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1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126905, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957298

RESUMO

With the development of modern technologies, the exploitation and application of rare earth metals (REMs) have increased parallelly. Consequently, more REMs are entering into the environment and therefore there is a pressing need to assess their potential environmental hazards. Here, a standard toxicity test with wheat (Triticum aestivum) was conducted to investigate the single and mixture toxicity of La and Ce in solutions with different levels of calcium and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and results were deciphered by different modeling approaches. Both La and Ce caused adverse effect to wheat, but the presence of Ca and NTA alleviated their toxicity. The obtained EC50 for [La] or [Ce] changed by more than 28-fold and by 4-fold, respectively, with the increase of Ca or NTA. The biotic ligand model (BLM) explained approximately 93% variation of single La or Ce toxicity. The binding constants obtained were 4.14, 6.67, and 6.59 for logKCaBL, logKLaBL, and logKCeBL respectively. The electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) was proved as effective as the BLM, with R2 = 0.93 for La and R2 = 0.92 for Ce. For La-Ce mixtures, parameters from single toxicity approaches were applied successfully to predict the mixture toxicity with concentration addition (CA) model based on the BLM or ETM theory (R2 = 0.92 and RMSE = 8.56; R2 = 0.90 and RMSE = 9.6, respectively). Thus, the results obtained in this study prove that both ETM and BLM theories are appropriate to predict single and mixture REMs toxicity, providing coherent and promising tools for the risk assessment of REM pollution.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Cério/toxicidade , Lantânio/toxicidade , Ácido Nitrilotriacético/química , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Modelos Teóricos , Soluções , Eletricidade Estática , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126918, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957302

RESUMO

The increasing application of various surfactants nowadays, may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and represent potential threat to terrestrial higher plants. In this article, the effect of 13 surfactants, with dodecyl alkyl chain and various aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium, thiazolium) and aliphatic (guanidinium, ammonium, thiosemicarbazidium) polar heads, on germination, development and growth of wheat and cucumber was investigated. The study aimed to prove how changes in lipophilicity of surfactants and their various structural modifications (existence of the aliphatic or aromatic polar group, the introduction of oxygen and sulfur) influence toxicity towards investigated plants. The calculated lipophilic parameter (AlogP) is shown to be a useful parameter for predicting potential toxicity of the compound. The strategy of using surfactants with aliphatic polar heads instead of aromatic prove to be a promising strategy in reducing harmful effect, as well as the introduction of polar groups in the structure of cation. From all investigated compounds, surfactants with imidazolium polar head displayed the most harmful effect towards wheat and cucumber. The cucumber seeds were more sensitive to the addition of surfactants comparing to wheat. All obtained experimental results were additionally investigated using computational methods, simulating the transport of surfactants through a lipid bilayer. The influence of cation tendency to fit in lipid bilayer structure was correlated with toxicity. For the first time, it is concluded that cation ability to mimic the structure of bilayer have less harmful effect on plant development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Compostos de Piridínio/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tensoativos/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4408, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879311

RESUMO

Understanding extreme weather impacts on staple crops such as wheat is vital for creating adaptation strategies and increasing food security, especially in dryland cropping systems across Southern Africa. This study analyses heat impacts on wheat using daily weather information and a dryland wheat dataset for 71 cultivars across 17 locations in South Africa from 1998 to 2014. We estimate temperature impacts on yields in extensive regression models, finding that extreme heat drives wheat yield losses, with an additional 24 h of exposure to temperatures above 30 °C associated with a 12.5% yield reduction. Results from a uniform warming scenario of +1 °C show an average wheat yield reduction of 8.5%, which increases to 18.4% and 28.5% under +2 and +3 °C scenarios. We also find evidence of differences in heat effects across cultivars, which suggests warming impacts may be reduced through the sharing of gene pools amongst wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Produtos Agrícolas , Triticum , Cruzamento/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , África do Sul , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785293

RESUMO

Hybrid performance during wheat breeding can be improved by analyzing genetic distance (GD) among wheat genotypes and determining its correlation with heterosis. This study evaluated the GD between 16 wheat genotypes by using 60 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to classify them according to their relationships and select those with greater genetic diversity, evaluate the correlation of the SSR marker distance with heterotic performance and specific combining ability (SCA) for heat stress tolerance, and identify traits that most influence grain yield (GY). Eight parental genotypes with greater genetic diversity and their 28 F1 hybrids generated using diallel crossing were evaluated for 12 measured traits in two seasons. The GD varied from 0.235 to 0.911 across the 16 genotypes. Cluster analysis based on the GD estimated using SSRs classified the genotypes into three major groups and six sub-groups, almost consistent with the results of principal coordinate analysis. The combined data indicated that five hybrids showed 20% greater yield than mid-parent or better-parent. Two hybrids (P2 × P4) and (P2 × P5), which showed the highest performance of days to heading (DH), grain filling duration (GFD), and GY, and had large genetic diversity among themselves (0.883 and 0.911, respectively), were deemed as promising heat-tolerant hybrids. They showed the best mid-parent heterosis and better-parent heterosis (BPH) for DH (-11.57 and -7.65%; -13.39 and -8.36%, respectively), GFD (12.74 and 12.17%; 12.09 and 10.59%, respectively), and GY (36.04 and 20.04%; 44.06 and 37.73%, respectively). Correlation between GD and each of BPH and SCA effects based on SSR markers was significantly positive for GFD, hundred kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, harvest index, GY, and grain filling rate and was significantly negative for DH. These correlations indicate that the performance of wheat hybrids with high GY and earliness could be predicted by determining the GD of the parents by using SSR markers. Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression and path coefficient) suggested that GFD, hundred kernel weight, days to maturity, and number of kernels per spike had the highest influence on GY.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão , Cruzamento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19816-19824, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732432

RESUMO

Data recently published in PNAS mapped out regional differences in the tightness of social norms across China [R. Y. J. Chua, K. G. Huang, M. Jin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 6720-6725 (2019)]. Norms were tighter in developed, urbanized areas and weaker in rural areas. We tested whether historical paddy rice farming has left a legacy on social norms in modern China. Premodern rice farming could plausibly create strong social norms because paddy rice relied on irrigation networks. Rice farmers coordinated their water use and kept track of each person's labor contributions. Rice villages also established strong norms of reciprocity to cope with labor demands that were twice as high as dryland crops like wheat. In line with this theory, China's historically rice-farming areas had tighter social norms than wheat-farming areas, even beyond differences in development and urbanization. Rice-wheat differences were just as large among people in 10 neighboring provinces (n = 3,835) along the rice-wheat border. These neighboring provinces differ sharply in rice and wheat, but little in latitude, temperature, and other potential confounding variables. Outside of China, rice farming predicted norm tightness in 32 countries around the world. Finally, people in rice-farming areas scored lower on innovative thinking, which tends to be lower in societies with tight norms. This natural test case within China might explain why East Asia-historically reliant on rice farming-has tighter social norms than the wheat-farming West.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/psicologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Agricultura , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urbanização , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110959, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800231

RESUMO

Long-term field experiments were performed to evaluate the phytotoxic properties of fungal metabolites in oil-contaminated soil and to assess the impact of contamination on the allelopathic activity of soil mycobiota. Two contrasting soils of Northwest Russia (sandy and loamy podzols) exposed to oil contamination underwent changes in abundance and allelopathic activities of soil fungi. Shifts within the microbial community caused by oil contamination affected not only oil-decomposition rates but also ecotoxicity of contaminated soil. There were significant differences in soil toxicity dynamics between sandy and loamy podzols. Four years after contamination, ecotoxicity of loamy podzol decreased, whereas sandy podzol remained highly toxic even nine years after contamination. The abundance and allelopathic activity of fungi is correlated with hydrocarbon degradation dynamics. The soil fungal community demonstrated high allelopathic activity which decreased over time in fertile loamy podzolic soil, whereas in poor sandy podzolic soil it remained high over the nine-year monitoring period. The results illustrate how oil contamination may influence allelopathic interactions in soil and demonstrate the advantage of using fungal metabolite toxicity test for testing of oil-contaminated soil samples.


Assuntos
Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecotoxicologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Petróleo/análise , Federação Russa , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111030, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750587

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of Red-S3B textile dye on soil microbial activities, uptake of the dye by wheat plants and growth on the dye-contaminated soil. Moreover, pressmud (PM) application was investigated for its alleviative effect on wheat yield and dye uptake by plants. Preliminarily, soil was spiked with a wide concentration range (0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) of Red-S3B dye and wheat was grown for 42-days. The dye did not suppress the activities of soil enzymes and growth of wheat seedlings at 100 mg kg-1; however, beyond this level the dye had a linear negative effect on these attributes. With 1000 mg dye kg-1 soil, wheat seedling biomass, viable microbial count, soil respiration, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and urease activities decreased by 84%, 33%, 45%, 69%, 24%, and 11%, respectively as compared to uncontaminated soil. Moreover, phosphorus and potassium content in wheat shoot decreased, while the nitrogen content increased in Red-S3B contaminated soil. In the subsequent pot experiment, PM application (12.5 g kg-1 soil) was assessed to alleviate the adverse effect of moderately toxic level of Red-S3B dye (500 mg kg-1 soil) on wheat growth and yield. Root and straw biomass, and grain yield of wheat decreased by 13, 19 and 12%, respectively in Red-S3B contaminated soil as compared to uncontaminated soil. However, PM application to dye-contaminated soil retrieved the dye-induced reduction in root and straw biomass and grain yield to become statistically (p ≤ 0.05) at par with control plants. The color of Red-S3B was clearly visible in spikes depicting that plants absorbed Red-S3B but probably could not metabolize it. Amending the dye-contaminated soil with PM decreased Red-S3B content in awns from 78 to 37 mg kg-1. Hence, it is concluded that Red-S3B textile dye is highly toxic to soil microbes and wheat plants at levels exceeding 100 mg kg-1 soil. Soil application of PM alleviates the adverse effect of Red-S3B dye on wheat growth through reducing its uptake by plants.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostagem , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 332: 127422, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623129

RESUMO

During wheat cultivation, glyphosate-based herbicides are recommended to be applied a week prior to harvest during the ripe stage of physiological maturity. However, some grains may not be at this physiological stage due to non-uniform maturation within the field. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide timing on the chemistry of wheat gluten proteins and shikimic acid accumulation. The results of the study indicate that pre-harvest glyphosate application does not impact the amino acid composition, protein secondary structure or gluten protein composition. However, pre-harvest glyphosate application decreased the molecular weight of SDS extractable and unextractable proteins, and significantly increased the amount of shikimic acid accumulation, especially when applied early. Thus, this study indicates that pre-harvest use of glyphosate-based herbicides can cause significant differences in wheat protein chemistry and shikimic acid levels, especially when applied earlier than recommended, emphasizing the importance of timely application.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Ácido Chiquímico/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008713, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658889

RESUMO

Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), which are defined as pathogenesis-related protein family 5 (PR5) members, are common plant proteins involved in defense responses and confer antifungal activity against many plant pathogens. Our earlier studies have reported that the TaTLP1 gene was isolated from wheat and proved to be involved in wheat defense in response to leaf rust attack. The present study aims to identify the interacting proteins of TaTLP1 and characterize the role of the interaction between wheat and Puccinia triticina (Pt). Pull-down experiments designed to isolate the molecular target of TaTLP1 in tobacco resulted in the identification of TaPR1, a pathogenesis-related protein of family 1, and the interaction between TaTLP1 and TaPR1 was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid experiments (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). In vitro, TaTLP1 and TaPR1 together increased antifungal activity against Pt. In vivo, the disease resistance phenotype, histological observations of fungal growth and host responses, and accumulation of H2O2 in TaTLP1-TaPR1 in co-silenced plants indicated that co-silencing significantly enhanced wheat susceptibility compared to single knockdown TaTLP1 or TaPR1 plants. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reduced in co-silenced plants compared to controls during Pt infection, which suggested that the TaTLP1-TaPR1 interaction positively modulates wheat resistance to Pt in an ROS-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the roles of two different PRs, TaTLP1 and TaPR1, in wheat resistance to leaf rust.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008812, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658893

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis, CONSTANS (CO) integrates light and circadian clock signals to promote flowering under long days (LD). In the grasses, a duplication generated two paralogs designated as CONSTANS1 (CO1) and CONSTANS2 (CO2). Here we show that in tetraploid wheat plants grown under LD, combined loss-of-function mutations in the A and B-genome homeologs of CO1 and CO2 (co1 co2) result in a small (3 d) but significant (P<0.0001) acceleration of heading time both in PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) sensitive (Ppd-A1b, functional ancestral allele) and insensitive (Ppd-A1a, functional dominant allele) backgrounds. Under short days (SD), co1 co2 mutants headed 13 d earlier than the wild type (P<0.0001) in the presence of Ppd-A1a. However, in the presence of Ppd-A1b, spikes from both genotypes failed to emerge by 180 d. These results indicate that CO1 and CO2 operate mainly as weak heading time repressors in both LD and SD. By contrast, in ppd1 mutants with loss-of-function mutations in both PPD1 homeologs, the wild type Co1 allele accelerated heading time >60 d relative to the co1 mutant allele under LD. We detected significant genetic interactions among CO1, CO2 and PPD1 genes on heading time, which were reflected in complex interactions at the transcriptional and protein levels. Loss-of-function mutations in PPD1 delayed heading more than combined co1 co2 mutations and, more importantly, PPD1 was able to perceive and respond to differences in photoperiod in the absence of functional CO1 and CO2 genes. Similarly, CO1 was able to accelerate heading time in response to LD in the absence of a functional PPD1. Taken together, these results indicate that PPD1 and CO1 are able to respond to photoperiod in the absence of each other, and that interactions between these two photoperiod pathways at the transcriptional and protein levels are important to fine-tune the flowering response in wheat.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634144

RESUMO

Accurate identification of crop varieties grown by farmers is crucial, among others, for crop management, food security and varietal development and dissemination purposes. One may expect varietal identification to be more challenging in the context of developing countries where literacy and education are limited and informal seed systems and seed recycling are common. This paper evaluates the extent to which smallholder farmers misidentify their wheat varieties in Ethiopia and explores the associated factors and their implications. The study uses data from a nationally representative wheat growing sample household survey and DNA fingerprinting of seed samples from 3,884 wheat plots in major wheat growing zones of Ethiopia. 28-34% of the farmers correctly identified their wheat varieties. Correct identification was positively associated with farmer education and seed purchases from trusted sources (cooperatives or known farmers) and negatively associated with seed recycling. Farmers' varietal identification thereby is problematic and leads to erroneous results in adoption and impact assessments. DNA fingerprinting can enhance varietal identification but remains mute in the identification of contextual and explanatory factors. Thus, combining household survey and DNA fingerprinting approaches is needed for reliable varietal adoption and impact assessments, and generate useful knowledge to inform policy recommendations related to varietal replacement and seed systems development.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19131-19135, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719119

RESUMO

Scaling current cereal production to a growing global population will be a challenge. Wheat supplies approximately one-fifth of the calories and protein for human diets. Vertical farming is a possible promising option for increasing future wheat production. Here we show that wheat grown on a single hectare of land in a 10-layer indoor vertical facility could produce from 700 ± 40 t/ha (measured) to a maximum of 1,940 ± 230 t/ha (estimated) of grain annually under optimized temperature, intensive artificial light, high CO2 levels, and a maximum attainable harvest index. Such yields would be 220 to 600 times the current world average annual wheat yield of 3.2 t/ha. Independent of climate, season, and region, indoor wheat farming could be environmentally superior, as less land area is needed along with reuse of most water, minimal use of pesticides and herbicides, and no nutrient losses. Although it is unlikely that indoor wheat farming will be economically competitive with current market prices in the near future, it could play an essential role in hedging against future climate or other unexpected disruptions to the food system. Nevertheless, maximum production potential remains to be confirmed experimentally, and further technological innovations are needed to reduce capital and energy costs in such facilities.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Ambiente Controlado , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127652, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688325

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil negatively impacts crop productivity, grain quality, and human health. Wheat seeds, with different concentrations of intrinsic zinc (Zn): low Zn (35 mg kg-1), medium (42 mg kg-1), and high Zn (49 mg kg-1), were planted in artificially contaminated soil (10 mg Cd kg-1 soil). Zinc (5 g kg-1) and biochar (20 g kg-1 soil) were applied alone or in combination at sowing. Cadmium contamination reduced wheat growth, productivity, and grain Zn concentration, relative to the respective no-Cd treatments, with greater reductions in plants with low intrinsic Zn. Among the soil amendments, Zn and/or biochar improved wheat productivity and grain Zn and reduced grain Cd concentration in plants grown from seed with varying intrinsic Zn levels. Plants from high intrinsic Zn seeds performed better under Cd stress with the application of soil amendments than seeds with low or medium intrinsic Zn levels. The combined application of Zn and biochar had the highest increases in grain yield (9.51%) and grain Zn concentration (12.2%), relative to the control (no Cd, no Zn, and no biochar). This treatment also decreased the Cd concentrations in straw (7.1%) and grain (95.6%). The sole application of Zn or biochar improved wheat productivity and grain Zn concentration and deceased grain Cd concentration under Cd stress, but more improvements resulted from the combined application of Zn and biochar. Plants grown from seed with high Zn were better able to tolerate Cd stress than the plants raised from seeds with medium and low Zn levels.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Zinco/análise , Pão , Cádmio/química , Carvão Vegetal , Grão Comestível/química , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Sementes/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584908

RESUMO

Strong early vigour plays a crucial role in wheat yield improvement by enhancing resource utilization efficiency. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) combines the elite genes of tetraploid wheat with Aegilops tauschii and has been widely used in wheat genetic improvement for its abundant genetic variation. The two SHWs Syn79 and Syn80 were derived from the crossing of the same tetraploid wheat DOY1 with two different Ae. tauschii accessions, AT333 and AT428, respectively. The Syn80 possessed better early vigour traits than Syn79, theretically caused by their D genome from Ae. tauschii. To dissect their genetic basis in a hexaploid background, 203 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Syn79 x Syn80 were developed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four early biomass related traits: plant height (PH), tiller number (TN), shoot fresh weight (SFW) and shoot dry weight (SDW) per plant, under five different environmental conditions. Determined from the data of SNP markers, two genome regions on 1DS and 7D were stably associated with the four early biomass related traits showing pleiotropic effects. Four stable QTLs QPh.saas-1DS, QTn.saas-1DS, QSfw.saas-1DS and QSdw.saas-1DS explaining 7.92, 15.34, 9.64 and 10.15% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, were clustered in the region of 1DS from AX-94812958 to AX-110910133. Meanwhile, QPh.saas-7D, QTn.saas-7D, QSfw.saas-7D and QSdw.saas-7D were flanked by AX-109917900 and AX-110605376 on 7D, explaining 16.12, 24.35, 15.25 and 13.37% of the phenotypic variation on average, respectively. Moreover, these genomic QTLs on 1DS and 7D enhancing biomass in the parent Syn80 were from Ae. tauschii AT428. These findings suggest that these two QTLs from Ae. tauschii can be expressed stably in a hexaploid background at the jointing stage and be used for wheat improvement.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genoma de Planta , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Biomassa , Produção Agrícola , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poliploidia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110822, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534334

RESUMO

Boron (B) toxicity is an important abiotic constraint that limits crop productivity mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. High levels of B in soil disturbs several physiological and biochemical processes in plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin (Mel) in the regulation of carbohydrate and proline (Pro) metabolism, photosynthesis process and antioxidant system of wheat seedlings under B toxicity conditions. High levels of B inhibited net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), content of chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and increased accumulation of B, Chl degradation and activity of chlorophyllase (Chlase; a Chl degrading enzyme), and downregulated the activity of enzymes (δ-ALAD; δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthesis pigments, photosynthesis (carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and carbohydrate metabolism (cell wall invertase, CWI) in wheat seedlings. Also, high levels of B caused oxidative damage by increasing the content of malondialdehyde, superoxide anion and H2O2, and activity of glycolate oxidase (an H2O2-producing enzyme) in leaves of seedlings. However, foliar application of Mel significantly improved photosynthetic pigments concentration by increasing δ-ALA, δ-ALAD and decreasing Chl degradation and Chlase activity and led to an increase of plant growth attributes under both B toxicity and non-toxicity conditions. Under normal and B toxicity conditions, exogenous Mel also improved content of N, P, total soluble carbohydrates (TSCs) and Pro, and upregulated activity of CWI and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase. Mel significantly suppressed the adverse effects of excess B by alleviating cellular oxidative damage through enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipoxygenase, and content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), ascorbate and reduced glutathione. These results postulate that Mel induced plant defense mechanisms by enhancing Pro, TSCs, TPC, nutrients (N and P) uptake and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Boro/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433686

RESUMO

We report the earliest and the most abundant archaeobotanical assemblage of southwest Asian grain crops from Early Bronze Age Central Asia, recovered from the Chap II site in Kyrgyzstan. The archaeobotanical remains consist of thousands of cultivated grains dating to the mid-late third millennium BCE. The recovery of cereal chaff and weeds suggest local cultivation at 2000 m.a.s.l., as crops first spread to the mountains of Central Asia. The site's inhabitants possibly cultivated two types of free-threshing wheats, glume wheats, and hulled and naked barleys. Highly compact caryopses of wheat and barley grains represent distinct morphotypes of cereals adapted to highland environments. While additional macrobotanical evidence is needed to confirm the presence of glume wheats at Chap II, the possible identification of glume wheats at Chap II may represent their most eastern distribution in Central Asia. Based on the presence of weed species, we argue that the past environment of Chap II was characterized by an open mountain landscape, where animal grazing likely took place, which may have been further modified by people irrigating agricultural fields. This research suggests that early farmers in the mountains of Central Asia cultivated compact morphotypes of southwest Asian crops during the initial eastward dispersal of agricultural technologies, which likely played a critical role in shaping montane adaptations and dynamic interaction networks between farming societies across highland and lowland cultivation zones.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Grão Comestível/história , Ásia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , História Antiga , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(5): 582-585, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393904

RESUMO

Prime editors, which are CRISPR-Cas9 nickase (H840A)-reverse transcriptase fusions programmed with prime editing guide RNAs (pegRNAs), can edit bases in mammalian cells without donor DNA or double-strand breaks. We adapted prime editors for use in plants through codon, promoter, and editing-condition optimization. The resulting suite of plant prime editors enable point mutations, insertions and deletions in rice and wheat protoplasts. Regenerated prime-edited rice plants were obtained at frequencies of up to 21.8%.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Oryza/genética , Triticum/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374769

RESUMO

Insufficient water resources restrict wheat production in the North China Plain, so it is urgent and essential to improve the border irrigation performance and water use efficiency. This study developed a predesigned varied-discharge irrigation scheme in the closed-ended border. Field treatments, including continuous-discharge (CD), increased-discharge (ID) and decreased-discharge (DD) border irrigation tests, were conducted to evaluate the irrigation performance of the proposed varied-discharge scheme. The DD border irrigation treatment had great application efficiency (AE), distribution uniformity (DU) and requirement efficiency (RE), and its comprehensive evaluation indicator (Y) was also significantly higher than other treatments. DD treatment achieved the average AE, DU, RE and Y values of 91.4%, 95.5%, 99.5% and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the hydraulic simulation model WinSRFR was used to optimize the scheme of predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation, and sensitivity analyses of infiltration parameters, roughness coefficient, slope and inflow rate were carried out. The results indicate that the predesigned varied-discharge border irrigation scheme can improve the irrigation performance, and the DD border irrigation scheme has more satisfactory robustness than that of the ID border irrigation scheme.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Água Subterrânea , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , China , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Solo , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232974, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401803

RESUMO

Heat stress along with low water availability at reproductive stage (terminal growth phase of wheat crop) is major contributing factor towards less wheat production in tropics and sub-tropics. Flag leaf plays a pivotal role in assimilate partitioning and stress tolerance of wheat during terminal growth phase. However, limited is known about biochemical response of flag leaf to combined and individual heat and drought stress during terminal growth phase. Therefore, current study investigated combined and individual effect of terminal drought and heat stress on water relations, photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes accumulation and antioxidants defense mechanism in flag leaf of bread wheat. Experimental treatments comprised of control, terminal drought stress alone (50% field capacity during reproductive phase), terminal heat stress alone (wheat grown inside plastic tunnel during reproductive phase) and terminal drought stress + terminal heat stress. Individual and combined imposition of drought and heat stresses significantly (p≤0.05) altered water relations, osmolyte contents, soluble proteins and sugars along with activated antioxidant defensive system in terms of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Turgor potential, POD and APX activities were lowest under individual heat stress; however, these were improved when drought stress was combined with heat stress. It is concluded that combined effect of drought and heat stress was more detrimental than individual stresses. The interactive effect of both stresses was hypo-additive in nature, but for some traits (like turgor potential and APX) effect of one stress neutralized the other. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on physiological and biochemical response of flag leaf of wheat to combine heat and drought stress. These results will help future studies dealing with improved stress tolerance in wheat. However, detailed studies are needed to fully understand the genetic mechanisms behind these physiological and biochemical changes in flag leaf in response to combined heat and drought stress.


Assuntos
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pão , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo
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