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1.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 759, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are 2 major public health problems. Osteoporosis and CVDs may be linked but the association between lipid profile and osteoporosis is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) with osteoporosis. METHODS: Using inpatients' and outpatients' electronic medical records (EMR) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) database stored at The Second Hospital of Jilin University, we included 481 individuals with complete and valid lipid and bone mineral density (BMD) data in 2017. Serum samples were used to measure TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG. Femoral neck and total hip BMD were measured by DXA; osteoporosis was defined as femoral neck or total hip T-score ≤ -2.5. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test the associations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG with osteoporosis. RESULTS: The mean age for included individuals was 62.7 years (SD = 8.6 years); 60.1 % of them were female. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in TC (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.48; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.06-2.07) and TG (OR: 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.16-2.39) were associated with increased risk of osteoporosis; LDL-C and HDL-C levels were not associated with osteoporosis. Age, sex and body mass index (BMI) did not interact with the relationships of TC and TG with osteoporosis (all P > 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Higher TC and TG levels were associated with greater risk of osteoporosis in this cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Osteoporose , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27146, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516506

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the value of the combination schemes of 10 serological markers in the clinical diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction.The level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine (HCY), lipoprotein-related phospholipase A2, ischemia-modified albumin, complement C1q, and lipoprotein a were analyzed in 154 patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction. The optimized diagnostic combination for acute cerebral infarction was explored by calculating the maximum area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC).The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HCY, lipoprotein-related phospholipase A2, ischemia-modified albumin, complement C1q, and lipoprotein a were significantly higher in the patient vs the control group. Moreover, the positive rate of HCY reached 89.9%. The analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve of each index and their combinations showed that the minimum AUC of HDL-C alone was 0.543, while the maximum AUC of HCY was 0.853. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that HDL-C was a slightly significant variate in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction.The value of individual serological markers in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction was slightly significant, while the combination of the markers significantly improved the efficiency of its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Área Sob a Curva , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Albumina Sérica Humana , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371959

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that a 35 g whey preload would improve insulin sensitivity and glucose handling while reducing biomarkers associated with NAFLD. Twenty-nine age-matched women (CON = 15, PCOS = 14) completed oral glycemic tolerance tests following baseline (Day 0) as well as an acute (Day 1) and short-term whey supplementation (Day 7). Whey had an interaction effect on glucose (p = 0.02) and insulin (p = 0.03), with glucose remaining stable and insulin increasing with whey supplementation. Insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01) improved with whey associated with increased glucagon secretion (p < 0.01). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) remained unchanged, but "day" had an effect on the AST:ALT ratio (p = 0.04), whereas triglycerides and sex hormone binding globulin overall were greater in the PCOS group (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol decreased in PCOS (by 13%) and CON (by 8%) (NS). HepG2 cells treated with plasma from participants before and after whey decreased lipid accumulation in the PCOS group after whey (p < 0.05). Whey provided an insulinogenic and glycemic homeostatic effect in women with PCOS with the potential to combat NAFLD-consequences.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445047

RESUMO

Sargassum fusiforme alginate (SF-Alg) possess many pharmacological activities, including hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic. However, the hypoglycemic mechanisms of SF-Alg remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of SF-Alg on high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice. SF-Alg intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and improving glucose tolerance. In addition, administrating SF-Alg to diabetic mice moderately attenuated pathological changes in adipose, hepatic, and heart tissues as well as skeletal muscle, and diminished oxidative stress. To probe the underlying mechanisms, we further analyzed the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, as well as metabolites by non-targeted metabolomics. Here, SF-Alg significantly increased some benign bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermansia Alloprevotella, Weissella and Enterorhabdus), and significantly decreased harmful bacteria (Turicibacter and Helicobacter). Meanwhile, SF-Alg dramatically decreased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon of T2D mice, suggesting a positive benefit of SF-Alg as an adjvant agent for T2D.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Sargassum/química , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Camundongos , Estreptozocina , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392110

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Linfopenia/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361033

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an essential plasma apolipoprotein, has three isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) in humans. E2 is associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. E4 is the major susceptibility gene to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated lipid metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions of novel humanized ApoE knockin (hApoE KI) rats in comparison to wide-type (WT) and ApoE knockout (ApoE KO) rats. The hApoE2 rats showed the lowest bodyweight and white fat mass. hApoE2 rats developed higher serum total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), and low- and very low density lipoprotein (LDL-C&VLDL-C). ApoE KO rats also exhibited elevated TC and LDL-C&VLDL-C. Only mild atherosclerotic lesions were detected in hApoE2 and ApoE KO aortic roots. Half of the hApoE2 rats developed hepatic nodular cirrhosis. A short period of the Paigen diet (PD) treatment led to the premature death of the hApoE2 and ApoE KO rats. Severe vascular wall thickening of the coronary and pulmonary arteries was observed in 4-month PD-treated hApoE4 rats. In conclusion, hApoE2 rats develop spontaneous hyperlipidemia and might be suitable for studies of lipid metabolism-related diseases. With the PD challenge, hApoE4 KI rats could be a novel model for the analysis of vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Remodelação Vascular
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26622, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), yet the results of the researches are not consistent. It is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS, to provide evidence supports for the treatment of PCOS. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chinese biomedical literature databases online to identify the RCTs evaluating the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the synthesized effects. RESULTS: Nine RCTs with a total of 746 PCOS patients were included. The synthesized results indicated that the combined use of metformin and simvastatin are more beneficial to reduce the total cholesterol (SMD -2.66, 95% CI -3.65 to -1.66), triglycerides (SMD -1.25, 95% CI -2.02 to -0.49), low density lipoprotein (SMD -2.91, 95% CI -3.98 to -1.84), testosterone (SMD -0.64, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.15), fasting insulin (SMD -1.17, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.26) than metformin alone treatment in PCOS patients (all P < .001), and there was no significant difference in the high density lipoprotein (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.56-0.46), luteinizing hormone (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.50), follicle stimulating hormone (SMD 0.41, 95% CI -0.78-1.59), prolactin (SMD -1.38, 95% CI -2.93-0.17), fasting blood sugar (SMD 0.23, 95% CI -0.52-0.97), and insulin sensitivity index (SMD -0.17, 95% CI -0.48-0.15) between experimental and control groups (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin combined with simvastatin is superior to metformin alone in the treatment of PCOS patients with more advantages in improving the levels of sex hormones, blood lipids, and blood sugar. However, the safety of this therapy still needs to be further explored in clinical studies with high-quality and large samples.


Assuntos
Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e11035, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378675

RESUMO

In this eight-year retrospective study, we evaluated the associations between climatic variations and the biological rhythms in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in a large population of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil, as well as temporal changes of outcomes of cardiovascular hospitalizations. Climatic variables were obtained at the Center for Meteorological and Climatic Research Applied to Agriculture (University of Campinas - Unicamp, Brazil). The plasma lipid databases surveyed were from 27,543 individuals who had their lipid profiles assessed at the state university referral hospital in Campinas (Unicamp). The frequency of hospitalizations was obtained from the Brazilian Public Health database (DATASUS). Temporal statistical analyses were performed using the methods Cosinor or Friedman (ARIMA) and the temporal series were compared by cross-correlation functions. In normolipidemic cases (n=11,892), significantly different rhythmicity was observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C) both higher in winter and lower in summer. Dyslipidemia (n=15,651) increased the number and amplitude of lipid rhythms: LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in winter and lower in summer, and the opposite occurred with triglycerides. The number of hospitalizations showed maximum and minimum frequencies in winter and in summer, respectively. A coincident rhythmicity was observed of lower temperature and humidity rates with higher plasma LDL-C, and their temporal series were inversely cross-correlated. This study shows for the first time that variations of temperature, humidity, and daylight length were strongly associated with LDL-C and HDL-C seasonality, but moderately to lowly associated with rhythmicity of atherosclerotic outcomes. It also indicates unfavorable cardiovascular-related changes during wintertime.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Clima , Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas , Brasil/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Periodicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444930

RESUMO

Fewer studies compared the improvement of plasma lipid levels after different types of surgery, in particular compared to one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The aim of our study was to investigate how laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and OAGB impact on weight loss and lipid profile 18 months after surgery, in patients with severe obesity. Forty-six patients treated with OAGB were matched to eighty-eight patients submitted to LSG. Weight loss after OAGB (33.2%) was more evident than after LSG (29.6%) (p = 0.024). The difference in the prevalence of dyslipidemia showed a statistically significant reduction only after OAGB (61% versus 22%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for delta body mass index (BMI), age and sex, we demonstrated a statistically significant decrease of the differences between the changes before and after (delta Δ) the two surgery procedures: Δ total cholesterol values (p < 0.001), Δ low density lipoprotein-cholesterol values (p < 0.001) and Δ triglycerides values (p = 0.007). Patients with severe obesity undergoing to OAGB presented a better improvement of lipid plasma values than LSG patients. The reduction of lipid plasma levels was independent of the significant decrease of BMI after surgery, of age and of sex.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade Mórbida/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444691

RESUMO

The aim of the report was to evaluate the impact of soy protein containing isoflavones and soy isoflavones extract on lipid profile in postmenopausal women, as compared with placebo or protein of milk, casein or isolated soy protein with or without trace isoflavone content. We used the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by applying a random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to assess the modifiers of treatment response. In total, in the analysis studies, 2305 postmenopausal women took part. Changes in the lipid profile showed statistically significant decreases of total cholesterol by -0.12 (95% CI: -0.21, -0.03) mmol/L, -4.64 (95% CI: -8.12, -1.16) mg/dL, p = 0.01 and increased HDL-cholesterol by 0.03 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06) mmol/L, 1.15 (95% CI: 0.00, 1.93) mg/dL, p = 0.05, as well as in LDL-cholesterol -0.05 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.01) mmol/L, -1.93 (95% CI: -4.25, 0.39) mg/dL, p = 0.08 and triacylglycerols -0.07 (95% CI: -0.14, 0.00) mmol/L, -6.123 (95% CI: -12.25, 0.00) mg/dL, p = 0.06. Our results suggests that soy and its isoflavones can be effective in correction changes in lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women and may favorably influence in preventing cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipídeos/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443682

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular diseases which in turn, lead to the highest number of mortalities globally. This pathophysiological condition is developed due to a constant elevated level of plasma cholesterols. Statin is currently the widely used treatment in reducing the level of cholesterols, however, it may cause adverse side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for new alternative treatment. PCSK9 is an enzyme responsible in directing LDL-receptor (LDL-R)/LDL-cholesterols (LDL-C) complex to lysosomal degradation, preventing the receptor from recycling back to the surface of liver cells. Therefore, PCSK9 offers a potential target to search for small molecule inhibitors which inhibit the function of this enzyme. In this study, a marine invertebrate Acanthaster planci, was used to investigate its potential in inhibiting PCSK9 and lowering the levels of cholesterols. Cytotoxicity activity of A. planci on human liver HepG2 cells was carried out using the MTS assay. It was found that methanolic extract and fractions did not exhibit cytotoxicity effect on HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of more than 30 µg/mL. A compound deoxythymidine also did not exert any cytotoxicity activity with IC50 value of more than 4 µg/mL. Transient transfection and luciferase assay were conducted to determine the effects of A. planci on the transcriptional activity of PCSK9 promoter. Methanolic extract and Fraction 2 (EF2) produced the lowest reduction in PCSK9 promoter activity to 70 and 20% of control at 12.5 and 6.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, deoxythymidine also decreased PCSK9 promoter activity to the lowest level of 60% control at 3.13 µM. An in vivo study using Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated that 50 and 100 mg/kg of A. planci methanolic extract reduced the total cholesterols and LDL-C levels to almost similar levels of untreated controls. The level of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) showed that the administration of the extract did not produce any toxicity effect and cause any damage to rat liver. The results strongly indicate that A. planci produced a significant inhibitory activity on PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells which may be responsible for inducing the uptake of cholesterols by liver, thus, reducing the circulating levels of total cholesterols and LDL-C. Interestingly, A. planci also did show any adverse hepato-cytotoxicity and toxic effects on liver. Thus, this study strongly suggests that A. planci has a vast potential to be further developed as a new class of therapeutic agent in lowering the blood cholesterols and reducing the progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrelas-do-Mar/química , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Morte Celular , Proliferação de Células , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Metanol , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Timidina/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444711

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Berberine, a long-standing, widely used, traditional Chinese medicine, is thought to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mechanisms and effects, specifically in men, possibly via testosterone, have not been examined previously. To assess the effect of berberine on CVD risk factors and any potential pathway via testosterone in men, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial in Hong Kong. In total, 84 eligible Chinese men with hyperlipidemia were randomized to berberine (500 mg orally, twice a day) or placebo for 12 weeks. CVD risk factors (lipids, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio) and testosterone were assessed at baseline, and 8 and 12 weeks after intervention. We compared changes in CVD risk factors and testosterone after 12 weeks of intervention using analysis of variance, and after 8 and 12 weeks using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Of the 84 men randomized, 80 men completed the trial. Men randomized to berberine had larger reductions in total cholesterol (-0.39 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to -0.08) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) after 12 weeks. Considering changes after 8 and 12 weeks together, berberine lowered total cholesterol and possibly low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and possibly increased testosterone. Changes in triglycerides, thromboxane A2, blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio after the intervention did not differ between the berberine and placebo groups. No serious adverse event was reported. Berberine is a promising treatment for lowering cholesterol. Berberine did not lower testosterone but instead may increase testosterone in men, suggesting sex-specific effects of berberine. Exploring other pathways and assessing sex differences would be worthwhile, with relevance to drug repositioning and healthcare.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Berberina/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testosterona/sangue , Tromboxano A2/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444719

RESUMO

Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with metabolic complications, such as glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances in early life. The objective of this study was to assess: (1) the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on glucose and fat metabolism in an LBW piglet model, and (2) the role peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptors in regulating the feeding behavior in LBW piglets fed with Trp-supplemented diets. Seven-day-old piglets were assigned to 4 treatments: normal birthweight-0%Trp (NBW-T0), LBW-0%Trp (LBW-T0), LBW-0.4%Trp (LBW-T0.4), and LBW-0.8%Trp (LBW-T0.8) for 3 weeks. Compared to LBW-T0, the blood glucose was decreased in LBW-T0.8 at 60 min following the meal test, and the triglycerides were lower in LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8. Relative to LBW-T0, LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript and protein abundance of hepatic glucose transporter-2, a higher mRNA abundance of glucokinase, and a lower transcript of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. LBW-T0.4 tended to have a lower protein abundance of sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 in the jejunum. In comparison with LBW-T0, LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and LBW-T0.4 had a higher transcript of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Blocking 5-HT3 receptors with ondansetron reduced the feed intake in all groups, with a transient effect on LBW-T0, but more persistent effect on LBW-T0.8 and NBW-T0. In conclusion, Trp supplementation reduced the hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, but increased the glycolysis in LBW piglets. Peripheral serotonin is likely involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, particularly in LBW piglets fed diets supplemented with a higher dose of Trp.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Ondansetron/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1243-1255, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226986

RESUMO

The effects of stocking density on growth performance, serum biochemistry, digestive enzymes, immune response, and muscle quality of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reared in nine in-pond raceway systems (IPRS, 22.0 m × 5.0 m × 2.0 m) were studied. M. salmoides with initial an body weight of 8.25 ± 0.51 g and body length of 6.99 ± 0.44 cm were reared at an initial stocking density of 90.91 ind./m3 (low stocking density, LSD), 113.63 ind./m3 (middle stocking density, MSD), and 136.36 ind./m3 (high stocking density, HSD) with triplication. After 300 days of culture, MSD recorded the highest final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and yield, but the food conversion ratio in MSD was the lowest. The viscerosomatic index in LSD was significantly higher than other groups. The fish serum reared at HSD showed significantly lower total protein, higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, glucose content, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase activity. Significantly lower intestinal amylase, lipase, trypsin activities, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and higher malondialdehyde content were detected in HSD compared to others. The content of crude lipid, saturated fatty acid decreased, and total essential amino acid, delicious amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in muscle with stocking density increase. No significant difference was observed in muscle texture. Profitability analysis indicated the benefit-to-cost ratio varied between 1.10 and 1.68, of which MSD was significantly higher than others. The optimal stocking density for M. salmoides should be 113.63 ind./m3 in an IPRS farm.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Bass , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bass/sangue , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , Bass/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Imunidade , Intestinos/enzimologia , Lipase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Esteróis/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Tripsina/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279399

RESUMO

A series of L-serine amides of antioxidant acids, such as Trolox, (E)-3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (structurally similar to butylated hydroxytoluene), was synthesized. The hydroxy group of serine was esterified with two classical NSAIDs, ibuprofen and ketoprofen. The Trolox derivatives with ibuprofen (7) and ketoprofen (10) were the most potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (IC50 3.4 µΜ and 2.8 µΜ), several times more potent than the reference Trolox (IC50 25 µΜ). Most of the compounds decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (37-67% at 150 µmol/kg). They were moderate inhibitors of soybean lipoxygenase, with the exception of ibuprofen derivative 8 (IC50 13 µΜ). The most active anti-inflammatory compounds exhibited a significant decrease in lipidemic indices in the plasma of Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats, e.g., the most active compound 9 decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 52%, 61% and 70%, respectively, at 150 µmol/kg (i.p.), similar to that of simvastatin, a well-known hypocholesterolemic drug. Since the designed compounds seem to exhibit multiple pharmacological actions, they may be of use for the development of agents against inflammatory and degenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Hipolipemiantes/síntese química , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/síntese química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/toxicidade , Colesterol/sangue , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/etiologia , Esterificação , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serina/química , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 437-444, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe complications have shown comorbidities with cardiovascular-disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus; clinical disorders that share the common metabolic alterations of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. A high triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tg/HDL c) ratio has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, metabolic syndrome and adverse cardiovascular events. Our aim in this study was to determine the association between different components of the lipid profile and particularly the Tg/HDL c ratio with severe complications like the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected demographic, clinical and biochemical data to conduct a cohort study in 43 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at baseline and in the subsequent 15 days. Patients were subjected to a very similar treatment scheme with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. Descriptive statistics, variable association and logistic regression were applied to identify predictors of disease severity among elements and calculations from the lipid profile. RESULTS: Patients were aged 57 ± 14 years; 55.8% were male from which 75% required hospitalization and 44.2% were female who 58% were hospitalized. The most common comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (58%) and hypertension (40%). Hospitalized and critical care patients showed lower HDL c blood levels and increased Tg/HDL c ratio than those with outpatient management and mild/asymptomatic COVID-19. Tg/HDL c ratio correlated with variables of disease severity such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (r = 0.356; p < 0.05); National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS 2) (r = 0.495; p < 0.01); quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) (r = 0.538; p < 0.001); increased need of oxygen support (r = 0.447; p < 0.01) and requirement of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.378; p < 0.05). Tg/HDL c ratio had a negative correlation with partial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SaO 2/FiO2) ratio (r = -0.332;p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis showed that Tg/HDL c ratio can predict increases in inflammatory factors like LDH (p < 0.01); ferritin (p < 0.01) and D-dimer (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model indicated that ≥7.45 Tg/HDL c ratio predicts requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 11.815, CI 1.832-76.186, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Tg/HDLc ratio can be used as an early biochemical marker of COVID-19 severe prognosis with requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 426: 115644, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252412

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are pervasive in the environment resulting in nearly universal detection in people. Human serum PFAS concentrations are strongly associated with increased serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and growing evidence suggests an association with serum triacylglycerides (TG). Here, we tested the hypothesis that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dysregulates liver and serum triacylglycerides in human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (hPPARα)-expressing mice fed an American diet. Mice were exposed to PFOA (3.5 mg/L) in drinking water for 6 weeks resulting in a serum concentration of 48 ± 9 µg/ml. In male and female hPPARα mice, PFOA increased total liver TG and TG substituted with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Lack of expression of PPARα alone also increased total liver TG, and PFOA treatment had little effect on liver TG in PPARα null mice. In hPPARα mice, PFOA neither significantly increased nor decreased serum TG; however, there was a modest increase in TG associated with very low-density cholesterol particles in both sexes. Intriguingly, in female PPARα null mice, PFOA significantly increased serum TG, with a similar trend in males. PFOA also modified fatty acid and TG homeostasis-related gene expression in liver, in a hPPARα-dependent manner, but not in adipose. The results of our study and others reveal the importance of context (serum concentration and genotype) in determining the effect of PFOA on lipid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Caprilatos/toxicidade , Dieta Ocidental , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Lipidômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Transgênicos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203025

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200027

RESUMO

In 2015, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) eliminated the historical upper limit of 300 mg of dietary cholesterol/day and shifted to a more general recommendation that cholesterol intake should be limited. The primary aim of this secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining the Factors Interacting With Treatment Success (DIETFITS) weight loss diet trial was to evaluate the associations between 12-month changes in dietary cholesterol intake (mg/day) and changes in plasma lipids, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for those following a healthy low-carbohydrate (HLC) diet. Secondary aims included examining high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and changes in refined grains and added sugars. The DIETFITS trial randomized 609 healthy adults aged 18-50 years with body mass indices of 28-40 kg/m2 to an HLC or healthy low-fat (HLF) diet for 12 months. Linear regressions examined the association between 12-month change in dietary cholesterol intake and plasma lipids in 208 HLC participants with complete diet and lipid data, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Baseline dietary cholesterol intake was 322 ± 173 (mean ± SD). At 12 months, participants consumed an average of 460 ± 227 mg/day of dietary cholesterol; 76% consumed over the previously recommended limit of 300 mg/day. Twelve-month changes in cholesterol intake were not significantly associated with 12-month changes in LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides. Diet recall data suggested participants' increase in dietary cholesterol was partly due to replacing refined grains and sugars with eggs. An increase in daily dietary cholesterol intake to levels substantially above the previous 300 mg upper limit was not associated with a negative impact on lipid profiles in the setting of a healthy, low-carbohydrate weight loss diet.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Redutora , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202690

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate if a home meal replacement (HMR), designed with a low ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio, improves cardiometabolic parameters, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese individuals. We conducted a monocentric, controlled, randomized crossover trial. The HMR contains higher protein and fat content, lower carbohydrate content, and a lower ω6FA/ω3FA ratio than the regular diet. Sixty-four participants were randomized into two groups and switched to the other group following a 4-week intervention. While subjects in the HMR group were provided three HMRs daily, those in the control group were requested to maintain their regular dietary pattern. We conducted paired t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, and McNemar tests before and after the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were lower in the HMR group after adjusting for age, sex, and total energy intake and significantly changed in the between-group differences. The waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglyceride-glucose index, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were reduced in the HMR group (all p < 0.05). The percentage of subjects with MetS significantly decreased from 39.1% at baseline to 28.1% post-intervention (p = 0.035). Using the HMR for 4 weeks reduced the BMI, weight, and MetS prevalence in individuals with obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04552574).


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
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