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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279814, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607985

RESUMO

Although apparently paradoxical, sad music has been effective in coping with sad life experiences. The underpinning brain neural correlates of this are not well explored. We performed Electroencephalography (EEG) source-level analysis for the brain during a sad autobiographical recall (SAR) and upon exposure to sad music. We specifically investigated the Cingulate cortex complex and Parahippocampus (PHC) regions, areas prominently involved in emotion and memory processing. Results show enhanced alpha band lag phase-synchronization in the brain during sad music listening, especially within and between the Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and (PHC) compared to SAR. This enhancement was lateralized for alpha1 and alpha2 bands in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. We also observed a significant increase in alpha2 brain current source density (CSD) during sad music listening compared to SAR and baseline resting state in the region of interest (ROI). Brain during SAR condition had enhanced right hemisphere lateralized functional connectivity and CSD in gamma band compared to sad music listening and baseline resting state. Our findings show that the brain during the SAR state had enhanced gamma-band activity, signifying increased content binding capacity. At the same time, the brain is associated with an enhanced alpha band activity while sad music listening, signifying increased content-specific information processing. Thus, the results suggest that the brain's neural correlates during sad music listening are distinct from the SAR state as well as the baseline resting state and facilitate enhanced content-specific information processing potentially through three-channel neural pathways-(1) by enhancing the network connectivity in the region of interest (ROI), (2) by enhancing local cortical integration of areas in ROI, and (3) by enhancing sustained attention. We argue that enhanced content-specific information processing possibly supports the positive experience during sad music listening post a sad experience in a healthy population. Finally, we propose that sadness has two different characteristics under SAR state and sad music listening.


Assuntos
Música , Tristeza , Música/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Mapeamento Encefálico
2.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 97-109, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906011

RESUMO

Emotional expressions evoke predictable responses from observers; displays of sadness are commonly met with sympathy and help from others. Accordingly, people may be motivated to feign emotions to elicit a desired response. In the absence of suspicion, we predicted that emotional and behavioral responses to genuine (vs. deceptive) expressers would be guided by empirically valid cues of sadness authenticity. Consistent with this hypothesis, untrained observers (total N = 1,300) reported less sympathy and offered less help to deceptive (vs. genuine) expressers of sadness. This effect was replicated using both posed, low-stakes, laboratory-created stimuli, and spontaneous, real, high-stakes emotional appeals to the public. Furthermore, lens models suggest that sympathy reactions were guided by difficult-to-fake facial actions associated with sadness. Results suggest that naive observers use empirically valid cues to deception to coordinate social interactions, providing novel evidence that people are sensitive to subtle cues to deception.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Tristeza , Humanos , Emoções/fisiologia , Decepção , Sinais (Psicologia)
3.
Assessment ; 30(1): 190-209, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565188

RESUMO

A subset of preschool-aged children meets criteria for impairing and persistent anxiety and depression. However, the overlap between normative emotional development and impairing symptoms complicates assessments of internalizing problems in early childhood. Given the benefits of early identification/prevention and avoiding overpathologizing typical development, empirical information is needed to norm expression of internalizing behaviors. In this 14-day online diary study, 609 primary caregivers of 3- to 5-year-old children reported the frequency of children's daily separation and social anxiety and depressive behaviors and impairment. Item response theory analyses quantified specific frequencies at which each behavior was psychometrically severe/rare. Patterns varied for each behavior; for example, distress when anticipating separation had to occur at least 10 times and sadness at least 35 times over 14 days to be considered severe. Most social anxiety behaviors had to occur approximately every other day to be considered severe. Parameters did not vary by child age or sex, and behaviors were significantly associated with impairment. These data provide empirical information for refining internalizing behavior assessment in preschool-aged children and can be used as benchmarks by child practitioners to assess the extent to which frequencies fall in the range of developmentally typical behavior versus those that may be more severe.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Emoções , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Tristeza , Comportamento Social , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278483, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36459504

RESUMO

Emotion reasoning, including labeling of facial expressions, is an important building block for a child's social development. This study investigated age biases in labeling facial expressions in children and adults, focusing on the influence of intensity and expression on age bias. Children (5 to 14 years old; N = 152) and adults (19 to 25 years old; N = 30) labeled happiness, disgust or sadness at five intensity levels (0%; 25%; 50%; 75%; and 100%) in facial images of children and adults. Sensitivity was computed for each of the expression-intensity combinations, separately for the child and adult faces. Results show that children and adults have an age bias at low levels of intensity (25%). In the case of sadness, children have an age bias for all intensities. Thus, the impact of the age of the face seems largest for expressions which might be most difficult to recognise. Moreover, both adults and children label most expressions best in adult rather than child faces, leading to an other-age bias in children and an own-age bias in adults. Overall, these findings reveal that both children and adults exhibit an age bias in labeling subtle facial expressions of emotions.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Tristeza , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Viés , Rotulagem de Produtos , Emoções
5.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454809

RESUMO

As social media has proliferated, a key aspect to making meaningful connections with people online has been revealing important parts of one's identity. In this work, we study changes that occur in people's language use after they share a specific piece of their identity: a depression diagnosis. To do so, we collect data from over five thousand users who have made such a statement, which we refer to as an identity claim. Prior to making a depression identity claim, the Reddit user's language displays evidence of increasingly higher rates of anxiety, sadness, and cognitive processing language compared to matched controls. After the identity claim, these language markers decrease and more closely match the controls. Similarly, first person singular pronoun usage decreases following the identity claim, which was previously previously found to be indicative of self-focus and associated with depression. By further considering how and to whom people express their identity, we find that the observed longitudinal changes are larger for those who do so in ways that are more correlated with seeking help (sharing in a post instead of a comment; sharing in a mental health support forum). This work suggests that there may be benefits to sharing one's depression diagnosis, especially in a semi-anonymous forum where others are likely to be empathetic.


Assuntos
Depressão , Emoções , Humanos , Tristeza , Ansiedade , Cognição
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429388

RESUMO

Social exclusion has led to increased negative emotions and aggressive behaviors, two outcomes that are correlated with each other. Thus, the down-regulation of negative emotions appears to play a crucial role in reducing the tendency for aggressive behavior. However, this assumption has not yet been tested. To this end, a total of 397 undergraduates reported their aggressive tendencies, state emotions and trait acceptance by completing corresponding questionnaires, and a recall paradigm was used to induce experiences of social exclusion. The results showed that in the context of social exclusion, (1) trait acceptance was negatively correlated with negative emotions and aggressive tendency but was positively correlated with positive emotions; (2) negative emotions, rather than positive emotions, were positively correlated with aggressive tendency; (3) increased trait acceptance buffered the experience of anger, which is, in turn, related to reduced aggressive tendency; (4) trait acceptance also downregulated the feeling of sadness, which is, however, related to increased aggression; (5) the mediator of sadness was smaller in effect size than that of anger. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotions are associated with aggression in the context of social exclusion, and the habitual use of an acceptance strategy was conductive to decreasing aggressive tendencies by decreasing anger.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ira , Ira/fisiologia , Agressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Isolamento Social , Tristeza
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276808, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302051

RESUMO

Being moved has received increased attention in emotion psychology as a social emotion that fosters bonds between individuals and within communities. This increased attention, however, has also sparked debates about whether the term "being moved" refers to a single distinct profile of emotion components or rather to a range of different emotion profiles. We addressed this question by investigating lay conceptions of the emotion components (i.e., elicitors, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, bodily symptoms, and consequences for thought/action) of "bewegt sein" (the German term for "being moved"). Participants (N = 106) provided written descriptions of both a moving personal experience and their conceptual prototype of "being moved," which were subjected to content analysis to obtain quantitative data for statistical analyses. Based on latent class analyses, we identified two classes for both the personal experiences (joyfully-moved and sadly-moved classes) and the being-moved prototype (basic-description and extended-description classes). Being joyfully moved occurred when social values and positive relationship experiences were salient. Being sadly moved was elicited by predominantly negative relationship experiences and negatively salient social values. For both classes, the most frequently reported consequences for thought/action were continued cognitive engagement, finding meaning, and increased valuation of and striving for connectedness/prosociality. Basic descriptions of the prototype included "being moved" by positive or negative events as instances of the same emotion, with participants in the extended-description class also reporting joy and sadness as associated emotions. Based on our findings and additional theoretical considerations, we propose that the term "being moved" designates an emotion with an overall positive valence that typically includes blends of positively and negatively valenced emotion components, in which especially the weight of the negative components varies. The emotion's unifying core is that it involves feeling the importance of individuals, social entities, and abstract social values as sources of meaning in one's life.


Assuntos
Emoções , Tristeza , Humanos , Atenção
8.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399128

RESUMO

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Assuntos
Idoso/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Pânico , Suicídio/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Tristeza/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Solidão/psicologia
9.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 705-724, set-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399329

RESUMO

Os cuidados paliativos englobam uma filosofia de cuidados que objetivam a promoção da qualidade de vida e alívio do sofrimento, tanto para o paciente fora de possibilidades de cura quanto aos seus familiares, de modo que possa integrar aspectos de ordem física, psíquica, social e espiritual. O presente artigo buscou, a partir do estudo de revisão bibliográfica, compreender o processo da morte e sua implicância psíquica na vida do paciente em cuidados paliativos para, posteriormente, elencar as possíveis contribuições do profissional de psicologia ao mesmo. Observou-se que a atuação do psicólogo nesse âmbito é de imensa importância, uma vez que o processo de adoecer e morrer permeiam a vida do ser humano, causando-lhe grande sofrimento. Percebeu-se também que as ações do psicólogo se dão no sentido de tornar a morte e seus impactos mais suportáveis, por meio da escuta, do acolhimento emocional, dentre outros aspectos importantes que se referem à sua natureza científica.


Palliative care encompasses a philosophy of care aimed at promoting quality of life and alleviating suffering, both for the patient with no chance of cure and for their family members, so that they can integrate physical, psychic, social and spiritual aspects. The present article sought, from the study of literature review, to understand the process of death and its psychic implications in the life of the patient in palliative care to, later, list the possible contributions of the psychology professional to it. It was observed that the role of the psychologist in this context is of immense importance, since the process of falling ill and dying permeates the life of human beings, causing them great suffering. It was also noticed that the psychologist's actions take place in the sense of making death and its impacts more bearable, through listening, emotional reception, among other important aspects that refer to its scientific nature.


Los cuidados paliativos engloban una filosofía de atención que tiene como objetivo promover la calidad de vida y el alivio del sufrimiento, tanto para el paciente fuera de las posibilidades de curación como para sus familiares, de modo que puede integrar aspectos de orden físico, psicológico, social y espiritual. El presente artículo buscó, a partir del estudio de revisión bibliográfica, comprender el proceso de la muerte y su implicación psíquica en la vida del paciente en cuidados paliativos para, posteriormente, enumerar las posibles aportaciones del profesional de la psicología al mismo. Se observó que la actuación del psicólogo en esta área es de inmensa importancia, ya que el proceso de enfermar y morir impregna la vida del ser humano, causándole un gran sufrimiento. También se dio cuenta de que las acciones del psicólogo se dan con el fin de hacer más llevadera la muerte y sus impactos, a través de la escucha, el apoyo emocional, entre otros aspectos importantes que se refieren a su carácter científico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Psicologia/educação , Pacientes Incuráveis , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Sintomas Psíquicos/análise , Revisão , Espiritualidade , Morte , Acolhimento , Aparência Física/fisiologia , Tristeza/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Hospitais/ética
11.
Memory ; 30(10): 1288-1301, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942919

RESUMO

Instructed retrieval of positive autobiographical memories typically improves mood for healthy individuals, but not always for depressed individuals. No mood improvement may occur when depressed individuals retrieve positive memories that are self-incongruent, or when they ruminate upon positive memory retrieval. Mindfulness is associated with lower self-incongruency and rumination. The present study examined whether recurrent depression predicted emotional experience upon involuntary and voluntary retrieval of positive memories, and whether recurrent depression and trait mindfulness were associated with emotional experience upon positive memory retrieval through state rumination and self-incongruency. Recurrently and never-depressed individuals completed measures of depression, trait mindfulness, and a diary for reporting on everyday positive memories. Recurrently depressed individuals reported diminished happiness upon retrieving involuntary and voluntary positive memories compared to never-depressed individuals; and greater sadness upon involuntary positive memory retrieval, independent of current depression. Recurrent depression was associated with diminished happiness upon involuntary memory retrieval and greater sadness upon involuntary and voluntary positive memory retrieval, through state brooding, self-incongruency, or both. Higher trait mindfulness was associated with lower sadness upon involuntary and voluntary positive memory retrieval through state brooding and reflection. These findings highlight potential mechanisms in the relationship between depression vulnerability and emotional processing of positive autobiographical memories.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Humanos , Tristeza , Felicidade , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções
12.
J Cogn Neurosci ; 34(10): 1928-1938, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900864

RESUMO

Here, we test three often proposed hypotheses about socioeconomic status (SES), affect, and the brain, for which evidence is mixed or lacking. The first hypothesis, that negative affect is more common at lower levels of SES, has ample evidence from studies of psychiatric symptoms but is tested for the first time here across multiple measures of negative emotions in healthy young adults. The second hypothesis is actually a set of hypotheses, that SES is associated with three structural and functional properties of the amygdala. Third, and most important for the affective neuroscience of SES, is the hypothesis that SES differences in the amygdala are responsible for the affective differences. Despite the intuitive appeal of this hypothesis, it has rarely been tested and has never been confirmed. Here, we review the literature for evidence on each of these hypotheses and find in a number of cases that the evidence is weak or nonexistant. We then subject each hypothesis to a new empirical test with a large sample of healthy young adults. We confirm that negative affect is more common at lower levels of SES and we find a positive relation between SES and amygdala volume. However, evidence is weak on the relation of SES to functional properties of amygdala. Finally, the tendency toward negative affect in lower SES individuals cannot be accounted for by the structural or functional characteristics of the amygdala measured here.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Tristeza , Ira , Medo , Humanos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain Res ; 1793: 148034, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908590

RESUMO

Being able to classify experienced emotions by identifying distinct neural responses has tremendous value in both fundamental research (e.g. positive psychology, emotion regulation theory) and in applied settings (clinical, healthcare, commercial). We aimed to decode the neural representation of the experience of two discrete emotions: sadness and disgust, devoid of differences in valence and arousal. In a passive viewing paradigm, we showed emotion evoking images from the International Affective Picture System to participants while recording their EEG. We then selected a subset of those images that were distinct in evoking either sadness or disgust (20 for each), yet were indistinguishable on normative valence and arousal. Event-related potential analysis of 69 participants showed differential responses in the N1 and EPN components and a support-vector machine classifier was able to accurately classify (58%) whole-brain EEG patterns of sadness and disgust experiences. These results support and expand on earlier findings that discrete emotions do have differential neural responses that are not caused by differences in valence or arousal.


Assuntos
Asco , Tristeza , Nível de Alerta , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Humanos
14.
Cogn Emot ; 36(6): 1196-1202, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666473

RESUMO

Infants use statistical information in their environment, as well as others' emotional communication, to understand the intentions of social partners. However, rarely do researchers consider these two sources of social information in tandem. This study assessed 2-year-olds' attributions of intentionality from non-random sampling events and subsequent discrete emotion reactions. Infants observed an experimenter remove five objects from either the non-random minority (18%) or random majority (82%) of a sample and express either joy, disgust, or sadness after each selection. Two-year-olds inferred the experimenter's intentionality by giving her the object that she had previously selected when she expressed joy or disgust after non-random sampling events, but not when she expressed sadness or sampled at random. These findings demonstrate that infants use both statistical regularities and discrete emotion communication to infer an agent's intentions. In particular, the present findings show that 2-year-olds infer that an agent can intentionally select a preferred or an undesired object from a sample as a function of the discrete emotion. Implications for the development of inferring intentionality from statistical sampling events and discrete emotion communication are discussed.


Assuntos
Asco , Emoções , Feminino , Lactente , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Tristeza , Percepção Social , Intenção
15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 35: 103072, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689975

RESUMO

The core brain regions responsible for basic human emotions are not yet fully understood. We investigated the key areas responsible for emotion recognition of facial expressions of happiness and sadness using data obtained from patients who underwent local brain resection. A total of 44 patients with right cerebral hemispheric brain tumors and 33 healthy volunteers were enrolled and subjected to a facial expression recognition test. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate the relationship between the accuracy of emotion recognition and the resected regions. Consequently, trade-off relationships were discovered: the posterior-prefrontal region was related to a low score of happiness recognition and a high score of sadness recognition (disorder-of-happiness group), whereas the medial orbitofrontal region was related to a low score of sadness recognition and a high score of happiness recognition (disorder-of-sadness group). The emotion recognition score in both the happiness and sadness disorder groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (p = 0.0009 and p = 0.021, respectively). Interestingly, the deficit in happiness recognition was temporary, whereas the deficit in sadness recognition persisted during the chronic phase. Using graph theoretical analysis, we identified structural connectivity between the posterior-prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal regions. When either of these regions was damaged, the tract volume connecting them was significantly reduced (p = 0.013). These results indicate that the posterior-prefrontal and medial orbitofrontal regions may be crucial for maintaining a balance between happiness and sadness recognition in humans. Investigating the clinical impact of certain area resections using lesion studies combined with connectivity analysis is a useful neuroimaging method for understanding neural networks.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Tristeza , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal
16.
Physiol Behav ; 254: 113869, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691588

RESUMO

Higher negative affectivity has an association with decreased executive function and cognitive control. Heart rate variability (HRV) serves as an index of cardiac vagal regulation differences in the autonomic nervous system for both cognition and emotion. The current study investigates this association using a classic as well as emotional antisaccade paradigm to study inhibitory control performance. Ninety participants completed affective questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Mood Scale), a 6-minute baseline electrocardiogram, and two different antisaccade tasks. After the baseline, subjects were presented with a video sequence with either neutral, sad, or emotionally arousing content. By subtracting the baseline from the video sequence, we computed HRV reactivity and tested whether the reactivity score could predict inhibitory control performance. We hypothesized that this would be the case in both the sadness and arousal group, but not in the neutral one. Furthermore, we awaited significant performance differences between experimental groups. Contrary to our assumption, inhibitory control performance did not differ between experimental groups. Moreover, there was no significant relation between affective measures and task performance. Nevertheless, cardiovascular reactivity in terms of HRV was predictive of error rates in both antisaccade tasks in the sadness group. We could find this effect neither in the neutral nor in the arousal group. In addition, BDI scores moderated the effect in the emotional task. Results indicate that emotional reactivity to a sad video stimulus as indexed by HRV as well as the interaction with current emotional state predict inhibitory control performance.


Assuntos
Emoções , Tristeza , Afeto/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Emoções/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(2): 149-160, 15 de junio 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1379630

RESUMO

Objective. To identify the knowledge of teachers about suicidal behavior in adolescents. Methods. Qualitative exploratory-descriptive study conducted in a state school in the municipality of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Twelve teachers participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews analyzed using Bardin's Content Analysis. Results. Three categories were built: "Warning signs of suicide", related to the signs identified by the professionals; "Risk factors for suicide", which indicate the reasons that may lead adolescents to present this type of behavior; and "Difficulties in dealing with the behaviors", referring to the behaviors adopted by adolescents and the difficulties of teachers before the theme. Conclusion. It was possible to identify that teachers recognize some signs of suicidal behavior, as well as some risk factors. Nonetheless, it is necessary to qualify them to approach the subject, since they feel insecure to act in more critical moments, thus generating mainly feelings of sadness, guilt and powerlessness.


Objetivo. Identificar el conocimiento de los profesores sobre el comportamiento suicida en adolescentes. Métodos. Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo y cualitativo realizado en una escuela pública del municipio de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Doce profesores participaron en el estudio. Los datos se recogieron mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, que fueron analizadas utilizando el Análisis de Contenido de Bardin. Resultados. Se construyeron tres categorías: "Señales de alerta de suicidio", relacionada con las señales identificadas por los profesionales; "Factores de riesgo de suicidio", que indican las razones que pueden llevar a los adolescentes a presentar este tipo de comportamiento; y "Dificultades para lidiar con los comportamientos", relativa a las conductas adoptadas por los adolescentes y a las dificultades de los profesionales frente al tema. Conclusión. Se pudo identificar que los profesores reconocen algunas señales de comportamiento suicida, así como algunos factores de riesgo. Sin embargo, es necesario cualificarlas para el abordaje del problema, pues se sienten inseguros para actuar en los momentos más críticos, generando principalmente sentimientos de tristeza, culpa e impotencia.


Objetivo. Identificar o conhecimento de professores sobre comportamento suicida em adolescentes. Métodos. Estudo exploratório-descritivo, qualitativo, realizado em uma escola estadual no município de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Participaram no estudo 12 professores. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas semiestruturadas analisadas por meio da Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados. Foram construídas três categorias: "Sinais de alerta para o suicídio", relacionada com os sinais identificados pelos profissionais; "Fatores de risco para o suicídio", que apontam os motivos que podem levar os adolescentes a apresentarem este tipo de comportamento; e, "Dificuldades em lidar com os comportamentos" referentes às condutas adotadas pelos adolescentes e as dificuldades dos professores frente ao tema. Conclusão. Foi possível identificar que os professores reconhecem alguns sinais de comportamento suicida assim como alguns fatores de risco. Porém, é preciso qualificá-los para a abordagem ao assunto, visto que se sentem inseguros para agir em momentos mais críticos, gerando principalmente sentimentos de tristeza, culpa e impotência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Suicídio , Comportamento , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Adolescente , Educação , Conhecimento , Tristeza , Culpa
18.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 27(5): 342-355, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous weekly sampling studies found that persistent sad moods are associated with disability in bipolar illness. However, those data were collected retrospectively. We examined the momentary quality of activities (productive, unproductive, and passive recreation) in an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study and related sadness at each survey to quality of momentary activities and overall everyday functioning. METHODS: Participants with bipolar illness (N = 91) were sampled three times per day for 30 days. Each survey queried participants as to where they were, with whom, what they were doing, and their mood state. Activities were characterised according to predetermined criteria and related to momentary sadness. Observer ratings of everyday functioning were related to daily reports of sadness and activities. RESULTS: Sadness was associated with the quality of activities. Momentary reports of unproductive activities were associated with the most sadness (p < .001), followed by passive recreation, and productive activities. Momentary sadness and momentary unproductive activities correlated with observer ratings of competence in work, everyday activities, and social outcomes (p < .001). Using both predictors led to the best model. CONCLUSIONS: This study on the course of sad moods in people with bipolar illness to EMA found that momentary sadness correlatesdwith the quality of concurrent activities and that both sadness and the quality of everyday activities predicted observer ratings of everyday functioning. Although we cannot determine the causal direction, these findings support the hypothesis that momentary sadness leads to reductions in productive activities and impairments in everyday functioning.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tristeza , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Qual Health Res ; 32(7): 1185-1196, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583299

RESUMO

Depression has been the subject of increased awareness and concern in Australia, but there has been little research into how depression is constructed on mental health websites, which have become a major resource for mental health information among the general public. In this study, critical discursive psychology was employed to analyse the informational content of eight major Australian mental health websites concerning depression. Four interpretative repertoires were identified - a biomedical, a self-optimization, a normal-natural and a societal-structural repertoire. The biomedical and self-optimization repertoires were the most prevalent, constructing depression as an illness within an individual occurring as a result of a biological or psychological deficit. Whilst previous studies have identified the predominance of a biomedical repertoire of depression on official websites, this study highlights the growing prominence of a self-optimization repertoire alongside the biomedical. Whilst it appeared that the aim of the websites was to challenge stigma and encourage help-seeking, it is argued that this way of understanding depression may have counter-productive effects in that the problem is located within the individual rather than with society, and individuals may be positioned as responsible for managing their own mental health, under the guidance of experts. The implications of understanding depression in this way, and not in alternative ways, are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Tristeza , Austrália , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social
20.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105451, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623311

RESUMO

Individuals exhibit variability in the degree of correspondence between autonomic and subjective indicators of emotional experience. The current study examined whether convergence between autonomic arousal and negative emotions during emotion-inducing story vignettes is associated with internalizing symptoms in school-aged children. A diverse sample of 97 children aged 8 to 12 years participated in this study in which they reported on their anxiety and depression. Children's electrodermal activity was assessed while they read vignettes depicting children experiencing sadness and fear. Participants also reported on their emotional reaction to the vignettes. Children's anxiety and electrodermal activity to fear vignettes were associated only at high levels, but not mean or low levels, of self-reported negative emotions to fear vignettes. These findings suggest that hyperawareness, in which self-reported negative emotionality is high when physiological reactivity is also high, is associated with greater risk for anxiety, but not depression, during middle childhood.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Nível de Alerta , Ansiedade/psicologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Humanos , Tristeza
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