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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445648

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most extensively cultivated and used staple crops in human nutrition, while wheat bread is annually consumed in more than nine billion kilograms over the world. Consumers' purchase decisions on wheat bread are largely influenced by its nutritional and sensorial characteristics. In the last decades, metabolomics is considered an effective tool for elucidating the information on metabolites; however, the deep investigations on metabolites still remain a difficult and longtime action. This review gives emphasis on the achievements in wheat bread metabolomics by highlighting targeted and untargeted analyses used in this field. The metabolomics approaches are discussed in terms of quality, processing and safety of wheat and bread, while the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensorial and nutritional characteristics of wheat bread are pointed out. These aspects are of crucial importance in the context of new consumers' demands on healthy bakery products rich in bioactive compounds but, equally, with good sensorial acceptance. Moreover, metabolomics is a potential tool for assessing the changes in nutrient composition from breeding to processing, while monitoring and understanding the transformations of metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as the formation of compounds like toxins during wheat storage.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Metaboloma , Valor Nutritivo , Controle de Qualidade , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 945, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362999

RESUMO

Two challenges that the global wheat industry is facing are a lowering nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and an increase in the reporting of wheat-protein related health issues. Sulphur deficiencies in soil has also been reported as a global issue. The current study used large-scale field and glasshouse experiments to investigate the sulphur fertilization impacts on sulphur deficient soil. Here we show that sulphur addition increased NUE by more than 20% through regulating glutamine synthetase. Alleviating the soil sulphur deficiency highly significantly reduced the amount of gliadin proteins indicating that soil sulphur levels may be related to the biosynthesis of proteins involved in wheat-induced human pathologies. The sulphur-dependent wheat gluten biosynthesis network was studied using transcriptome analysis and amino acid metabolomic pathway studies. The study concluded that sulphur deficiency in modern farming systems is not only having a profound negative impact on productivity but is also impacting on population health.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Gliadina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360921

RESUMO

Hybrid varieties can provide the boost needed to increase stagnant wheat yields through heterosis. The lack of an efficient hybridization system, which can lower the cost of goods of hybrid seed production, has been a major impediment to commercialization of hybrid wheat varieties. In this review, we discuss the progress made in characterization of nuclear genetic male sterility (NGMS) in wheat and its advantages over two widely referenced hybridization systems, i.e., chemical hybridizing agents (CHAs) and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We have characterized four wheat genes, i.e., Ms1, Ms5, TaMs26 and TaMs45, that sporophytically contribute to male fertility and yield recessive male sterility when mutated. While Ms1 and Ms5 are Triticeae specific genes, analysis of TaMs26 and TaMs45 demonstrated conservation of function across plant species. The main features of each of these genes is discussed with respect to the functional contribution of three sub-genomes and requirements for complementation of their respective mutants. Three seed production systems based on three genes, MS1, TaMS26 and TaMS45, were developed and a proof of concept was demonstrated for each system. The Tams26 and ms1 mutants were maintained through a TDNA cassette in a Seed Production Technology-like system, whereas Tams45 male sterility was maintained through creation of a telosome addition line. These genes represent different options for hybridization systems utilizing NGMS in wheat, which can potentially be utilized for commercial-scale hybrid seed production.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153463, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256212

RESUMO

Intercropping of legumes and cereals provides many ecological advantages and contributes to a sustainable agriculture. These agricultural systems face ongoing shifts in precipitation patterns and seasonal drought. Although the effect of drought stress on legumes has been frequently studied, knowledge about water deficits influencing legumes under different cropping systems is still limited. Therefore, we investigated the impact of water deficit and re-irrigation on two winter faba bean genotypes (S_004 and S_062) and winter wheat (var. Genius) in pure and intercropped stands under greenhouse conditions. Various physiological and biochemical parameters, such as canopy surface temperature, leaf relative water content and proline content, were collected at three time points (beginning of water deficit, end of water deficit, after re-irrigation). In addition, water use efficiency (WUE) was analyzed at the end of the experiment. The overall drought stress tolerance was determined as conceptual analysis of all measured parameters. Water deficit significantly affected WUE, surface temperature and proline content of both winter faba bean genotypes. Interestingly, intercropping with wheat resulted in an overall high drought tolerance of genotype S_004, while genotype S_062 had a high drought tolerance in pure stands. Under water deficit, pure stands of S_062 substantially increased WUE by 30.5%. Intercropping of genotype S_004 increased the dry matter per plant by 31.7% compared to pure stands under water deficit. Contrary, intercropping of genotype S_062 did not improve the dry matter production. Our findings indicate that genotype S_004 benefits from resource complementarity in intercropping systems with wheat, whereas S_062 is better suitable for pure stands due to competitive effects. Thus, our study highlights that the drought tolerance of winter faba bean genotypes depends on the cropping system, leading to a demand for drought-adapted cultivars specifically selected for intercropping.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Secas , Estações do Ano , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 227-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270033

RESUMO

The use of doubled haploid (DH) plants in plant breeding programmes is the fastest route to release new varieties (4-6 years), allowing for a rapid response to end-user needs. Microspore embryogenesis is one of the most efficient methods for DH plant production in bread wheat. In this process, microspores triggered by a stress treatment or by application of bioactive compounds are reprogrammed to follow an embryogenic pathway that leads to the production of haploid or DH plants. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for anther culture of bread wheat. This protocol is based on an osmotic and starvation treatment of the anthers followed by the application of a microtubule disrupting agent. Anthers are cultured in an ovary pre-conditioned medium with mature ovaries from cv. Caramba. This protocol has been applied to a wide range of genotypes and F1s from bread and spelt wheat.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Haploidia , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 245-255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270034

RESUMO

The use of doubled haploid lines improves the efficiency of cultivar development and homozygous genotypes can be obtained in one generation, as opposed to conventional line production, which requires several cycles of self-pollination. However, in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.), the low efficiency of green plant regeneration and the very high frequency of albino plants hinder the application of this technique.We observed the success of using gynogenesis for durum wheat and the significant influence of growing conditions on ovary and callus development, and on plant regeneration. Our results suggested that the cold pretreatment for 2 weeks is efficient for durum wheat. Furthermore, the addition of 2,4-D, vitamins and glutamine, and the use of maltose as sugar source in media improved the ovary regeneration. We describe in this work an efficient method to regenerate green plants from in vitro durum wheat gynogenesis .


Assuntos
Gametogênese Vegetal , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Flores/embriologia , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haploidia , Polinização , Triticum/embriologia
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 257-266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270035

RESUMO

Doubled haploid (DH) plant production belongs to modern biotechnology methods of plant breeding. The main advantage of DH plant production methods is the development of genetically homozygous lines in one generation, whilst in conventional breeding programmes, the development of homozygous lines requires more generations. The present chapter describes an efficient protocol for DH plant production in spelt wheat genotypes using in vitro anther culture.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Haploidia , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2287: 267-279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270036

RESUMO

The intergeneric hybridization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with maize (Zea mays L.) enables the production of doubled haploids (DHs) of wheat from all wheat hybrids with high efficiencies. Wheat and maize donor plants are raised in environmentally controlled greenhouses until crossing. Before anthesis, wheat spikes are emasculated and then pollinated with maize. Auxin is applied to each individual wheat floret 1 day after pollination. About 2 weeks after crossing, in vitro embryo culture is performed, enabling the regeneration of haploid wheat plantlets after maize chromosome elimination. Haploid plantlets are transferred to the greenhouse and after recovery, their genome is doubled with colchicine. Haploid plantlets can be sampled for DNA extractions and molecular analyses to aid the rapid discard of undesirable plantlets. Doubled haploid plants are raised in a greenhouse until maturity. Seeds of each fertile DH are harvested and often sown the same year. Several cycles of multiplication and evaluation in replicated plot trials and different geographical locations are then done to select the best candidate(s) for varietal registration.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Haploidia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282738

RESUMO

Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait representing a multiplicative end product of contributing yield attributes governed by simple to complex gene interactions. Deciphering the genetics and inheritance of traits/genes influencing yield is a prerequisite to harness the yield potential in any crop species. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate genetic variance components and type of gene action controlling yield and its component traits using six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of the three bread wheat crosses. Cross I (25th HRWSN 2105 × WH 1080), cross II (22ndSAWYT323 × RSP 561) and cross III (22ndSAWYT333 × WH 1080) involving elite stripe rust resistant wheat genetic stocks in combination with commercial check varieties were used for analysis. A combination of morpho-physiological, biochemical and disease influencing traits were evaluated, thus exploring the possibility of multi-trait integration in future. Results revealed that the estimated mean effects (m) were highly significant for all the traits in all crosses, indicating that selected traits were quantitatively inherited. The estimate of dominant gene effect was highly significant for plant height, number of tillers per plant in all the three crosses. Grain yield per plant was highly significant in the cross II while total protein content was highly significant in both crosses II and III. Glycine betaine content showed significant additive genes effect. Duplicate epistasis was the most significant for traits like plant height, total protein content and grain yield per plant. Dominance gene effect was more important than additive gene effects in the inheritance of grain yield and most other traits studied. The magnitude of additive X additive gene effects was high and positively significant whereas dominance × dominance was negatively significant for most of the traits studied in the three crosses. Additive × dominance gene effects was of minor significance, thus indicating that selection for grain yield and its components should be delayed to later generations of breeding.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Epistasia Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Pão/normas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Humanos , Hibridização Genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206953

RESUMO

Quercetin, classified as a flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant that plays a significant role in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, which is particularly important in the case of biotic and abiotic stresses. The study investigated the effect of the use of potassium quercetin solutions in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%) on the physiological and biochemical properties of wheat seedlings. A pot experiment was carried out in order to determine the most beneficial dose of this flavonoid acting as a bio-stimulant for wheat plants. Spraying with quercetin derivative solutions was performed twice, and physiological measurements (chlorophyll content and fluorescence as well as gas exchange) were carried out on the first and seventh days after each application. The total phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant capacity were also determined. It was shown that the concentrations of potassium quercetin applied have a stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes. In the case of most of the tested physiological parameters (chlorophyll content and fluorescence and gas exchange) and the total antioxidant capacity, no significant differences were observed in their increase as a result of application with concentrations of 3.0 and 5.0%. Therefore, the beneficial effect of quercetin on the analysed parameters is already observed when spraying with a concentration of 3.0%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201354

RESUMO

In coming decades, drought is expected to expand globally owing to increased evaporation and reduced rainfall. Understanding, predicting, and controlling crop plants' rhizosphere has the potential to manipulate its responses to environmental stress. Our plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are isolated from a natural laboratory, 'The Evolution Canyon', Israel, (EC), from the wild progenitors of cereals, where they have been co-habituating with their hosts for long periods of time. The study revealed that commercial TM50 silica particles (SN) triggered the PGPR production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) containing D-glucuronate (D-GA). The increased EPS content increased the PGPR water-holding capacity (WHC) and osmotic pressure of the biofilm matrix, which led to enhanced plant biomass in drought-stressed growth environments. Light- and cryo-electron- microscopic studies showed that, in the presence of silica (SN) particles, bacterial morphology is changed, indicating that SNs are associated with significant reprogramming in bacteria. The findings encourage the development of large-scale methods for isolate formulation with natural silicas that ensure higher WHC and hyperosmolarity under field conditions. Osmotic pressure involvement of holobiont cohabitation is also discussed.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Secas , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281242

RESUMO

Cultivars with efficient root systems play a major role in enhancing resource use efficiency, particularly water absorption, and thus in drought tolerance. In this study, a diverse wheat association panel of 136 wheat accessions including mini core subset was genotyped using Axiom 35k Breeders' Array to identify genomic regions associated with seedling stage root architecture and shoot traits using multi-locus genome-wide association studies (ML-GWAS). The association panel revealed a wide variation of 1.5- to 50-fold and were grouped into six clusters based on 15 traits. Six different ML-GWAS models revealed 456 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for various traits with phenotypic variance in the range of 0.12-38.60%. Of these, 87 QTNs were repeatedly detected by two or more models and were considered reliable genomic regions for the respective traits. Among these QTNs, eleven were associated with average diameter and nine each for second order lateral root number (SOLRN), root volume (RV) and root length density (RLD). A total of eleven genomic regions were pleiotropic and each controlled two or three traits. Some important candidate genes such as Formin homology 1, Ubiquitin-like domain superfamily and ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase were identified from the associated genomic regions. The genomic regions/genes identified in this study could potentially be targeted for improving root traits and drought tolerance in wheat.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Osmorregulação/genética , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Secas , Variação Genética , Poliploidia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299014

RESUMO

PIN-FORMED (PIN) genes play a crucial role in regulating polar auxin distribution in diverse developmental processes, including tropic responses, embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, and organogenesis. However, the role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in various plant species is poorly understood. Currently, no information is available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the PIN gene family in wheat to understand the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport and its role in various developmental processes and under different biotic and abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we performed genome-wide analysis of the PIN gene family in common wheat and identified 44 TaPIN genes through a homology search, further characterizing them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses led to the classification of TaPIN genes into seven different groups, providing evidence of an evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, transmembrane domains, and three-dimensional (3D) structure were also examined using various computational approaches. Cis-elements analysis of TaPIN genes showed that TaPIN promoters consist of phytohormone, plant growth and development, and stress-related cis-elements. In addition, expression profile analysis also revealed that the expression patterns of the TaPIN genes were different in different tissues and developmental stages. Several members of the TaPIN family were induced during biotic and abiotic stress. Moreover, the expression patterns of TaPIN genes were verified by qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results also show a similar expression with slight variation. Therefore, the outcome of this study provides basic genomic information on the expression of the TaPIN gene family and will pave the way for dissecting the precise role of TaPINs in plant developmental processes and different stress conditions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Éxons , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Íntrons , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068886

RESUMO

Millets are important cereal crops cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world, particularly Africa and southeast Asia. Climate change has triggered multiple abiotic stresses in plants that are the main causes of crop loss worldwide, reducing average yield for most crops by more than 50%. Although millets are tolerant to most abiotic stresses including drought and high temperatures, further improvement is needed to make them more resilient to unprecedented effects of climate change and associated environmental stresses. Incorporation of stress tolerance traits in millets will improve their productivity in marginal environments and will help in overcoming future food shortage due to climate change. Recently, approaches such as application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) have been used to improve growth and development, as well as stress tolerance of crops. Moreover, with the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, genome editing, using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system are increasingly used to develop stress tolerant varieties in different crops. In this paper, the innate ability of millets to tolerate abiotic stresses and alternative approaches to boost stress resistance were thoroughly reviewed. Moreover, several stress-resistant genes were identified in related monocots such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays), and other related species for which orthologs in millets could be manipulated by CRISPR/Cas9 and related genome-editing techniques to improve stress resilience and productivity. These cutting-edge alternative strategies are expected to bring this group of orphan crops at the forefront of scientific research for their potential contribution to global food security.


Assuntos
Milhetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Milhetes/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110913, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134840

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Ubiquitination plays important roles in regulating ABA signaling. E3 ligase, a key member in ubiquitination, actively participates in the regulation of biosynthesis, de-repression, and activation of ABA response and degradation of signaling components. In this study, we found that that overexpression of wheat E3 ligase TaPUB1 decreased the sensitivity of wheat seedlings to ABA, whereas TaPUB1-RNA interference (TaPUB1-RNAi) lines increased wheat sensitivity to ABA during germination, root growth, and stomatal opening. TaPUB1 influenced the expression of several ABA-responsive genes, and also interacted with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, which are involved in ABA signal transduction, and promoted their degradation. Additionally, we observed that TaPUB1-OE lines resulted in lower single-split grain numbers, larger seed size, and higher thousand kernel weight, when compared with the WT lines. Contrasting results were obtained for TaPUB1-RNAi lines. It suggests that TaPUB1 acts as a negative regulator in the ABA signaling pathway by interacting with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, subsequently affecting seed development in wheat. In addition, the enhanced abiotic tolerance of overexpression lines due to enhanced photosynthesis and root development may be related to the degradation of TaABI5 by TaPUB1.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triticum/genética , Germinação , Fotossíntese , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063651

RESUMO

Salt stress is the second most important abiotic stress factor in the world, which seriously affects crop growth, development and grain production. In this study, we performed the first integrated physiological and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteome analysis of wheat seedling leaves under salt stress using a label-free-based quantitative proteomic approach. Salt stress caused significant decrease in seedling height, root length, relative water content and chlorophyll content of wheat seedling leaves, indicating that wheat seedling growth was significantly inhibited under salt stress. The ER proteome analysis identified 233 ER-localized differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in response to salt stress, including 202 upregulated and 31 downregulated proteins. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, transmembrane transport, the carboxylic acid metabolic process, stress response, the arbohydrate metabolic process and proteolysis, while the downregulated proteins mainly participated in the metabolic process, biological regulation and the cellular process. In particular, salt stress induced significant upregulation of protein disulfide isomerase-like proteins and heat shock proteins and significant downregulation of ribosomal protein abundance. Further transcript expression analysis revealed that half of the detected DAP genes showed a consistent pattern with their protein levels under salt stress. A putative metabolic pathway of ER subproteome of wheat seedling leaves in response to salt stress was proposed, which reveals the potential roles of wheat ER proteome in salt stress response and defense.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Triticum/genética , Mecanismos de Defesa , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulches are widely used in crop production systems. Due to their benefits in improving soil fertility, retention of soil moisture and weed control. Field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to evaluate the effects of Jatropha leaves mulch on the growth of wheat varieties 'Wadan-17' (rainfed) and 'Pirsabaq-2013' (irrigated) under well irrigated and water stress conditions (non-irrigated maintaining 40% soil field capacity). Jatropha mulch was applied to the soil surface at 0, 1, 3 and 5 Mg ha-1 before sowing grains in the field. Under conditions of water stress, Jatropha mulch significantly maintained the soil moisture content necessary for normal plant growth. RESULTS: We noted a decrease in plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll, and carotenoid content due to water stress. However, water stress caused an increase in leaf and root phenolics content, leaf soluble sugars and electrolytes leakage. We observed that Jatropha mulch maintained LRWC, plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content under water stress. Moreover, water stress adverse effects on leaf soluble sugar content and electrolyte leakage were reversed to normal by Jatropha mulch. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded that Jatropha leaves mulch will minimize water stress adverse effects on wheat by maintaining soil moisture and plant water status.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Jatropha , Folhas de Planta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112370, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058673

RESUMO

A 6 weeks pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the stabilization effects of a modified biochar (BCM) on metals in contaminated soil and the uptake of these metals by wheat seedlings. The results showed that the application of BCM significantly increased the soil fertility, the biomass of wheat seedling roots increased by more than 50%, and soil dehydrogenase (DHA) and catalase (CAT) activities increased by 369.23% and 12.61%, respectively. In addition, with the application of BCM, the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extractable (DTPA-extractable) Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soil were reduced from 2.34 to 0.38 mg/kg, from 49.27 to 25.65 mg/kg, from 3.55 mg/kg to below the detection limit and from 4.05 to 3.55 mg/kg, respectively. Correspondingly, the uptake of these metals in wheat roots and shoots decreased by 62.43% and 79.83% for Cd, 73.21% and 66.32% for Pb, 57.98% and 68.92% for Cu, and 40.42% and 43.66% for Zn. Furthermore, BCM application decreased the abundance and alpha diversity of soil bacteria and changed the soil bacterial community structure dramatically. Overall, BCM has great potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils, but its long-term impact on soil metals and biota need further research.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomassa , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 219: 112206, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975271

RESUMO

Every year 15-50% of cereals all around the world are lost due to fungal contamination and deterioration. In addition, 25% of crops, which are used for human and animal consumption, are contaminated with mycotoxins. It is obvious, that more effective and sustainable technologies for better microbial control of crops are required. For this purpose we evaluated antibacterial and antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (10-3-5 × 10-3M) activated with visible light (405 nm, 18-30 J/cm2). Obtained data indicated that this treatment can inactivate human pathogen E. coli B by 6 log CFU without any possibility to regrowth after treatment. Wheat pathogen Fusarium oxysporum was inactivated by 51.7%. Results indicated that reactive oxygen species took place in the mechanisms of inactivation. Moreover, visible light activated ZnO NPs reduced the population of mesophiles on the surface of grains by 2.5 log CFU/g, inoculated E. coli- by 2.0 log CFU/g and naturally distributed fungi-by 2.1 log CFU/g. This treatment had no impact on visual quality of grains, did not inhibit grain germination rate and slightly promoted grain seedling growth. Concluding, the use of visible light driven photocatalysis in ZnO nanoparticles has huge potential to control plant pathogens, reduce food-borne diseases and subsequently enhance the sustainability in agriculture, meeting the increasing demands of a growing world population.


Assuntos
Luz , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise/efeitos da radiação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/efeitos da radiação , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Food Chem ; 358: 129826, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933964

RESUMO

Previous studies reported higher antioxidant and mineral micronutrient concentrations in organic compared to conventional wheat flour, but the reasons are poorly understood. Here we report results from a long-term, factorial field experiment designed to assess effects of variety choice, supplementary irrigation and contrasting fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production on the nutritional quality and yield of spelt wheat grown in a semi-arid environment. Long-straw (Oberkulmer, Rubiota, ZOR) varieties had 10-40% higher grain Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations, while the modern, short straw variety Filderstolz had 15-38% higher grain antioxidant activity. Supplementary irrigation and the use of manure instead of mineral NPK as fertilizer had no substantial effect on the nutritional composition of spelt grain, but increased grain yields by ~ 150 and ~ 18% respectively. Overall, this suggests that breeding/variety selection is the most promising approach to improve the nutritional quality of spelt grain in semi-arid production environments.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Valor Nutritivo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Farinha/análise , Grécia , Esterco , Micronutrientes/análise , Minerais/análise , Especificidade da Espécie
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