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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111721, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790881

RESUMO

The present study clearly demonstrated the significant antifungal activity of chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (Chl-CHS) after activation with visible light. This phenomenon afterwards was successfully applied for better microbial control of highly popular food- germinated wheat sprouts. Obtained results indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS complex (0.001% Chl-0.1% CHS and 0.005% Chl-0.5% CHS, 405 nm, 76 J/cm2) considerably inhibited (83%) the growth of dominating sprout pathogenic microfungus Fusarium graminearum in vitro. Moreover, obvious delay of fungus growth by 4 days after treatment was observed. The efficiency of antifungal treatment strongly depended on used Chl-CHS complex concentration. The coating of wheat grains with Chl-CHS (0.005% Chl-0.5% CHS) and illumination with visible light (405 nm; 76 J/cm2) inactivated the molds on the surface of grains by 79%. It is important to note, that no grain surface microstructure damage observed by SEM imaging have been found. No inhibiting effects on seed germination process, viability, average weight of grains, length of seedlings and content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the seedlings or eventually visual quality after Chl-CHS coating of grains and illumination with visible light have been observed. In conclusion, chlorophyllin-chitosan coating in the concert with visible light has great potential as cost-effective, environmentally friendly and sustainable strategy for better microbial control of highly contaminated sprouts.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Quitosana/química , Clorofilídios/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Triticum/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos da radiação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 503-511, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869217

RESUMO

Due to nonuniform maturation, some plants may not be at the recommended stage of maturity when preharvest glyphosate is applied. The objective of this study was to determine how preharvest glyphosate timing affects wheat starch physicochemical properties. Two wheat cultivars were grown in three locations, and glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage (early application) and the ripe stage (commercial standard). Upon harvest, starch chemical characteristics were studied. The proportion of B-type starch granules was lower in treated samples, although the starch molecular weight was not affected. Rapidly digestible starch content was highest when glyphosate was applied at the ripe stage, and lowest in the control, and vice versa for slowly digestible starch. Additionally, flour pasting viscosity was significantly higher in samples treated at the soft dough stage. Overall, the effects on wheat starch physicochemical characteristics were more pronounced when glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage of maturity.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Amido/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Químicos , Glicina/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134943, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731203

RESUMO

Biochar amendment has been recommended as a potential strategy to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions for wheat production, but its mechanism and effective duration are not well understood. The 1-octyne and 2-pheny l-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) in combination with potassium chlorate were used to evaluate the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) to potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and N2O and NO production as affected by biochar. Acidic and alkaline soils were collected during wheat-growing season, and four treatments were installed in each soil type: CK, urea alone; BE, biochar-enriched soil for 2-6 years; FB, fresh biochar added to CK; and AB, aged biochar added to CK. The results showed that octyne and PTIO efficiently assessed AOB and AOA activities in soil incubation. The AOB-driven PAO in acidic soil was largely enhanced by increased soil pH in BE and FB treatments, whereas AOA-driven PAO was not. And the contribution of AOB to PAO exceeded 80% in alkaline soil. The N2O and NO production were positively correlated with PAO in both soils. BE treatment decreased the direct N2O and NO production in alkaline soil, while both BE and FB treatments decreased the N2O and NO yields in acidic soil, indicating that biochar mitigated soil N2O and NO emissions for wheat production. The lack of differences between AB and CK treatments indicated that aged biochar lost its initial effects on PAO, while the biochar-enriched soil amended with biochar years earlier still functioned similarly as fresh biochar.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Vegetal/química , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Amônia , Archaea , Betaproteobacteria , Fertilizantes , Óxido Nitroso , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia do Solo , Ureia
4.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124931, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561161

RESUMO

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used in many scientific fields including plant sciences due to their unique physical and chemical properties. However, little is known about the toxic effects of CNTs combined with cadmium (Cd) on wheat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SW) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW) on the phytotoxicity of Cd in wheat. A hydroponic culture was carried out to study wheat seedling growth in six treatments, namely Cd only (Cd); MW only (MW); SW only (SW); SW combined with Cd (SWCd); MW combined with Cd (MWCd); and a control (neither Cd nor carbon nanotubes). Compared with the Cd, SW/MW alone, CNTsCd treatments induced a reduction in total root length, root surface area, average root diameter, number of root hairs, and the dry weight of shoots and roots, which indicated that wheat growth and development was significantly inhibited. In addition, an obvious decrease in tubulins in the roots was observed. However, SW/MWCd induced a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase and cyochrome P450 in the shoots and roots, which indicated that the defense ability of wheat seedlings had improved, thus alleviating Cd stress. Moreover, Cd content increased significantly in shoot and root tissues with an increase in SW/MW content, compared to the Cd treatment. According to the transmission electron microscopy, CNTs alone destroyed the cell structure, and this devastating phenomenon was deepened after combining Cd and CNTs due to CNTs carrying Cd to attack cells. Compared with MW, SW had a greater effect on wheat seedlings. To conclude, CNTs increase the toxicity of Cd to wheat seedlings. These results are significant as they evaluate indirect phytotoxicity of CNTs for adsorbing heavy metals and plant growth regulators. In view of the widespread exposure of agricultural crops to Cd, the nanotoxicity of CNTs should be seriously considered in relation to food security in the future.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124681, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524618

RESUMO

Excess amount of cadmium (Cd) in arable soils and shortage of good quality water are the major abiotic factors affecting the crop yield which needs immediate solution to feed the increasing population worldwide. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in various industries including agriculture which is due to the unique properties of NPs. Among NPs, iron (Fe) NPs might be used to alleviate the abiotic stresses in crops but limited informations are available in the literature about the role of Fe-NPs in crops under metal stress. The present study was designed to highlight the efficiency of Fe-NPs on Cd accumulation in Cd and drought-stressed wheat. Wheat plants were grown in Cd-contaminated soil after the supply of different levels of Fe-NPs and two water regimes were introduced in the soil in latter growth stages of the plants. Cadmium and drought stress negatively affected the wheat photosynthesis, yield and caused oxidative stress in leaves with excess accumulation of Cd in grains and other plant tissues. The NPs improved the photosynthesis, yield, Fe concentrations and diminished the Cd concentrations in tissues. The NPs alleviated the oxidative stress in leaves and the efficiency depends on the NPs concentrations applied in the soil. The results obtained indicated that Fe-NPs may be employed aiming to get wheat grains with excess Fe and decreased Cd contents. However, field investigations with various sizes, shapes and levels of NPs are needed before final recommendations to the farmers.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Secas , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo/química
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 803-810, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New evidence has shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can contribute to the aluminum (Al3+ ) tolerance of host plants growing in acidic soils with phytotoxic levels of Al3+ . The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AM fungi isolated from naturally occurring Al3+ acidic soils in conferring host tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in three wheat cultivars differing in Al3+ sensitivity. The experiment was conducted in a soilless substrate (vermiculite/perlite, 2:1 v/v) using two Al3+ -tolerant wheat genotypes and one Al3+ -sensitive wheat genotype. The wheat was colonized with a consortium of AM fungi isolated from an Andisol, with or without Al3+ at a concentration of 200 µmol L-1 . RESULTS: The response of wheat to Al3+ in the medium was dependent on both the plant genotype and AM colonization. The benefits of the AM fungi to the wheat cultivars included an increased P concentration and relatively low Al3+ accumulation in the plants. This was achieved through two mechanisms. First, the metal-chelating capacity of the AM fungi was clear in two of the cultivars ('Tukan' and 'Porfiado'), in which the enhanced extraradical mycelium development was able to retain Al3+ in the glomalin and hyphae. Second, the increased AM-induced acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of the other cultivar ('Atlas 66') increased host nutrition possibly by hyphae-mediated nutrient uptake and glomalin-related soil protein. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the role of AM fungi in cultivar-specific Al3+ detoxification can be achieved by increased extraradical mycelial filters and enhanced bioavailability of P in the host rhizosphere. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alumínio/metabolismo , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Alumínio/análise , Alumínio/toxicidade , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/metabolismo , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12709-12719, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697495

RESUMO

The major components of wheat storage proteins are gliadins and glutenins, and as they contribute differently to baking quality, a balanced mixture of these components is essential. The application of foliar nitrogen (N) at anthesis is a common practice to improve protein concentration and composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a foliar N application at anthesis on storage protein gene expression during grain development and on the distribution of protein concentration and protein body size within the grain. In this experiment, an additional N application at anthesis stimulated the expression of genes of the majority of storage proteins when the N supply was low. Furthermore, it led to higher protein concentrations in the subaleurone layers, while in the center of the lobes, the protein concentrations were decreased. These changes will affect the protein recovery in white flours, as proportionally more protein might be lost during milling processes.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Farinha/análise , Proteínas de Grãos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13509-13517, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725280

RESUMO

In this study, novel water-soluble quaternary ammonium salts of iminofullerenes (IFQA) were synthesized by nitrene chemistry in combination with quaternization and identified as [C60(NCH2CH2NH3+·CF3COO-)4·10H2O]n by various spectroscopies. Maize and Arabidopsis seeds were used to test the bioactivity of IFQA in seed germination. Compared with the control, maize seed exposure to 50 mg/L IFQA (normal: 73.1% vs 58.7%; drought: 66.7% vs 50.0% at the second day) and Arabidopsis seed exposure to 20 mg/L IFQA (normal: 77.5% vs 58.8%; drought: 63.3% vs 36.7% at the second day) had higher germination rates and quicker germination. The results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectroscopy showed that the abundance of 21 proteins in embryo proteome of maize seeds was significantly changed (>1.5 fold). The downregulated six storage proteins and upregulated four proteins induced by IFQA for energy production and sugar metabolism indicated a faster metabolic activity of maize seed germination. The upregulated eight stress-related proteins and antioxidant enzymes suggested that the role of IFQA was to activate the metabolic processes in seed germination and also increase seed stress response. The results provide important information to understand the mechanism of seed germination enhancement by carbon nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fulerenos/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio/química , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fulerenos/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/síntese química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1275-1285, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726557

RESUMO

More than three-quarters of the world's total cultivated land is under rainfed farming, producing almost 70% of total food. Most food production comes from developing and least favored nations. Pakistan, a developing country with an agro-based economy, is facing severe threats from climate change. Rainfed agriculture, especially wheat farming, is highly susceptible due to its heavy dependency on precipitation, one of the most important climatic parameters. Wheat is the main food crop, as well as a major source of calorific intake, for millions of people in Pakistan. This study aims to quantify the impacts of climate variability on mean yield levels and yield variability of wheat crop in the rainfed zone of Pakistan. Multistage random sampling technique is used for primary data collection from 400 rainfed wheat farmers during the 2016-17 crop season. The study uses primary data on crop input-output, management, socioeconomic, institutional, and historical climatic data (1980-2017). The data are analyzed employing the Just and Pope (J-P) stochastic production function approach with linear and non-linear functional forms. The results reveal that temperature rise negatively affects observed wheat mean yields, while cumulative precipitation positively affected it. Further, input market access, seed rate, and cumulative precipitation also cause variability in yield levels, leading to yield instability. Further, farm elevation influences wheat mean yield positively while input market access influences it negatively. The findings of the study have important implications for climate resilient wheat farming. Timely and tailor-made adaptations need to be undertaken in the rainfed wheat farming systems of Pakistan. Creating awareness among farmers about the optimal use of agronomic inputs under changing climatic conditions could be an effective adaptation strategy that improves yields and copes with yield instability.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Paquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778451

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and production efficiency of forage-grain dual-purpose wheat in two arrangements and four agroforestry systems (Intercrop-I and Intercrop-II), as well as to evaluate crop management for the wheat crops in two planting seasons (Crop Season I-2014 and Crop Season II-2015. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design, factorial scheme 7x2x2, with seven cultivation systems Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Intercrop-II and Intercrop-I; Peltophorum dubium Intercrop-II and Intercrop-I; P. rigida Intercrop-I; S. parahyba Intercrop-I; a wheat monoculture with no tree species present; and two harvest management techniques (with and without harvesting of the forage species). Agroforestry systems generated shading for wheat plants, with a higher phyllochron and lower values of leaf area index of those individuals kept under trees with higher crown shading (non-deciduous trees) due to the lower transmissivity of solar radiation. The systems composed with Schizolobium parahyba in Intercrop-I and Parapiptadenia rigida in Intercrop-I provide a minor phyllochron to the wheat, resulting in a higher leaf area index and dry matter yield. Thus, the cultivation of tree species and dual-skilled agricultural crops, such as wheat, provides promising alternatives for the future use of land in tropical countries.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34499-34509, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646419

RESUMO

The effective water management in the North China Plain (NCP) needs a tool to predict winter wheat production due to water quality. A large quantity of brackish water is stored underground in this region, and whether this water can be used properly in agriculture is becoming a crucial issue that is about to be resolved. The SALTMED model is a generic modeling tool for efficient irrigation management strategies, especially for cyclic use of saline and fresh water as well as different water qualities, and it still needs further investigation for alternate irrigation using saline and fresh water at different growth stages of winter wheat. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the performance of SALTMED model and simulate the production of winter wheat grown under different irrigation strategies. Irrigation strategies comprised rain-fed cultivation (NI), fresh and saline water irrigation (FS), saline and fresh water irrigation (SF), saline water irrigation (SS), and fresh water irrigation (FF). Three-year observed data were used for the validations of SALTMED model. The values of evaluation indices of relative error, RMSE, NRMSE, index of agreement (D-index), and R2 between simulated and observed grain yield were 6.8%, 0.8, 10.7, 0.9, and 0.9, respectively. The model results supported and matched the observed data and indicated similar differences among the irrigated and rain-fed treatments. It is concluded that the SALTMED model is able to predict grain yield of winter wheat and its productivity under the alternate irrigation using saline and fresh water and their interaction in the climate condition of the NCP.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Triticum/metabolismo , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Biomassa , China , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água Doce , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água
12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008223, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626626

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi rapidly evolve in response to environmental selection pressures in part due to their genomic plasticity. Parastagonospora nodorum, a fungal pathogen of wheat and causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch, responds to selection pressure exerted by its host, influencing the gain, loss, or functional diversification of virulence determinants, known as effector genes. Whole genome resequencing of 197 P. nodorum isolates collected from spring, durum, and winter wheat production regions of the United States enabled the examination of effector diversity and genomic regions under selection specific to geographically discrete populations. 1,026,859 SNPs/InDels were used to identify novel loci, as well as SnToxA and SnTox3 as factors in disease. Genes displaying presence/absence variation, predicted effector genes, and genes localized on an accessory chromosome had significantly higher pN/pS ratios, indicating a higher rate of sequence evolution. Population structure analyses indicated two P. nodorum populations corresponding to the Upper Midwest (Population 1) and Southern/Eastern United States (Population 2). Prevalence of SnToxA varied greatly between the two populations which correlated with presence of the host sensitivity gene Tsn1 in the most prevalent cultivars in the corresponding regions. Additionally, 12 and 5 candidate effector genes were observed to be under diversifying selection among isolates from Population 1 and 2, respectively, but under purifying selection or neutrally evolving in the opposite population. Selective sweep analysis revealed 10 and 19 regions that had recently undergone positive selection in Population 1 and 2, respectively, involving 92 genes in total. When comparing genes with and without presence/absence variation, those genes exhibiting this variation were significantly closer to transposable elements. Taken together, these results indicate that P. nodorum is rapidly adapting to distinct selection pressures unique to spring and winter wheat production regions by rapid adaptive evolution and various routes of genomic diversification, potentially facilitated through transposable element activity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Fungos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Virulência/genética
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109789, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629906

RESUMO

Dye azulene and heavy metal chromium are two different types of persistent toxic compounds present in textile effluent. These compounds contaminate the soil and harm plant productivity during unchecked disposal of textile effluent to the farm soil. Environmental and safety concerns associated with crops, soil, and human health encourage the exploration of biological tools to control the issue. We hereby propose the application of biosurfactant (lipopeptide) to reduce the toxic effects of azulene and chromium in plants. Results of the study indicated that the augmentation of biosurfactant with azulene and chromium promoted seed germination, plant biomass, specific leaf weight (SLW), chlorophyll content, protein content, soluble sugar and ascorbic acid concentration in cultivars of wheat and chilli. Decreasing the level of proline under biosurfactant augmentation further confirms the reduction of oxidative stress caused by azulene and chromium amendment. The results indicated that lipopeptide biosurfactant could be an effective biological tool to reduce the toxic effect of persistent substances in soil, thus maintaining soil health and sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Azulenos/toxicidade , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/toxicidade , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 860-864, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605159

RESUMO

In the present study, a pot-culture experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of mercapto-functionalized nanosilica (MPTS/nano-silica) on Cd stabilization and uptake by wheat seedling. Four different dosages of MPTS/nano-silica were applied: 0%, 0.3%, 0.6% and 1% (w/w), and the changes of DTPA-extractable Cd in soil, soil properties, wheat biomass, and uptake of Cd to wheat tissues (shoots and roots) were measured throughout the experiment. The results showed that the application of MPTS/nano-silica (at dose of 1%) reduced the DTPA-extractable Cd from 4.21 to 1.45 mg/kg in the soil. Whereas the addition of MPTS/nano-silica hardly changed soil properties and slightly decreased the biomass of wheat seedling. In addition, Cd concentration in wheat tissues decreased from 6.388 to 2.625 mg/kg for shoot, and from 18.622 to 6.368 mg/kg for root. These results indicated that MPTS/nano-silica is an ideal candidate for remediation of Cd contaminated agricultural soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Biomassa , Plântula/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109635, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520954

RESUMO

Biochar is a stable carbonaceous by-product of pyrolysis and can be used for toxic metals (TMs) retention in polluted soil. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was grown in three polluted soils collected from Chenzhou (CZ), Tongguan (TG) and Fengxian (FX), China. Wood biochar (WBC) was applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% to each pot filled with 2 kg polluted soil. The results showed that WBC was efficient to alter soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). The changes in soil pH and EC had a direct relationship with the immobilization and phytostabilization of TMs in the three soils. The bioavailable TMs (Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu) were reduced in the soil after WBC amendments due to ion exchange, precipitates of metal-carbonates and metal-phosphates, and chemisorption on WBC surface. The reduction in the bioavailable TMs content also resulted in the diminution in TMs shoot uptake in wheat. Similarly, the TMs uptake in wheat root were also reduced as a result of WBC application. The reduction in bioavailable TMs and the release of essential nutrients and base cations from the WBC also increased the wheat shoot and root dry biomasses production. The application of WBC in polluted soil also improved soil health and the urease and ß-glucosidase enzymes were also enhanced. The results concluded that WBC was efficient to reduce the bioavailability of TMs and shoot and root uptake, improved wheat dry biomasses production and soil enzymatic activities in industrial and smelter/mines polluted soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , China , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Urease/análise , beta-Glucosidase/análise
16.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(12): 3375-3398, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555887

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study demonstrates that an active breeding nursery with rotation can be used to identify marker-trait associations for biomass yield and quality parameters that are important for biorefinery purposes. Wheat straw is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production, but due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose, its efficient use in biorefineries is limited by its low digestibility and difficult conversion of structural carbohydrates into free sugars. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to search for significant SNP markers that could be used in a breeding programme to improve the value of wheat straw in a biorefinery setting. As part of a 3-year breeding programme (2013-2016), 190 winter wheat lines were phenotyped for traits that affect the yield and quality of the harvested biomass. These traits included straw yield, plant height, lodging at three growth stages and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) susceptibility. Release of glucose, xylose and arabinose was determined after hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the straw. The lines were genotyped using 15 K SNP markers and 5552 SNP markers could be used after filtering. Heritability for all traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.74. GWASs were conducted using CMLM, SUPER and FarmCPU algorithms, to analyse which algorithm could detect the highest number of marker-trait associations (MTAs). Comparable tendencies were obtained from CMLM and FarmCPU, but FarmCPU produced the most significant results. MTAs were obtained for lodging, harvest index, plant height, STB, glucose, xylose and arabinose at a significance level of p < 9.01 × 10-6. MTAs in chromosome 6A were observed for glucose, xylose and arabinose, and could be of importance for increasing sugar release for bioethanol production.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Biomassa , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109664, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536914

RESUMO

Effects of sewage sludge biochars (SSBCs) on the growth of wheat and the specific toxicological mechanisms were investigated from a metabolic perspective for better ecological risk assessment. We observed that conversion of sludge to biochar remarkably changed the properties, and also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the toxicity towards wheat. Wheat growth under exposure to SSBCs was influenced by the pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C), with root length being promoted by SSBCs prepared at higher temperatures (500 °C and 700 °C). In addition to the contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) detected in SSBCs, the morphological characteristics of biochars contributed substantially to the wheat growth. Metabolomics analysis revealed the remarkable differences in the metabolic profiles among the control (CK), SS300- and SS700-treated samples. The toxicological mechanisms involved were found to be associated with the regulation of metabolisms pathways of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates, among which protein metabolism was most affected by SSBCs. This work presents an innovative concept that SSBCs produced at a proper temperature may minimize the toxic effects on plant growth by regulating the metabolic fluxes in vivo.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Esgotos/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Pirólise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4144, 2019 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515485

RESUMO

Irrigation has been pivotal in wheat's rise as a major crop in India and is likely to be increasingly important as an adaptation response to climate change. Here we use historical data across 40 years to quantify the contribution of irrigation to wheat yield increases and the extent to which irrigation reduces sensitivity to heat. We estimate that national yields in the 2000s are 13% higher than they would have been without irrigation trends since 1970. Moreover, irrigated wheat exhibits roughly one-quarter of the heat sensitivity estimated for fully rainfed conditions. However, yield gains from irrigation expansion have slowed in recent years and negative impacts of warming have continued to accrue despite lower heat sensitivity from the widespread expansion of irrigation. We conclude that as constraints on expanding irrigation become more binding, furthering yield gains in the face of additional warming is likely to present an increasingly difficult challenge.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Temperatura Alta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Índia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(12): 1512-1519, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511964

RESUMO

Bacillus asahii strain OM18, a bacterium in relation to soil fertility, was isolated from alkaline soils under long-term organic manure application in the North China Plain. B. asahii species play a pivotal role in the promotion of both crop yield and soil fertility via accelerating carbon and phosphorus cycling. However, little is known about the characteristics of B. asahii and its underlying molecular mechanism involved in soil nutrient cycling as well as its potential in promoting crop growth. To this end, we report the characteristics and complete genome analysis of strain OM18, which is relevant to promoting plant growth in phosphorus-deficient alkaline soils. Our results provide a glimpse into the metabolic function of B. asahii OM18.


Assuntos
Bacillus/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Esterco/análise , Solo/química , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Carbono/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1530-1539, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548720

RESUMO

Bread wheat improvement using genomic tools is essential for accelerating trait genetic gains. Here we report the genomic predictabilities of 35 key traits and demonstrate the potential of genomic selection for wheat end-use quality. We also performed a large genome-wide association study that identified several significant marker-trait associations for 50 traits evaluated in South Asia, Africa and the Americas. Furthermore, we built a reference wheat genotype-phenotype map, explored allele frequency dynamics over time and fingerprinted 44,624 wheat lines for trait-associated markers, generating over 7.6 million data points, which together will provide a valuable resource to the wheat community for enhancing productivity and stress resilience.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/imunologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Seleção Genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética
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