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1.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126424, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443239

RESUMO

Phytoremediation via phyto-extraction is well recognized and sustainable principle for the economical removal of heavy metals from contaminated water and soil. The twofold objective of the present research work was to investigate the remediation potential of fenugreek for Cu under the influence of ascorbic acid (AA). The effect of copper-ascorbic acid chelation on the growth regulation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) and its potential to accumulate Cu was investigated in hydroponic medium to optimize concentration with complete randomized design (CRD). Juvenile fenugreek plants were treated with different treatments of AA (5 mM) and Cu (100, 250 and 500 µM). The different morpho-physiological parameters of fenugreek plant such as growth, biomass and chlorophylls were significantly reduced under Cu stress. However, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, electrolyte leakage and reactive oxygen species enhanced with increasing concentration of applied Cu. Results indicated significant increase in plant growth, biomass, physiology and antioxidant enzymes and decrease in reactive oxygen species and electrolyte production in AA mediated fenugreek plants compared to controls and Cu only treated plants. However, it was also found that AA enhanced Cu concentration maximum up to 42% in leaf, 18% in stem and 45% in roots as compared to Cu treated only plants. Moreover, application of AA signified the research results revealing to act as growth regulator and chelator under Cu stress.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Biomassa , Clorofila , Cobre/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1297-1305, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934761

RESUMO

The permeability of saponins and sapogenins from fenugreek and quinoa extracts, as well as dioscin and diosgenin, was evaluated by the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The effect of the digestion process on permeability was determined, with previous development of a gastrointestinal process coupled to PAMPA. Saponins from both seeds displayed a moderate-to-poor permeability (>1 × 10-6 cm/s), although the digestion enhanced their permeability values in the order of 10-5 cm/s (p < 0.001). Sapogenins exhibited a similar permeability to that of saponins, although the digestion enhanced the permeability of sapogenins from quinoa (1.14 ± 0.47 × 10-5 cm/s) but not from fenugreek (2.33 ± 0.99 × 10-6 cm/s). An overall positive impact of coexisting lipids on the permeability was evidenced. PAMPA is shown as a useful, rapid, and easy tool for assessing the permeability of bioactive compounds from complex matrices, with the previous gastrointestinal process being a relevant step.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/química , Saponinas/química , Transporte Biológico , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Digestão , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Biológicos , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125661, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669948

RESUMO

A high level of serum cholesterol is a major cause of atherosclerosis. Fenugreek is a well-known hypocholesterolaemic agent with amazing phytochemical composition. Due to its impact on plant metabolism, CO2 enrichment was tested as a strategy to support functional values in fenugreek seeds. Phytochemical composition and biological activities of three fenugreek cultivars (G2, G6 and G30) grown under ambient (aCO2, 400 µmol mol-1) and elevated CO2 (eCO2, 620 µmol mol-1) were assessed. Applying eCO2 improved physical parameters of fenugreek seeds, and enhanced their biological activities. A significant increase in hypocholesterolaemic potential, as indicated by inhibition of cholesterol micellar solubility and pancreatic lipase activity, was recorded. In addition, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and antibacterial activities were improved. These enhanced biological activities were accompanied by improved seed chemical composition at the primary and secondary metabolic levels. Therefore, eCO2 treatment represents an efficient strategy to increase the hypocholesterolaemic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of fenugreek seeds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Animais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 106-116, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841325

RESUMO

In vitro colonic fermentation of saponin-rich extracts from quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek was performed. Production of sapogenins by human fecal microbiota and the impact of extracts on representative intestinal bacterial groups were evaluated. The main sapogenins were found after fermentation (soyasapogenol B for lentil; oleanolic acid, hederagenin, phytolaccagenic acid, and serjanic acid for quinoa; and sarsasapogenin, diosgenin, and neotigogenin acetate for fenugreek). Interindividual differences were observed, but the highest production of sapogenins corresponded to quinoa (90 µg/mL) and fenugreek (70 µg/mL) extracts, being minor for lentil (4 µg/mL). Lentil and quinoa extracts showed a general antimicrobial effect, mainly on lactic acid bacteria and Lactobacillus spp. Significant increases of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were observed for fenugreek in one volunteer. Thus, the transformation of saponin-rich extracts of quinoa, lentil, and fenugreek to sapogenins by human gut microbiota is demonstrated, exhibiting a modulatory effect on the growth of selected intestinal bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colo/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(3): 468-475, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273422

RESUMO

The aim of the present research was to determine the trace metal accumulations in Trigonella foenum-graecum irrigated with three different water regimes (ground water, canal water and sugar mill water). Also, transfer factors, pollution load indices, and health risk indices were assessed to evaluate metal transport and accumulation through the food chain. The analysis was conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu model AA-6300) to evaluate the concentration of metals in water, soil and vegetables. Trace metal concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.84 to 1.67, 0.42 to 0.72, 0.45 to 0.85, 2.51 to 9.99, 1.21 to 1.92, 1.82 to 9.98 and 0.64 to 0.91 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. The mean metal concentrations in soil samples were determined as 0.25, 0.86, 0.96, 3.37, 0.4, 0.44 and 2.31 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. Trace metal accumulations in T. foenum-graecum samples gathered from where soil samples were taken are as follows: The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn ranged from 0.48 to 1.06, 0.11 to 0.35, 0.15 to 0.29, 1.43 to 8.39, 0.39 to 0.54, 2.1 to 3.05 and 0.42 to 0.47 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the treatments have non-significant effect (p > 0.05) on concentrations of metals in T. foenum-graecum samples collected from three sites for Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Mn and significant effect on Fe and Cd.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Trigonella/química , Verduras/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(3): 461-467, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222423

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the impact of treated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and reserve mobilization from Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum L.). Seeds were germinated by soaking in distilled water (H2O) or wastewater treated with various methods: activated sludge processes (T1), facultative lagoons treatment (T2) and dilution. Results show high levels of organic matter (OM), suspended solids (TSS) and nutrients in TWW (T2) than that of TWW (T1). The embryo length and biomass of fenugreek imbibed by TWW were higher in TWW (T2) compared with TWW (T1). There was more reduction in free amino acids and soluble sugar contents in fenugreek treated with TWW (T1) than treated by TWW (T2). Important solutes leakage is recorded by measuring electric conductivity during seed imbibition with TWW. Improving the quality of wastewater by dilution (50%) stimulated germination of seeds and the growth of the tested plant. Moreover, it significantly reduces the solutes leakage and enhanced seed metabolites accumulation.


Assuntos
Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Agricultura , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Esgotos/efeitos adversos , Esgotos/química , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química
7.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(4): 477-485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887056

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the toxicity of nanosheet zinc oxide nanoparticle with the size of 45 nm. The penetration of nanoparticles at an exposure by a localized spray does not make it possible to understand the mechanism of transport and bioavailability of the nanoparticles. In contrast, nanoparticles penetrated, via the roots, as a function of their diameter, the smaller ones having caused leaf stress (by translocation) at low concentrations. So that the choice of method of root application. Plants treated with 50 mg L-1 of ZnO-NPs presented disturbance in leaf due to changes in chlorophyll's biosynthesis. The highest value of the photosynthetic pigments was recorded at 5 mg L-1 of ZnO-NPs. However, the treatment with 50 mg L-1 of ZnO-NPs caused a decrease in the levels of chlorophyll a and b. Moreover, ZnO-NPs leaves significantly enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Disponibilidade Biológica , Clorofila A/biossíntese , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 221: 1-10, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634143

RESUMO

Lead and acid rain are important abiotic stress factors that limit the growth, development, metabolic activity and yield of the crops. Melatonin (MT; an indoleamine molecule), glutathione (GSH; free thiol tripeptide) and thiourea (TU; non physiological thiol based ROS scavenger) have been known to mediate several physiological, biochemical and molecular processes in plants under different kinds of environmental threats. However, the roles of MT, GSH and TU in stress tolerance against combined effect of lead and simulated acid rain (SAR) remains inexpressible. In this study, we investigated the response of Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Fenugreek) to combined application of lead (1200 ppm) and SAR (pH 3.5), and the potential roles of MT (50 µM), GSH (1 mM) and TU (3 mM) in enhancing lead and SAR stress tolerance of Fenugreek. The results showed that co-application of each MT, GSH and TU along with lead and SAR improved the growth and development of seedlings. Moreover, MT, GSH and TU treatments stabilized the cell membrane integrity, reduced ROS accumulation [superoxide radical (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and, enhanced protein accumulation and up-regulated the gene expressions of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly. Furthermore, the present work provides strong evidence regarding protective roles of MT, GSH and TU against oxidative stress resulted from lead and SAR stress in Fenugreek. Considering these observations, MT, GSH and TU can be utilized as efficient ROS scavengers, for improving growth and increasing antioxidant capacity in lead and SAR stressed seedlings.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioureia/farmacologia , Trigonella/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Tioureia/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 24(1)2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609669

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is a valuable resource of producing diosgenin which serves as a substrate for synthesizing more than two hundred kinds of steroidal drugs. Phytochemical analysis indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) efficiently induced diosgenin biosynthesis in fenugreek seedlings. Though early steps up to cholesterol have recently been elucidated in plants, cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and glycosyltransferase (GT)-encoding genes involved in the late steps from cholesterol to diosgenin remain unknown. This study established comparative fenugreek transcriptome datasets from the MeJA-treated seedlings and the corresponding control lines. Differential gene expression analysis identified a number of MeJA-induced CYP and GT candidate genes. Further gene expression pattern analysis across a different MeJA-treating time points, together with a phylogenetic analysis, suggested specific family members of CYPs and GTs that may participate in the late steps during diosgenin biosynthesis. MeJA-induced transcription factors (TFs) that may play regulatory roles in diosgenin biosynthesis were also discussed. This study provided a valuable genetic resource to functionally characterize the genes involved in diosgenin biosynthesis, which will push forward the production of diosgenin in microbial organisms using a promising synthetic biology strategy.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Trigonella/genética , Trigonella/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição , Trigonella/classificação
10.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 101(3): 326-337, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099613

RESUMO

In the present study, the interactions between nanoparticle (NP) exposure, root application and plants were examined. NPs are potentially responsible for conformational changes in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, pectin, suberin and lignin molecules. 4 days of treatment with metal oxide caused a statistically significant increase in nicotinamide adénine dinucléotide oxidase activity in mitochondria and cytosol. Following exposure to TiO2NP, even lipid peroxidation levels decreased in the mitochondria (leaves, stem and root) and in the cytosol (leaves and root), although it increased in the cytosol of the stem. Malondialdehyde accumulation was found to be higher in the cytosol compared to the mitochondria of stems, and in the cytosol of leaves and roots. NPs caused alterations in metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) and the generation of oxidative stress. Effects caused by exposures to NPs were influenced by differences in metabolic responses in plant parts, plant compartments, the period of exposure and the NP doses.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citosol/efeitos dos fármacos , Citosol/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo
11.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 64(9): 46-51, 2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030953

RESUMO

The fenugreek is one of the most important medicinal plants belongs to Fabaceae, originated in West Asia, Iran and Mediterranean regions. This research included a qualitative study of fenugreek proteins using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel and the separation of protein bands of fenugreek leaves in different treatments of vermicompost fertilizer and cultivating dates. Results showed that a band (about 80 kDa) on the first planting date (May 31) is observed in all samples except for sample a1 (10 t/ha vermicompost on May 31). Another significant difference was the band contained in the third planting date (31 September) and in the molecular weight of about 15 kDa, which was not seen in other dates. This difference can be due to the synthesis of this protein with the mentioned weight under the conditions of reducing the temperature in the early fall. It also showed more differences in two-dimensional electrophoresis, for example, in 14 kDa and PI in the range of 4.5-4.7 in treatment without fertilizer, no protein expression was observed, which was consistent with the results of the SDS-PAGE test.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteômica , Trigonella/metabolismo , Agricultura , Compostagem , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fertilizantes , Focalização Isoelétrica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Trigonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 183: 154-163, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705508

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum is the source of various biological and chemical constituents with a wide area of applications, especially in the treatment/prevention of diabetes and other chronic diseases such as cancer. Multiple biological and organic moieties in the aqueous or the organic phase of Trigonella foenum-graecum carry soft reduction properties to reduce the metal cations to nanoparticles. In this investigation, the Trigonella foenum-graecum was found in the seed extract for the first time in an aqueous medium. We successfully synthesized zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe0) (ZV-Fe NPs) and stabilized these nanoparticles in an aqueous medium. The stabilization mechanism of Fe NPs by Trigonella foenum-graecum in an aqueous extract was investigated. Further, Fe NPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis - derivative thermo-gravimetric (TGA/DTG), magnetization, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The size of the nanoparticles, calculated using the Debye-Scherer equation and TEM, was found to be approximately 11 nm with the highest particle distribution number. Fe NPs are very effective for methyl orange dye degradation under UV light following pseudo first-order kinetics, and the rate constant kapp was found to be 0.025 min-1. Furthermore, Fe NPs were applied to check the antibacterial activities with microorganisms such as gram-negative E. coli and gram-positive S. aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Fe NPs for E. coli and S. aureus was calculated as 32 µg/mL and 64 µg/mL, respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Trigonella/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/química , Catálise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Fotólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogravimetria , Trigonella/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Difração de Raios X
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 75: 357-364, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462748

RESUMO

Improving fish defense through the preventive administration of immunostimulants has an important role in controlling the outbreak of the disease in aquaculture. As a continuity of our previous studies, this paper describes the effects of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds on the skin mucosal antioxidant status and immune response of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish were fed with four experimental diets: one a basal diet (control) and three diets with powdered fenugreek seeds incorporated in the fish feed at 1%, 5%, and 10%. After eight weeks of feeding, free radicals scavenging and antioxidant assays were assessed in skin mucus by measuring the peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging, measurement of total antioxidant activity and the determination of antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid system. The skin mucosal immune response was evaluated by measuring the IgM levels and some enzymatic activities (peroxidase, antiprotease, protease, esterase, and ceruloplasmin). Our results demonstrated that fenugreek inclusion improved the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and conferred very high antioxidant activity. Besides, only the highest supplementation level (10%) was able to augment the peroxidase and protease activities confronted by a general decrement in the antiprotease activity in the experimental fed groups with 1% and 10%. These results suggest that the dietary administration of fenugreek at the higher inclusion dose enhances the skin mucosal immunity response and the antioxidant status of gilthead seabream a species with one of the highest rates of production in marine aquaculture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Dourada/imunologia , Trigonella/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Pele/imunologia
14.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 177: 1-7, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028495

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were green synthesized using ethanolic extract of fenugreek leaves and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) techniques. The HRTEM results revealed the formation of highly stable, mono dispersed, spherical shaped AgNPs with the size ranging from 20 to 30nm. The presence of flavonoids and their interaction with the AgNPs were confirmed using FTIR. Antibacterial activities of the AgNPs were studied against pathogenic gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. The synthesized AgNPs displayed the enhancement of antibacterial activity against E. coli. The morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane was observed using SEM analysis. Leakage of protein from the bacterial cells increased at every time intervals (2 and 4h). MTT assay was carried out for the AgNPs against human skin cell line (HaCaT). Interestingly, cytotoxicity of the synthesized AgNPs was less toxic to HaCaT cells as compared to bacteria cells, which suggests that the synthesized AgNPs by this method is eco-friendly in nature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Química Verde , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
15.
C R Biol ; 340(11-12): 499-511, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066172

RESUMO

The potential toxicity of nanoparticles in plants is scarce and contradictory. Despite the diversity of research efforts, a detailed explanation of the TiO2NPS effects in plant photosynthesis is still missing. The present work gives a new approach to examine the impact of the TiO2NPs on crop production (development and photosynthesis) and plant protection (tolerance and defense systems) in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Seedlings were assessed in greenhouse trials to estimate the influence of TiO2NPs on physiological characters for 16 days. They were treated with TiO2NPs at a size less than 20nm. The results revealed that there were no significant effects on seedlings growth and biomass of stem, but a decrease in the fresh weight of leaves after TiO2NPs treatment. Plants treated with 100mg·L-1 of TiO2NPs presented a reduction and chlorosis in leaf area due to a significant decrease in the chlorophyll a and b contents. The highest value of the photosynthetic pigments was recorded at 50mg·L-1 of TiO2NPs. However, the treatment with 100mg·L-1 of TiO2NPs caused a decrease in the levels of chlorophyll a, b and of carotenoids. Both doses of TiO2NPs induced an accumulation of anthocyanins compared to the control after 16 days of seedling development. A nano-stress significantly decreased the flavonoids level, but increased that of polyphenols compared to control after 16 days of exposure. The decrease in the translocation ratio of flavonoids suggests that many of them contain an enediol group, which suggests that they may act as bidentate ligands for anatase TiO2NPs. Accordingly, nano-stressed leaves exhibited significantly enhanced GPOX, CAT and APX activity levels. On the contrary, GPOX and CAT activities were reduced substantially in stems treated with 100mg·L-1 TiO2NPs. The accumulation of MDA was found to be higher in stems than in leaves. This could be explained by the accumulation of nanoparticles in different organs; it could be that the stems are the favored targets of nanoparticles. These results underline the necessity for a deeper estimation of nanoparticle ecotoxicity and particularly concerning their interaction with plants.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Titânio/toxicidade , Trigonella/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Funct ; 8(6): 2142-2154, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581555

RESUMO

This work examines the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses associated with soluble dietary fibre (SDF) consumption. The effect of SDF, including yellow mustard mucilage, soluble flaxseed gum and fenugreek gum on in vitro amylolysis and maltose transport was studied. Furthermore, a human clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of SDF consumption on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and gastric emptying, as estimated based on the absorption of paracetamol. Participants (n = 15) at risk for type II diabetes consumed maltose syrup- and starch-based pudding treatments supplemented with each SDF, each at a concentration to match three times the apparent viscosity (18.54 mPa s at 60 s-1) equivalent to the European Food Safety Authority (2011) glycemia control health claim for cereal ß-glucan, measured under simulated small intestinal conditions. The presence of each SDF delayed in vitro amylolysis to a similar extent, but had no effect on maltose transport. Generally, all SDF-containing treatments attenuated blood glucose and plasma insulin peak concentrations and plasma paracetamol 1 h incremental area under the curve values to a similar extent, relative to the controls, despite differences in the amounts at which each SDF was used (from 5.9 to 15.5 g). The postprandial attenuations were related to the ability of each SDF to modify digesta viscosity, perhaps through the delay of gastric emptying, as a delay of amylolysis and sugar transport under simulated upper intestinal conditions did not seem to have a substantial effect.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Adulto , Avena/química , Avena/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Linho/química , Linho/metabolismo , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mostardeira/química , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Trigonella/química , Trigonella/metabolismo
17.
Planta ; 245(5): 977-991, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28161815

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Representational difference analysis of cDNA was performed and differential products were sequenced and annotated. Candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of diosgenin in fenugreek were identified. Detailed mechanism of diosgenin synthesis was proposed. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a valuable medicinal and crop plant. It belongs to Fabaceae family and has a unique potential to synthesize valuable steroidal saponins, e.g., diosgenin. Elicitation (methyl jasmonate) and precursor feeding (cholesterol and squalene) were used to enhance the content of sterols and steroidal sapogenins in in vitro grown plants for representational difference analysis of cDNA (cDNA-RDA). To identify candidate genes involved in diosgenin biosynthesis, differential, factor-specific libraries were subject to the next-generation sequencing. Approximately 9.9 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 31,491 unigenes with an average length of 291 bp. Then, functional annotation and gene ontogeny enrichment analysis was performed by aligning all-unigenes with public databases. Within the transcripts related to sterol and steroidal saponin biosynthesis, we discovered novel candidate genes of diosgenin biosynthesis and validated their expression using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Based on these findings, we supported the idea that diosgenin is biosynthesized from cycloartenol via cholesterol. This is the first report on the next-generation sequencing of cDNA-RDA products. Analysis of the transcriptomes enriched in low copy sequences contributed substantially to our understanding of the biochemical pathways of steroid synthesis in fenugreek.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Diosgenina/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trigonella/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trigonella/metabolismo
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 63: 277-284, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28232283

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine the potential effect of the dietary intake of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum or B. subtilis on gilthead seabream quality and antioxidant response after 2 and 3 weeks of experimental feeding. The results showed that the supplements did not affect the percentage of the fatty acid profiles of muscle, demonstrating that all the additives tested can be administrated without any negative effect on biochemical composition and quality of gilthead seabream. The quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in muscle demonstrated the significant beneficial effect of the experimental diets compared with the control one. Besides, an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver was recorded after 3 weeks of administration of experimental diets. Furthermore, real time qPCR revealed that dietary supplementation with FEBS significantly enhances the expression of scavenging enzymes, such as cat and gr genes in the liver after 3 weeks. The findings suggest that the administration of fenugreek supplement alone or combined with probiotic strains could be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants and as a functional aquafeed ingredient for gilthead seabream.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade Inata , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Probióticos , Dourada/imunologia , Trigonella/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bacillus licheniformis/química , Bacillus subtilis/química , Dieta/veterinária , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Dourada/metabolismo
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 112: 227-238, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107731

RESUMO

Owing to rising production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the myriad of consumer applications, ENPs are being released into the environment where their potential fate and effects have remained unclear. With naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF; Glomus intraradices) in soils, their influence (positive or negative) on ENPs toxicity in plants is not well documented. Herein, we investigated potential influence of AMF on the growth and development in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) under varied Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) treatments (0, 125, 250, 375 and 500 µg g-1). Results showed that in the absence of AMF, increasing ZnONPs concentrations caused significant decline in root nodule number and biomass in fenugreek. In non-AMF plants, shoot length, and biomass of both root and shoot decreased at ≥375 µg g-1 of ZnONPs treatment; while Zn uptake by shoot and root increased as a function of ZnONPs treatments. Interestingly, AMF colonization in roots significantly diminished at 375 µg g-1 ZnONPs treatment compared to controls. More importantly, AMF inoculation ameliorated inhibitory effects of ZnONPs by promoting secretion of glycoprotein called glomalin-a potent metal chelator-within the rhizosphere, which significantly reduced (by almost half) Zn uptake by root and subsequent translocation to the shoot. AMF inoculation (high glomalin secretion)-mediated low Zn uptake might have been stimulatory to promote root and shoot growth in fenugreek. The results highlight significant protective roles of rhizospheric AMF through glomalin secretion thereby ameliorating nanotoxicity in plants, and underscore the need to include soil-microbial interactions when assessing nanophytotoxicology and risks. Furthermore, potential positive implications to other organisms in the food chain can be inferred due to low tropic transfer of ENPs and/or associated toxic dissolved ions in the presence of naturally occurring soil fingi.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Trigonella/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Lineares , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Nodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo , Trigonella/anatomia & histologia , Trigonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(28): 8065-8078, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614978

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum is a plant of considerable value for its nutritive composition as well as medicinal effects. This study aims to examine Trigonella seeds using a metabolome-based ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in parallel to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with multivariate data analyses. The metabolomic differences of seeds derived from three Trigonella species, i.e., T. caerulea, T. corniculata, and T. foenum-graecum, were assessed. Under specified conditions, we were able to identify 93 metabolites including 5 peptides, 2 phenolic acids, 22 C/O-flavonoid conjugates, 26 saponins, and 9 fatty acids using UPLC-MS. Several novel dipeptides, saponins, and flavonoids were found in Trigonella herein for the first time. Samples were classified via unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) followed by supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). A distinct separation among the investigated Trigonella species was revealed, with T. foenum-graecum samples found most enriched in apigenin-C-glycosides, viz. vicenins 1/3 and 2, compared to the other two species. In contrast to UPLC-MS, GC-MS was less efficient to classify specimens, with differences among specimens mostly attributed to fatty acyl esters. GC-MS analysis of Trigonella seed extracts led to the identification of 91 metabolites belonging mostly to fatty acyl esters, free fatty acids followed by organic acids, sugars, and amino acids. This study presents the first report on primary and secondary metabolite compositional differences among Trigonella seeds via a metabolomics approach and reveals that, among the species examined, the official T. foenum-graecum presents a better source of Trigonella secondary bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Trigonella/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
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