MCT presented mean particle size around 165 and 131 nm, respectively; polydispersity index values <0.20, positive zeta potential values, drug content close to the theoretical value (0.25 mg mL-1), and DES encapsulation efficiency around 81%, regardless of the oil core (AO or MCT). Considering the photoinstability reported to DES, photodegradation studies were performed. The UV-A (365 nm) and UV-C (254 nm) photodegradation studies revealed less DES degradation when associated to the nanocapsules containing AO in comparison to those with MCT. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic release profile for both nanocapsule suspensions: an initial burst effect followed by a prolonged DES release. In addition, the formulations were considered non-phototoxic at 0.5 mg mL-1 when tested on 3 T3 murine fibroblasts and HaCaT human keratinocytes using the MTT and NRU viability assays. The irritant potential of the prepared nanocapsules and DES in free form were evaluated by HET-CAM method. All formulations were classified as slightly irritant, including the non-associate DES. In conclusion, the nanocapsule formulations developed in this study may be promising for therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Desonida/química , Euterpe/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desonida/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Luz , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fotólise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suspensões/química , Triglicerídeos/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6989-6997, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil. RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) after the refining process. Although there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the total oxTAGs concentration after refining, they were still present in the recycled palm olein, even though the used palm olein had undergone a complete oil refining process. The concentration of caprylic acid increased significantly (P < 0.05) in palm olein after undergoing various heat and deep-frying treatments and even showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in recycled oil. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present study justify the suitability of the proposed quality parameters for use as quality indices with respect to controlling the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in RBDPO for the protection of the health and safety of consumers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Óleo de Palmeira/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Culinária , Oxirredução , Controle de Qualidade , Reciclagem
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10174-10184, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418563

RESUMO

The progress of lipid oxidation in foods is evaluated by measuring the peroxides and their scission products. However, hydrogen abstraction-independent pathways are not considered by commonly applied methods despite the known reactivity of epoxides toward biomolecules. Herein, a novel liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method was developed to detect hydroperoxidized and epoxidized triacylglycerols (TAGs) without derivatization or hydrolyzation of food samples. Epoxidized TAGs could be detected in refined canola oil at concentrations of 96.8 ± 2.08 µM, while only 5.77 ± 0.04 µM hydroperoxidized TAGs could be determined. In contrast to canola oil, margarine was more resistant to lipid oxidation since generation of epoxidized TAGs could only be marginally enhanced from 21.7 ± 0.48 to 28.8 ± 0.64 µM in margarine after treatment at 180 °C for 60 min, as also reflected by a peroxide value of 0.80 ± 0.00 mequiv O2/kg, which remained unchanged. The new method allows the assessment of food safety by the simultaneous measurement of hydroperoxidized and epoxidized TAGs without hydrolysis and laborious sample preparation.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Margarina/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução
9.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2572-2583, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436862

RESUMO

This study was aimed to develop a novel nanocarrier for coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) by a green process that prevented the use of surfactants and organic solvents. Triglyceride/phospholipid-based nanocarriers were developed through high-pressure homogenization (an industrial feasible process), and a 25-1 fractional factorial design was adopted to assess the influences of formulation variables on the considered responses, including vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, and solubility of the vehicles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The optimized formulation was further in-depth characterized in terms of morphology, release behavior, biocompatibility (Caco-2 cell cytotoxicity and histological examination), thermal behavior, and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Optimal nanocarriers were found to have mean particle size of 75 nm, narrow particle distribution, and CoQ10 entrapment of 95%. The optimized formulation was stable upon incubation in simulated gastrointestinal fluids without considerable leakage of cargo, which was in agreement with their sustained release behavior. Microscopic observations also confirmed nanosized nature of the vesicles and revealed their spherical shape. Moreover, toxicity evaluations at the cellular and tissue levels revealed their nontoxic nature. In conclusion, triglyceride/phospholipid-based nanocarriers proved to be a green safe vehicle for delivery of CoQ10 with industrial-scale production capability and could provide a new horizon for delivery of hydrophobic nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Green nanostructure formulation approaches have recently gained tremendous attraction for their safe profile especially when it comes to supplements, which are generally recommended for daily use. However, their sufficient association with cargoes and industrial-scale production have remained considerable challenges. This study focuses on the development of lipid-based nanocarriers for CoQ10 by an industrial feasible process that prevents the use of any surfactants or organic solvents.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Nanoestruturas , Fosfolipídeos , Triglicerídeos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Química Verde , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/toxicidade , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/toxicidade , Ubiquinona/química , Ubiquinona/farmacocinética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336932

RESUMO

Acyl migration (AM) is the main side reaction in the large-scale, regio-specific lipase catalyzed production of structural triglycerides (STs). A detailed understanding of the mechanism of AM was obtained during the process of lipase-catalyzed schemes (LCSs), which play a vital role in improving the quality and total yield of STs. However, currently, the mechanism of AM remains controversial. Herein, the two mechanisms (non-catalyzed (NCM) and lipase-catalyzed (LCM)) of AM have been analyzed in detail by the density functional theory (DFT) at the molecular level. Based on the computational results, we concluded that the energy barrier of the rate-limiting step in the LCM was 18.8 kcal/mol, which is more in agreement with the available experimental value (17.8 kcal/mol), indicating that LCM could significantly accelerate the rate of AM, because it has an energy barrier ~2 times lower than that of the NCM. Interestingly, we also found that the catalytic triad (Asp-His-Ser) of the lipase and water could effectively drop the reaction barrier, which served as the general acid or base, or shuttle of the proton.


Assuntos
Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Lipase/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Catálise , Fenômenos Químicos , Esterificação , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337054

RESUMO

Olives (Olea europaea L.) are classic ingredients in the Mediterranean diet with well-known health benefits, but their lipid composition has not been fully addressed. In this work, we characterised triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles of the olive pulp while using a complementary methodological approach that was based on solid-phase extraction to recover the neutral lipid (NL) and the polar lipid-rich fractions. The TAG profile was analysed in the NL-fraction by C30 reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) and the polar lipid profile by normal-phase hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), with both being coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ESI-MS/MS. This approach identified 71 TAG ions that were attributed to more than 350 molecular species, with fatty acyl chain lengths from C11:0 to C26:0, including different polyunsaturated acyl chains. The polar lipids included 107 molecular species that belonged to 11 lipid classes that comprised phospholipids, glyceroglycolipids, glycosphingolipids, and betaine lipids. In addition to polyunsaturated fatty acids, some of the phospholipids, glycolipids, and glycosphingolipids that were identified in the olive pulp have been described as biologically active molecules. Lipidomic phenotyping of the olive pulp has led to the discovery of compounds that will allow for a better assessment of its nutritional value and new applications of bioactive lipid components in this functional food.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Olea/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Frutas/química , Lipídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Olea/química , Portugal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
Int J Pharm ; 569: 118531, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323372

RESUMO

Novel emulsions with a nanostructured continuous phase have been proposed as controlled drug delivery systems to enhance topical delivery of active ingredients avoiding systemic effects. In this study, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with two surfactant/water (S/W) weight ratios of 40:60 and 35:65, and oil concentrations of 10 wt% (diluted emulsion), 40 wt% (concentrated emulsion) and 85 wt% (highly concentrated emulsion) have been investigated to identify the presence of liquid crystalline structures and their influence on drug release and skin permeation. The emulsions have been characterized in terms of visual appearance, rheology and drug release. The presence of cubic liquid crystalline structures in emulsions with S/W 40:60 was confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Rheology results showed a markedly different behaviour in emulsions with S/W 40:60 compared with nonstructured emulsions. A model drug, diclofenac sodium (DS) was successfully incorporated in the emulsions. DS release was studied with hydrophilic and lipophilic membranes, and the amount of DS in the receptor solution was significantly lower in the formulations containing cubic liquid structures. An in vitro skin permeation study with dermatomed human skin showed that emulsions with a nanostructured continuous phase are suitable formulations for topical delivery with DS retention in skin layers. The results indicate that the amount of drug retained in skin structures may be tuned by modification of liquid crystal concentration and emulsion structure.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Cristais Líquidos , Absorção Cutânea , Administração Cutânea , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Diclofenaco/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões , Humanos , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pele/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/química
13.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319633

RESUMO

Consuming medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) may reduce subsequent energy intake and increase satiety compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT) but this may be dependent on the physical form in which MCT is ingested. Twenty-nine participants completed four trials where they consumed a breakfast containing either LCT or MCT in solid (Con-S and MCT-S, respectively) or liquid (Con-L and MCT-L, respectively) form. Appetite ratings and gastric emptying (GE) were taken at baseline and at 15 min intervals for 4 h. Energy intake was assessed at an ad libitum meal and via weighed food records for the remainder of the day. Ad libitum energy intake was highest in Con-L (4101 ± 1278 kJ vs. Con-S, 3323 ± 1196; MCT-S, 3516 ± 1058; MCT-L, 3257 ± 1345; p = 0.001). Intake over the whole day was significantly lower in MCT-L (7904 ± 3244) compared to Con-L (9531 ± 3557; p = 0.001). There were significant differences in GE times (p < 0.05), with MCT breakfasts delaying GE to a greater extent than LCT, and MCT-L having the longest GE times. There were no differences in appetite sensations. MCT reduce subsequent intake without affecting subjective sensations of appetite when consumed in liquid form.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Gorduras na Dieta , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 699-707, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292337

RESUMO

Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are used as alternative carriers for many different drug delivery administration routes. They are composed of both solid lipid and liquid lipid (oil content) with both influencing their structural properties. Amounts of liquid lipid in NLCs play a role in drug release. Effect of liquid lipid (oil content) on physiochemical characteristics of NLCs related to drug-release requires detailed investigation. Here, many techniques were performed to analyze the physiochemical characteristics of NLCs, especially inside the particles. γ-Oryzanol (GO)-loaded NLCs were prepared at varying solid lipid to liquid lipid ratios. Their physicochemical properties, drug release profiles, and stability studies of prepared NLCs were investigated. Oil contents in NLCs were found to play a significant role in physiochemical characteristics related to drug release and stability, and also influence the efficiency of analytical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic force microscopy (DFM). Moreover, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) gave information regarding crystallinity inside the NLCs. FTIR showed broad peaks in the range from 1184 cm-1 to 1475 cm-1 while XRD presented a broad curve indicated amorphous forms in NLCs. Orthorhombic lattices (ß' polymorph) were also elucidated by XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fenilpropionatos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Óleos/química , Palmitatos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Triglicerídeos/química
15.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(8): 769-779, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292339

RESUMO

In order to reveal changes in fatty acids and triglycerides during the pickling process of white-fleshed and dark-fleshed fish with high-fat, to compare the changes of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids (FAs) in round scad (Decapterus maruadsi, dark-fleshed) and hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus, white-fleshed) during salt-dried processing, ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques were used to quantify. Lipid oxidation was evaluated via peroxide values (POVs), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS). A total of 31 and 27 FAs, 45 and 44 TAGs were quantified in round scad and hairtail, respectively. DHA (C22:6n3), palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1n9) were the main FAs in round scad. POO (16:0/18:1/18:1), PPO (16:0/16:0/18:1), POD (16:0/18:1/22:6), and PPaO (16:0/16:1/18:1) were dominant TAGs in both species. Salt-dried processing significantly affected (p < 0.001) 7/5 FAs and 24/29 TAGs in round scad/hairtail. MUFAs changed significantly (p < 0.05) in dark-fleshed round scad; only SFAs and PUFAs changed in white-fleshed hairtail. Both species exhibited near-identical TAG compositions with different variation trends. More significant changes were observed in FAs at the half-dried stages and in TAGs (p < 0.05) at the salted stage. This coincided with the changing stages of POV and TBARS values that also increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the salted stages but peaked at the half-dried stages of both species.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Perciformes , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Triglicerídeos/química
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6959-6970, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255265

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk supplemented with a powder of microencapsulated lactase. The core material was lactase (ß-galactosidase), the primary coating material was medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and the secondary (enteric) coating material was either hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) or shellac, comparing both against market milk as a control. The physicochemical properties of both types of microcapsules were analyzed, including the particle size, zeta potential, and in vitro release behavior. To survey the stability of the microcapsules in milk during storage, we studied the residual lactose content and pH. Furthermore, to determine the properties of milk supplemented with the microcapsules, changes in color and sensory properties were evaluated during storage. The particle sizes (volume-weighted mean; D[4,3]) of the microcapsules coated with HPMCP or shellac were 2,836 and 7,834 nm, respectively, and the zeta potential of the capsules coated with shellac was higher than the zeta potential of those coated with HPMCP. The pH levels of milk supplemented with the lactase microcapsules were similar to those of the control (unsupplemented market milk); however, for milk supplemented with HPMCP-coated microcapsules, the pH was slightly lower. The core material, lactase, was released from the microcapsules during 12-d storage, and 18.82 and 35.09% of lactose was hydrolyzed in the samples for HPMCP- and shellac-coated microcapsules, respectively. The sensory characteristics of milk containing microcapsules coated with HPMCP did not show significant differences from the control, in terms of sweetness or off-taste, until 8 d of storage. However, shellac-coated microcapsules showed significant difference in sweetness and off-taste at d 8 and 6 of storage, respectively. The color of milk containing HPMCP-coated microcapsules did not show a significant difference during storage. However, that containing shellac-coated microcapsules was somewhat higher in color values than others. In particular, it showed significance from 0 to 4 d storage in L* and C* values. In conclusion, a powder of lactase microcapsules coated with HPMCP can be suitable as a supplement for milk.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Kluyveromyces/enzimologia , Lactase/administração & dosagem , Metilcelulose/análogos & derivados , Leite/química , Animais , Cápsulas , Fenômenos Químicos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Proteínas Fúngicas/administração & dosagem , Hidrólise , Lactose/metabolismo , Metilcelulose/química , Leite/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Resinas Vegetais/química , Paladar , Triglicerídeos/química
17.
Talanta ; 204: 533-541, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357330

RESUMO

In this study, we used MALDI-TOF-MS to profile and characterise the triacylglycerol (TAG) species of anhydrous bovine milk fat (AMF) and its low melting (olein) and high melting (stearin) fractions obtained by dry fractionation. Silver-ion solid phase extraction (Ag+-SPE) cartridges were utilised to separate the TAGs according to saturation degree. Then, several TAG species were selected and fragmented via post-source decay (PSD) fragmentation. MALDI-TOF-MS TAG profiles and fragmentation patterns were compared to the TAG and fatty acid (FA) compositions obtained by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). We found that, olein was rich in medium length chain TAG species like CN38:0 and CN40:1, whereas stearin was rich in saturated long chain TAG species from CN42:0 to CN52:0. Separation of the TAGs based on saturation degree allowed successful selection of the TAG parent-ion for fragmentation by eliminating the interferences of TAG species that have the same carbon number but vary in number of double bonds. The TAG fragmentation patterns indicated significant differences between AMF, olein and stearin as a result of the dry fractionation process. Compared to AMF, olein yielded in higher fragments of short-chain saturated and middle-chain unsaturated FAs. Whereas, stearin yielded in saturated and monounsaturated long chain FA fragments. Fragmentation of unsaturated long chain TAGs showed that the TAGs in olein contained more C18:1 and C18:2 than that of AMF and stearin. Stearin on the other hand, contained higher amount of TAG species containing C16:0. These results were in line with the FA compositions obtained from GC-FID and suggest that Ag+-SPE cartridges coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS offer an informative and practical approach to characterise fats and oils with complex TAG composition.


Assuntos
Leite/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Triglicerídeos/química
18.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(7): 625-635, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178462

RESUMO

The seed of five fruits and vegetables, which are often eaten by Chinese people, were selected as research objects to study the physicochemical properties, nutritional ingredients and antioxidant capacity of their seed oils. The fatty acid results indicated that the oleic acid was the main unsaturated fatty acid in almond oil and celery seed oil (content of 64.10% and 62.96%, respectively), and the wax gourd seed oil, watermelon seed oil and pumpkin seed oil were linoleic acid as the main unsaturated fatty acid (content of 72.45%, 76.77% and 47.35%, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerol (TAG), whereas saturated fatty acids are mainly located at the sn-1, 3 positions for the five seed oils. The pumpkin seed oil had certain advantages in terms of phytosterols and squalene (3716 and 2732 mg/kg, respectively). The high content of polyphenol for celery seed oil exhibits higher medicinal value. Polyphenols, and brassicasterols were have significant correlation with antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05, r = 0.890-0.998). The significant differences in nutrient composition between these fruits and vegetables seed oils indicate their unique value as food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verduras/química , Fenômenos Químicos , China , Colestadienóis , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Linoleicos/análise , Ácidos Linoleicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Oleico/análise , Ácido Oleico/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esqualeno , Triglicerídeos/química
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(7): 607-614, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178466

RESUMO

This manuscript described the preparation of triglycerides with palmitic and ethyl oleate chains, and the stability of emulsions prepared from those triglycerides. Results showed that ratios of total saturated fatty acids (ΣSFA) of palm stearin oil (PSO), physical fractionation oil of palm stearin oil (PPP) and structured lipids of rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) were 72.5%, 95.4% and 33.2% respectively. Rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2 palmitoylglycerol-emulsion (OPO-E) showed a better emulsion stability than that of palm stearin oil (PSO) and physical fractionation oil of palm stearin oil (PPP). The emulsion stability of OPO-E with 10% structured lipids of rich 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) showed the highest value compared with 5% and 20% OPO. The value of emulsion stability (ES) was 85.5, the values of volume-surface mean diameter(d32) and weight mean diameter(d43) were 0.09-0.79 µm and 1.1-34.1 µm, respectively. The experimental data had significant (p < 0.05) difference with other emulsions. The value of zeta potential ranged from -34.8 to -53.1 mV, indicating that the emulsion stability of 10% OPO was the most stable in all experiment samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Triglicerídeos/química , Fracionamento Químico , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões
20.
Food Chem ; 297: 124951, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253340

RESUMO

The shelf lives of hot-air-dried (HD) and freeze-dried (FD) Penaeus vannamei were predicted by accelerated storage testing combined with Arrhenius Equation. Meanwhile, the changes in lipid profiles and colour of the dried shrimps during storage were investigated. The predicted shelf life of FD shrimp was more than 1.47-fold than that of HD shrimp. Compared to HD shrimp, FD shrimp had lower levels of oxidation parameters such as peroxide value (POV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value (TBARS) during storage. In addition, FD shrimp had less reduction in lipid components such as triacylglycerol (TAG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and all fatty acids including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) after storage. Moreover, FD shrimp showed a less significant decrease in redness value and increase in yellowness value. Therefore, FD shrimps have better quality stability during storage and then possess longer shelf life than HD shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cor , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Radicais Livres/análise , Radicais Livres/química , Liofilização , Lipídeos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Xantofilas/análise
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