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1.
Br J Dermatol ; 188(1): 100-111, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian disorders of cornification (MeDOC) are a group of heterogeneous genodermatoses with different genetic bases. The pathogenesis of a substantial group of MeDOC remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To identify a new causative gene and the pathogenesis of a previously undescribed autosomal-dominant cornification disorder. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in three families with the novel cornification disorder to identify the disease-causing variants. As the variants were located around the signal peptide (SP) cleavage site of a kallikrein-related peptidase, SP cleavage, subcellular localization and extracellular secretion of the variants were evaluated in eukaryotic overexpression systems by Western blotting or immunocytochemistry. Then the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity of the peptidase and degradation of its catalytic substrate were assayed using the patients' stratum corneum (SC) samples. The morphology of the lamellar bodies and corneodesmosomes (CDs) in the patients' SC was ultrastructurally examined. A mouse model harbouring the equivalent variant was constructed and evaluated histologically. RESULTS: We identified two heterozygous variants affecting Gly50 in kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK)11 in a familial case and two sporadic cases with the new disorder, which is characterized by early-onset ichthyosiform erythroderma or erythrokeratoderma. KLK11 belongs to the family of kallikrein-related peptidases participating in skin desquamation by decomposing CDs, a process essential for shedding of the SC. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the variants perturbed the SP cleavage of KLK11, leading to subcellular mislocalization and impaired extracellular secretion of the KLK11 Gly50Glu variant. Both trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activities were significantly decreased in the patients' SC samples. Reduced proteolysis of desmoglein 1 and delayed degeneration of CDs were detected in patients' SC, indicating delayed skin desquamation. Consistently, the patients showed a thickened, dense SC, indicating abnormal skin desquamation. Mice harbouring the homozygous c.131G>A (p.Gly44Glu) Klk11 variant, which is equivalent to KLK11 c.149G>A (p.Gly50Glu) in humans, exhibited hyperkeratosis and abnormal desquamation, partially recapitulating the phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that variants at Gly50 affecting the SP cleavage of KLK11 cause a new autosomal-dominant cornification disorder with abnormal desquamation. Our findings highlight the essential role of KLKs in maintaining homeostasis of skin keratinization and desquamation.


Assuntos
Quimotripsina , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Tripsina/metabolismo , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Calicreínas/química , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 408: 135230, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549163

RESUMO

The work aimed to assess the antioxidant ability and obtain a new antioxidant peptide from rice bran protein. Rice bran protein was hydrolyzed by Alcalase, Neutral, Pepsin, Chymotrypsin, and Trypsin, separately. Trypsin hydrolysate (T-RBPH) showed high Fe2+ chelating activity (IC50, 2.271 ± 0.007 mg/mL), DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (IC50, 0.191 ± 0.006 and 1.038 ± 0.034 mg/mL). Moreover, T-RBPH could alleviate the H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2. The T-RBPH was purified and identified by UF, GF, FPLC, and LC-MS/MS. Finally, 9-amino acid peptide-AFDEGPWPK with low molecular weight (1045.48 Da), high antioxidant activity, good safety, and solubility was screened by in silico method and chemical oxidation determination, and its interaction with Keap1 was also demonstrated. The ORAC and DPPH radical scavenging ability of AFDEGPWPK were 44.16 ± 0.79 and 28.38 ± 0.14 µmol TE/mM. Moreover, the Molecular docking and Western blot (WB) results showed that AFDEGPWPK could enter the binding pocket in the Kelch domain and activate Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Oryza , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Oryza/química , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Tripsina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química
3.
Anal Chem ; 95(2): 628-637, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549687

RESUMO

A newly synthesized proteome reflects perturbations sensitively and maintains homeostasis in cells. To investigate the low abundant newly synthesized proteins (NSPs) from a complex background proteome, an enrichment process with high selectivity and reliability is essential. Here, we have developed a strategy to realize comprehensive analysis of NSPs by integrating tandem orthogonal proteolysis (TOP) with cleavable bioorthogonal tagging (CBOT) called TOP-CBOT. A solid-phase-conjugated probe with a clickable moiety and a protease-cleavable site was designed, which allowed NSPs to be covalently captured along with tandem release by trypsin and orthogonal tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease. Our method has integrated the advantages of protein-level and peptide-level enrichment. Trypsin digests larger number of peptides from the recovered proteins for NSPs identification and quantification, while the specific tag-contained peptides from TEV data set enabled further NSPs confirmation. Integrating information from two complementary data sets, the reliability in NSPs identification and quantitation were remarkably enhanced. A total of 3699 proteins were recovered in the trypsin data set. Additionally, 1931 proteins were confirmed as NSPs with 5019 identified peptides in the TEV data set, over 90% of which were overlapped with the tryptic data set. Our strategy was further applied to profile NSP degradation kinetics during rapamycin-induced macroautophagy. The newly synthesized proteome displayed varied alteration of degradation rates among stimulation and more than half of NSPs showed decreased half-lives during autophagy.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Proteoma , Proteoma/análise , Tripsina/metabolismo , Proteólise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(1): 494-510, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36577517

RESUMO

Targeting the limitation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) application in vivo, self-assembled AMPs library with specific nanostructures is expected to gradually overtake monomer AMPs libraries in the future. Peptide polymers are fascinating self-assembling nanoscale structures that have great advantage in biomedical applications because of their satisfactory biocompatibility and versatile properties. Herein, we describe a strategy for inducing the self-assembly of T9W into nanostructured antimicrobial micelles with evidently improved pharmacological properties, that is, PEGylation at the C-terminal of T9W (CT9W1000), an antibacterial biomaterial that self-assembles in aqueous media without exogenous excipients, has been developed. Compared with parental molecular, the CT9W1000 is more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and its antibacterial spectrum had also been broadened. Additionally, CT9W1000 micelles had higher stability under salt ion, serum, and acid-base environments. Importantly, the self-assembled structure is highly resistant to trypsin degradation, probably allowing T9W to be applied in clinical settings in the future. Mechanistically, by acting on membranes and through supplementary bactericidal mechanisms, CT9W1000 micelles contribute to the antibacterial process. Collectively, CT9W1000 micelles exhibited good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo, resulting in highly effective treatment in a mouse acute lung injury model induced by P. aeruginosa PAO1 without drug resistance. These advances may profoundly accelerate the clinical transformation of T9W and promote the development of a combination of peptide-based antibiotics and PEGylated nanotechnology.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Micelas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Animais , Camundongos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tripsina/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/microbiologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
5.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 152: 103893, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513274

RESUMO

Digestion and absorption of old cuticles during insect molting are necessary for new cuticle formation, during which complicated enzyme catalysis is essential. To date, a few carboxypeptidases, aminopeptidases and serine proteases (mostly trypsins) connected with cuticle digestion, zymogen activation and histological differentiation during the ecdysis of lepidopteran, dipteran and hymenopteran insects have been identified. However, little is known about these proteins in hemimetabolous insects. In this study, we identified 33 candidate trypsin and trypsin-like homologs, 14 metallocarboxypeptidase and 32 aminopeptidase genes in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a hemipteran rice pest. Among the proteins encoded by these genes, 9 trypsin-like proteases, 3 metallocarboxypeptidases and 1 aminopeptidase were selected as potential procuticle hydrolases by bioinformatics analysis and in vivo validation. RNA interference targeting these genes demonstrated that 3 trypsin-like proteases (NlTrypsin-8, NlTrypsin-29 and NlTrypsin-32) genes and 1 metallocarboxypeptidase (NlCpB) gene were found to be essential for ecdysis in N. lugens; specifically, gene silencing led to incomplete cuticle degradation and arrested ecdysis, causing lethal morphological phenotype acquisition. Spatiotemporal expression profiling by quantitative PCR and western blotting revealed their specific expression in the integument and their periodic expression during each stadium, with a peak before ecdysis and eclosion. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated corresponding ultrastructural defects after RNAi targeting, with NlCpB-silenced specimens having the most undigested old procuticles. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that NlTrypsin-8, NlTrypsin-29 and NlCpB were predominantly located in the exuvial space. This research further adds to our understanding of proteases and its potential role in insect ecdysis.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Muda , Animais , Tripsina/metabolismo , Muda/genética , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Aminopeptidases/genética , Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo
6.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 23(4): 641-652, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545505

RESUMO

There is no consensus between the protocols used for the isolation, maintenance and cultivation of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for therapeutic purposes. Thus, was evaluated the maintenance method of ADSCs submitted to enzymatic disaggregation by trypsin. Was made (1st until 10th passage) immunophenotyping, cell differentiation assays, comet assay, differential cell death, apoptosis, cell viability and membrane integrity by flow cytometry.The results showded that trypsinization,did not induce genomic instability, also did not alter the tail moment. The cell death assay, showed that only on the 10th passage there was a significant reduction and was cofirmed by flow cytometry that is apoptosis. The viability showded significant reduction only in 10th passage, this was related to the loss of integrity of membrane, proven by flow cytometry. The quantities varied along the passages (11 × 105 to 2 × 105). Qualitatively, it can be observed that as the number of cells decreases, there is also a reduction in the juxtaposition of ADSCs and increased of the cell size, it is started in 6th passage. In view of the results, it is suggested for more safety, that ADSCs cultured until the 5th passage being used in human transplantation procedures.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Células-Tronco , Humanos , Tripsina/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Instabilidade Genômica
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499406

RESUMO

The evaluation of retinal vascular structures is important for analyzing various ophthalmic diseases. Conventional trypsin digestion was used for separating retinal vasculatures in mouse, rat, and other animal models; however, the trypsin method alone is technically difficult to perform and has not been reported in zebrafish to date. In this study, we introduced a rapid and convenient method that allows the investigation of fine vessel structures at a cellular level in the relatively intact retinal vasculature of adult zebrafish. Using an anti-ZO-1 antibody, tight junction structures in retinal vessels were examined in detail and several different cell types constituting blood vessels in arterial and capillary areas were identified. In addition, using cell type-specific antibodies, we identified smooth muscle cells, blood cells, and endothelial cells in the retinal vasculature. Finally, using the hyperglycemic model, we observed the dilation of retinal vessels, the downregulation of tight junction proteins, and the reduction in smooth muscle cells. Based on these results, we provide a rapid and convenient method for the study of retinal vasculature disease in the zebrafish animal model.


Assuntos
Doenças Retinianas , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Barreira Hematorretiniana , Células Endoteliais , Doenças Retinianas/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499117

RESUMO

Characterization of the hydrated state of a protein is crucial for understanding its structural stability and function. In the present study, we have investigated the 3D hydration structure of the protein BPTI (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor) by molecular dynamics (MD) and the integral equation method in the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) approach. Both methods have found a well-defined hydration layer around the protein and revealed the localization of BPTI buried water molecules corresponding to the X-ray crystallography data. Moreover, under 3D-RISM calculations, the obtained positions of waters bound firmly to the BPTI sites are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results mentioned above for the BPTI crystal form. The analysis of the 3D hydration structure (thickness of hydration shell and hydration numbers) was performed for the entire protein and its polar and non-polar parts using various cut-off distances taken from the literature as well as by a straightforward procedure proposed here for determining the thickness of the hydration layer. Using the thickness of the hydration shell from this procedure allows for calculating the total hydration number of biomolecules properly under both methods. Following this approach, we have obtained the thickness of the BPTI hydration layer of 3.6 Å with 369 water molecules in the case of MD simulation and 3.9 Å with 333 water molecules in the case of the 3D-RISM approach. The above procedure was also applied for a more detailed description of the BPTI hydration structure near the polar charged and uncharged radicals as well as non-polar radicals. The results presented for the BPTI as an example bring new knowledge to the understanding of protein hydration.


Assuntos
Aprotinina , Proteínas , Bovinos , Animais , Aprotinina/química , Aprotinina/metabolismo , Proteínas/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Água/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Tripsina/metabolismo
9.
Pancreatology ; 22(8): 1112-1119, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: /Objectives: Sequence variants in several genes have been identified as being associated with an increased inherited risk to develop chronic pancreatitis (CP). In a genetic survey of a CP patient we identified in the PRSS1gene a new c.380C > G sequence variation, giving rise to a non-synonymous p.S127C mutation. Functional studies were performed to analyze the associated pathophysiology of the variant. METHODS: Following generation of an expression vector for the new PRSS1 variant we compared its expression, secretion and catalytic activity with already known PRSS1 risk variants in HEK 293T cells. The intracellular protein accumulation and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress was analyzed. RESULTS: Prediction tool analysis indicated a probably deleterious effect of the p.S127C variant on protein function which was confirmed by detection of a secretion defect in HEK293T cells leading to intracellular protein accumulation. While protein misfolding was associated with reduced trypsin activity, the increased expression of BIP and presence of spliced XBP1 indicated that the p.S127C variant induces ER stress and activates the UPR signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The disease mechanism of the PRSS1 p.S127C variant involves defective protein secretion and the induction of ER-stress due to accumulation of presumably misfolded trypsinogen within the ER. The new variant should be considered disease-causing with an incomplete penetrance. Our results confirm that in addition to dysregulated trypsin-activity or reduced fluid secretion, ER-stress induction is an important trigger for acinar cell damage and the development of recurrent or chronic pancreatic inflammation.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Crônica , Humanos , Tripsina/genética , Tripsina/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/metabolismo , Tripsinogênio/genética , Mutação
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430785

RESUMO

Molecular phenotypes induced by environmental stimuli can be transmitted to offspring through epigenetic inheritance. Using transcriptome profiling, we show that the adaptation of Helicoverpa armigera larvae to soybean peptidase inhibitors (SPIs) is associated with large-scale gene expression changes including the upregulation of genes encoding serine peptidases in the digestive system. Furthermore, approximately 60% of the gene expression changes induced by SPIs persisted in the next generation of larvae fed on SPI-free diets including genes encoding regulatory, oxidoreductase, and protease functions. To investigate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating SPI adaptation, the methylome of the digestive system of first-generation larvae (fed on a diet with and without SPIs) and of the progeny of larvae exposed to SPIs were characterized. A comparative analysis between RNA-seq and Methyl-seq data did not show a direct relationship between differentially methylated and differentially expressed genes, while trypsin and chymotrypsin genes were unmethylated in all treatments. Rather, DNA methylation potential epialleles were associated with transcriptional and translational controls; these may play a regulatory role in the adaptation of H. armigera to SPIs. Altogether, our findings provided insight into the mechanisms of insect adaptation to plant antiherbivore defense proteins and illustrated how large-scale transcriptional reprograming of insect genes can be transmitted across generations.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Soja , Animais , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Quimotripsina/genética , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
11.
Methods Enzymol ; 676: 347-368, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280357

RESUMO

Among all post-translational modifications of proteins, phosphorylation is one of the most common and most studied. Since plants are sessile organisms, many physiological processes on which their survival depends are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Understanding the extent to which a plant proteome is phosphorylated at specific developmental stages and/or under certain environmental conditions is essential for identifying molecular switches that regulate physiological processes and responses. While most phosphoproteomic workflows proposed in the literature provide tools to exclusively analyze phosphorylated proteins, it is imperative to examine both the proteome and the phosphoproteome to reveal the true complexity of a biological process. Here we describe a mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics workflow to analyze both total and phosphorylated proteins. Our method includes phenol-based protein extraction, as well as techniques to measure the quantity and quality of protein extracts. In addition, we compare in detail the efficiency and suitability of in-gel and in-solution trypsin digestion methods. A metal oxide affinity chromatography technique for rapid and efficient enrichment of phosphorylated peptides and an LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the phosphorylated peptides are described. Finally, we present and discuss the results generated by applying this workflow to our study of the C3 to CAM transition in the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum). Overall, our workflow provides robust methods for the identification of phosphoproteins and total proteins. It can be broadly applied to many other organisms and sample types, and the results provide a more accurate picture of the molecular switches that regulate different biological processes.


Assuntos
Mesembryanthemum , Proteômica , Proteômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Proteoma/análise , Mesembryanthemum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tripsina/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Óxidos , Fenóis/análise , Fosfopeptídeos/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early chronic pancreatitis (ECP) has been reported to advance into chronic pancreatitis, it may be critical to differentiate the pathophysiology of ECP and functional dyspepsia (FD) in patients with pancreatic enzyme abnormalities (FD-P). This study aimed to clarify differences in the pathophysiology of ECP and FD-P and to determine whether duodenal inflammatory responses in the two diseases were associated with protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2, as the trypsin receptor. METHODS: Eighty patients who presented with FD-P and ECP were enrolled. In duodenal specimens, PAR2 mRNA levels were determined using real-time PCR. Using immunostaining, CD68-, GLP-1-, PRG2-, and CCR2-positive cells, tight junction proteins, and PAR 2 were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms and gastric motility between ECP and FD-P patients. The CD68-positive cells infiltrations and occludin expression levels in the duodenal mucosa of patients with FD-P were significantly (p<0.001 and p = 0.048, respectively) lower than those in patients with ECP. Although serum trypsin levels in ECP and FD-P patents were significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) associated with duodenal eosinophils counts, elevated trypsin levels were not significantly associated with degranulated eosinophils, occludin, claudin-1 and ZO-1 expression levels in the duodenum of either group. PAR2 mRNA levels were increased in the duodenum of patients with ECP and FD-P. PAR2 was localized in the epithelial cells of the duodenal mucosa and the surface of degranulated eosinophils in ECP and FD-P patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated trypsin levels might be partly associated with duodenal inflammatory responses through PAR2-related degranulated eosinophils and the reduction of occludin in patients with ECP and FD-P.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Gastrite , Pancreatite Crônica , Humanos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Claudina-1/genética , Receptor PAR-2/genética , Receptor PAR-2/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Gastrite/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
13.
Anal Methods ; 14(41): 4053-4063, 2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196924

RESUMO

The digestion of proteins with proteolytic enzymes has expedited the analysis of peptide mapping. Here, we compared the digestion efficiency of soluble chymotrypsin (CT) with two immobilized CT preparations using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the substrate. An efficient method of immobilizing chymotrypsin using formaldehyde (FA) was optimized and the conditions were applied to assess a novel immobilization reagent, triethoxysilylbutaraldehyde (TESB). Efforts to determine the best enzyme-to-substrate (E : S) ratios during digestion of denatured BSA with single-use FA-CT enzyme particles were performed by adjusting the amount of substrate used. An E : S ratio of 10 : 1 was found to be best based on the LC-MS/MS analysis data showing sequence coverage of 67%. Fabrication of immobilized enzyme microreactors (IMERs) was carried out using both (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) with the idealized conditions with FA, as well as the novel procedure utilizing TESB for a proof of concept open-tubular IMER. It was found that the FA-APTES IMER had a sequence coverage of 6%, while the TESB IMER had 29% sequence coverage from MS analysis. The application of TESB in enzyme immobilization has the potential to facilitate a greater degree of enzymatic digestion with higher sequence coverage than traditional immobilization or crosslinking reagents for bottom-up proteomics.


Assuntos
Quimotripsina , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Cromatografia Líquida , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Reatores Biológicos , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Formaldeído
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 112: 109281, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183681

RESUMO

The present study aimed to validate the potential of a novel serine protein protease inhibitor (PPI), purified from marine Oceanimonas sp. BPMS22, induced M2 to M1 repolarization of the macrophages to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Peptide mass fingerprint of the purified trypsin digested PPI peptide was obtained using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) and the sequence was used to construct a 3D protein model by homology modelling. The IC50 of PPI were 25.28 ± 1.675 µg/mL and 0.415 ± 0.015 µg/mL against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively, indicating the host-directed therapy using PPI. The PPI enhanced the effector molecule i.e., nitric oxide (NO), and dampened the arginase activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies revealed that the BPMS22-derived PPI significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the mRNA expressions of M2 markers (FIZZ-1, YM-1, CD206, Arg-1) and increased the mRNA expressions of M1 markers (iNOS, IL-1ß, IL-12) in rIL-4 + rIL-10 induced M2 macrophages. Interestingly, the BPMS22-derived PPI also significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the FIZZ-1, YM-1, CD206, and Arg-1; significantly (p < 0.05) increased iNOS, IL-12, and IFN-γ mRNA expression in L. donovani -infected murine macrophages, alongside the decreased parasite load in it. Hence, PPI has the potential to repolarize the cytokines (rIL-4 + rIL-10) pre-stimulated and L. donovani-infected M2 macrophages to M1 phenotype in vitro. A decrease in parasite burden after treatment with PPI indicated the acceleration of the parasite killing by enhancing the macrophage effector functions. Further, in vivo PPI treatment reduced hepatic and splenic Leishman donovan units (LDU) up to 93.34 % and 87.63 %, respectively. This was followed by a surge in pro-inflammatory cytokines and dampening anti-inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.01), which exhibited anti-VL immunity. These observations might open new perspectives on PPI in macrophage repolarization to treat VL.


Assuntos
Leishmania donovani , Leishmaniose Visceral , Camundongos , Animais , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Arginase/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Macrófagos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Imunidade , Serina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17410, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36258024

RESUMO

The fish immune system is a topic or subject that offers a unique understanding of defensive system evolution in vertebrate heredity. While gut microbiota plays several roles in fish: well-being, promoting health and growth, resistance to bacterial invasion, regulation of energy absorption, and lipid metabolism. However, studies on fish gut microbiota face practical challenges due to the large number of fish varieties, fluctuating environmental conditions, and differences in feeding habits. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of supplemented three autochthonous strains, Bacillus sp. RCS1, Pantoea agglomerans RCS2, and Bacillus cereus RCS3 mixture diet on cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum). Also, chromatography, mass spectrometry and high throughput sequencing were combined to explore composition and metabolite profile of gut microbiota in juvenile cobia fed with supplemented diet. In the trial group, juvenile cobia received diets supplemented with 1 × 1012 CFU mL-1 autochthonous strains for ten weeks and a control diet without supplementation. Juvenile cobia receiving diets supplementation exhibited significantly improved growth than those without additives (control). Haematological indices, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, were higher in the supplemented group. Similarly, digestive enzymes (trypsin, lipase, amylase, pepsin and cellulose, activities) activities were higher in supplemented diet with an indigenous isolates mixture. Serum biochemical parameters albumin, globulin, and total protein were significantly higher, while triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and cholesterol showed no significant difference. On the other hand, glucose was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the group without supplementation. On gene expression in the midgut, Immunoglobulin, Colony-stimulating factor receptor 1, major histocompatibility complex 1 were up-regulated by native isolates while T cell receptor beta, and Major histocompatibility complex 2 showed no significant difference. Gut bacterial composition was altered in fish receiving supplemented diet with autochthonous strains. Metabolomics also revealed that some metabolic pathways were considerably enriched in fish fed with supplemented diet; pathway analysis based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment revealed that differentially expressed metabolites were involved in galactose metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, carbohydrate digestion and absorption, purine metabolism, and ABC transporters. Functional analysis of bacterial community showed that differences in enriched metabolic pathways generally comprised carbohydrate and its metabolites, nucleotide and its metabolites, amino acid and its metabolites, heterocyclic compounds, and tryptamines, cholines, pigments. The current investigation results showed that autochthonous strains mixture has significantly enhanced the growth, survival, and innate and adaptive immunities of juvenile cobia.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Perciformes , Animais , Alanina/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta , Peixes/metabolismo , Galactose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo , Perciformes/fisiologia , Purinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Triptaminas , Triptofano/metabolismo
16.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 7(1)2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent clinical studies have shown that the transplantation of functional retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can prevent the onset of RPE degeneration in age-related macular degeneration. This study aimed to investigate the potential of human amniotic membrane (hAM) as a viable scaffold for the growth and proliferation of pluripotent-derived RPE cells. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Three enzymatic hAM de-epithelialisation methods (thermolysin, trypsin-EDTA and dispase II) were assessed by histological analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We generated RPE cells from a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line subjected to spontaneous differentiation in feeder-free conditions. The hESC-derived RPE cells were seeded over denuded hAM at a density of 2.0×105 cells/cm2 and maintained in culture for up to 4 weeks. Immnofluorescence was carried out to evaluate the development of a confluent monolayer of RPE cells on the top of the hAM. Conditioned medium was collected to measure pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) concentration by ELISA. RESULTS: Laminin α5 and collagen IV staining confirmed the efficiency of the de-epithelialisation process. In particular, thermolysin showed good retention of tissue integrity on OCT images and greater preservation of the hAM basement membrane. The hESC-derived RPE cells formed patches of pigmented cells interspersed along the denuded hAM, but failed to form a regular sheet of RPE cells. These cells expressed typical RPE markers, such as PMEL17 and RPE65, but they secreted low levels of PEDF. CONCLUSION: The biological variability of the hAM could influence the adhesion and the expansion of hESC-derived RPE cells. Further studies are required to verify whether a non-confluent monolayer might represent a limit to transplantation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas , Âmnio , Colágeno/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Endopeptidases , Humanos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina , Termolisina/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 968639, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059491

RESUMO

Acinar cell death and inflammatory response are two important events which determine the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and necroptosis are involved in this process, but the relationships between them remain unknown. Here, we analyzed the interaction between ER stress and necroptosis and the underlying mechanisms during AP. Experimental pancreatitis was induced in Balb/C mice by caerulein (Cae) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or L-arginine (L-Arg) in vivo, and pancreatic acinar cells were also used to follow cellular mechanisms during cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation in vitro. AP severity was assessed by serum amylase, lipase levels and histological examination. Changes in ER stress, trypsinogen activation and necroptosis levels were analyzed by western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The protein kinase C (PKC)α -mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) -cJun pathway and cathepsin B (CTSB) activation were evaluated by western blotting. Activating protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We found that ER stress is initiated before necroptosis in CCK-stimulated acinar cells in vitro. Inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) can significantly alleviate AP severity both in two AP models in vivo. 4-PBA markedly inhibited ER stress and necroptosis of pancreatic acinar cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that 4-PBA significantly reduced CTSB maturation and PKCα-JNK-cJun pathway -mediated AP-1 activation during AP. Besides, CTSB inhibitor CA074Me markedly blocked PKCα-JNK-cJun pathway -mediated AP-1 activation and necroptosis in AP. However, pharmacologic inhibition of trypsin activity with benzamidine hydrochloride had no effect on PKCα-JNK-cJun pathway and necroptosis in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Furthermore, SR11302, the inhibitor of AP-1, significantly lowered tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α levels, and its subsequent receptor interacting protein kinases (RIP)3 and phosphorylated mixed lineagekinase domain-like (pMLKL) levels, ATP depletion and LDH release rate in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. To sum up, all the results indicated that during AP, ER stress promoted pancreatic acinar cell necroptosis through CTSB maturation, thus induced AP-1 activation and TNFα secretion via PKCα-JNK-cJun pathway, not related with trypsin activity. These findings provided potential therapeutic target and treatment strategies for AP or other cell death-related diseases.


Assuntos
Células Acinares , Catepsina B , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Necroptose , Pancreatite , Fator de Transcrição AP-1 , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Doença Aguda , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Catepsina B/genética , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Necroptose/genética , Necroptose/fisiologia , Pancreatite/genética , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Pancreatite/patologia , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 849620, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36159828

RESUMO

Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are well known for their insecticidal activities against Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran species. In our previous work, we showed that trypsin-digested full-length Cry7Ab4 protoxin did not have insecticidal activity against Plutella xylostella larvae but strongly inhibited their growth. In this paper, we expressed and purified recombinant active Cry7Ab4 toxic core from Escherichia coli for bioassay and identified its binding proteins. Interestingly, Cry7Ab4 toxic core exhibited activity to delay the pupation of P. xylostella larvae. Using protein pull-down assay, several proteins, including basic juvenile hormone-suppressible protein 1-like (BJSP-1), were identified from the midgut juice of P. xylostella larvae as putative Cry7Ab4-binding proteins. We showed that feeding P. xylostella larval Cry7Ab4 toxic core upregulated the level of BJSP-1 mRNA in the hemocytes and fat body and decreased the free juvenile hormone (JH) level in larvae. BJSP-1 interacted with Cry7Ab4 and bound to free JH in vitro. A possible mechanism of Cry7Ab4 in delaying the pupation of P. xylostella larvae was proposed.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo
19.
Nature ; 609(7927): 582-589, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071157

RESUMO

Increased levels of proteases, such as trypsin, in the distal intestine have been implicated in intestinal pathological conditions1-3. However, the players and mechanisms that underlie protease regulation in the intestinal lumen have remained unclear. Here we show that Paraprevotella strains isolated from the faecal microbiome of healthy human donors are potent trypsin-degrading commensals. Mechanistically, Paraprevotella recruit trypsin to the bacterial surface through type IX secretion system-dependent polysaccharide-anchoring proteins to promote trypsin autolysis. Paraprevotella colonization protects IgA from trypsin degradation and enhances the effectiveness of oral vaccines against Citrobacter rodentium. Moreover, Paraprevotella colonization inhibits lethal infection with murine hepatitis virus-2, a mouse coronavirus that is dependent on trypsin and trypsin-like proteases for entry into host cells4,5. Consistently, carriage of putative genes involved in trypsin degradation in the gut microbiome was associated with reduced severity of diarrhoea in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, trypsin-degrading commensal colonization may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and protection from pathogen infection.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Grosso , Simbiose , Tripsina , Administração Oral , Animais , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , Citrobacter rodentium/imunologia , Diarreia/complicações , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Camundongos , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/patogenicidade , Proteólise , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Tripsina/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus
20.
J Biotechnol ; 359: 35-47, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126805

RESUMO

The trypsin being universal enzyme forming family of proteases catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins into amino acids and regenerates the serine hydroxyl an active site. The trypsin enzyme from D. saccharalis, uses sericin as its preferred substrate. Presence of catalytic triad (serine, aspartic acid and histidine) at the substrate binding site of this enzyme is very important for the catalytic activity. In the current study, the interacting mechanism between the substrate sericin protein and enzyme trypsin protein were explored by integrating various computational approaches including physico-chemical properties, biophysical properties, dynamics, gene ontology, molecular docking, protein - protein interactions, binding free energy calculation and structural motifs were studied. The evolutionary study performed by MEGA X showed that trypsin protein sequence (ALE15212.1) is closely related to cocoonase protein sequence (ADG26770.1) from Antheraea pernyi. 3-D models of trypsin and sericin proteins were predicted using I-TASSER and further validated by PROCHECK, and ProSAweb softwares. The predicted trypsin structure model was assigned E.C. no. 3.4.21.4 which refers hydrolytic mechanism. Gene Ontology predicted by QuickGO showed that trypsin has serine hydrolase activity (GO: 00017171), and part of proteolysis (GO: 0006508) as well as protein metabolic process (GO:0019538) actvity. Molecular docking studies between trypsin and sericin proteins were conducted by the HADDOCK 2.4 having best docked protein complex with Z-score - 1.9. 2D and 3D protein-protein interaction was performed with LIGPLOT+ and HAWKDOCK, PDBsum, respectively. The amino acid residues interacting across proteins interface are sericin_chain A representing "Ser133, Tyr214, Thr188, Thr243, Ser225, Ser151, Ser156, His294, Arg293, Gly296″ and trypsin_chain B "Lys120, Tyr246, Asn119, Glu239, Ser62, Tyr194, Ile197, Ser171, Tyr169, Gly170″. Based on our results trypsin shows similarity with cocoonase and presumably trypsin can be used as an alternative source in cocoon degumming.


Assuntos
Sericinas , Seda , Seda/metabolismo , Sericinas/química , Sericinas/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ácido Aspártico , Histidina , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Serina
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