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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111334, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961486

RESUMO

In order to investigate and model toxicity and interactions between metals in mixtures, inhibition of wheat root elongation in response to additions of single-metals of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) and of binary mixed-metal combinations of Cu-Ni and Zn-Ni was tested, using water culture experiments under different Mg concentrations and pH values. A biotic ligand model (BLM) of single-metal Cu, Zn, and Ni was established. The results showed that the toxicity of Cu, Zn or Ni in isolation decreased with increasing Mg concentration whereas the effects of pH on Cu, Zn, or Ni toxicity were related not only to free Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+ concentrations, but also to inorganic metal complexes. In binary mixtures, the two metals in the Cu-Ni mixture showed a weakly antagonistic effect, whereas the two metals in the Zn-Ni mixture showed greater antagonism. Using data from single-metal Cu, Zn, and Ni BLMs, combined with the toxicity index and the overall amounts of metal ions bound to the biotic ligands, one simple model was developed. This model consisted of the toxic unit (TUM, no competition included) and two extended BLMs, BLM-TUf (f as a function of TU, including competition between Mg2+ and metal ions) and BLM-fmix (including the competition between Mg2+ and metal ions, as well as between free metal ions). They were then used to predict the joint toxicity of Cu-Ni and Zn-Ni binary mixtures to wheat. Both of the extended BLMs could provide more accurate predictions of toxic effects of Cu-Ni and Zn-Ni than TUM. BLM-fmix performed best for the Zn-Ni binary mixture (r2 = 0.93; root-mean-square error, RMSE = 9.87). On the other hand, for the Cu-Ni mixture, the predictive effect based on BLM-TUf (r2 = 0.93; RMSE = 9.60) was similar to that of BLM-fmix (r2 = 0.93; RMSE = 9.56). The results provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation and remediation of soils contaminated with mixtures of heavy metals.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Níquel/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Antagonismo de Drogas , Ligantes , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111346, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977285

RESUMO

It is a daunting challenge to predict toxicity and accumulation of rare earth metals (REMs) in different exposure scenarios (e.g., varying water chemistry and metal combinations). Herein, we investigated the toxicity and uptake of La and Ce in the presence of various levels of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and at different pH values, as well as the combined effects of La and Ce in wheat Triticum aestivum. Major cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) significantly mitigated the toxicity and accumulation of La3+/Ce3+. Toxicity and uptake of La, Ce, and La-Ce mixtures could be well quantified by the multi-metal biotic ligand model (BLM) and by the Langmuir-type uptake model with the consideration of the competitive effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+, with more than 85.1% of variations explained. The derived binding constants of Ca, Mg, La, and Ce to wheat root were respectively 3.87, 3.59, 6.97, and 6.48 on the basis of toxicity data, and 3.23, 2.84, 6.07, and 5.27 on the basis of uptake data. The use of the alternative WHAM-Ftox approach, requiring fewer model parameters than the BLM but with similar Akaike information criterion (AIC) values, successfully predicted the toxicity and accumulation of La/Ce as well as toxicity of La-Ce mixtures, with at least 76.4% of variations explained. However, caution should be taken when using this approach to explain the uptake of La-Ce mixtures. Our results provided promising tools for delineating REMs toxicity/uptake in the presence of other toxicity-modifying factors or in mixture scenarios.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras/toxicidade , Triticum/fisiologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cátions/farmacologia , Ligantes , Metais/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Sódio , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126905, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957298

RESUMO

With the development of modern technologies, the exploitation and application of rare earth metals (REMs) have increased parallelly. Consequently, more REMs are entering into the environment and therefore there is a pressing need to assess their potential environmental hazards. Here, a standard toxicity test with wheat (Triticum aestivum) was conducted to investigate the single and mixture toxicity of La and Ce in solutions with different levels of calcium and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and results were deciphered by different modeling approaches. Both La and Ce caused adverse effect to wheat, but the presence of Ca and NTA alleviated their toxicity. The obtained EC50 for [La] or [Ce] changed by more than 28-fold and by 4-fold, respectively, with the increase of Ca or NTA. The biotic ligand model (BLM) explained approximately 93% variation of single La or Ce toxicity. The binding constants obtained were 4.14, 6.67, and 6.59 for logKCaBL, logKLaBL, and logKCeBL respectively. The electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) was proved as effective as the BLM, with R2 = 0.93 for La and R2 = 0.92 for Ce. For La-Ce mixtures, parameters from single toxicity approaches were applied successfully to predict the mixture toxicity with concentration addition (CA) model based on the BLM or ETM theory (R2 = 0.92 and RMSE = 8.56; R2 = 0.90 and RMSE = 9.6, respectively). Thus, the results obtained in this study prove that both ETM and BLM theories are appropriate to predict single and mixture REMs toxicity, providing coherent and promising tools for the risk assessment of REM pollution.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Cério/toxicidade , Lantânio/toxicidade , Ácido Nitrilotriacético/química , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Modelos Teóricos , Soluções , Eletricidade Estática , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126918, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957302

RESUMO

The increasing application of various surfactants nowadays, may lead to the contamination of the natural environment and represent potential threat to terrestrial higher plants. In this article, the effect of 13 surfactants, with dodecyl alkyl chain and various aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium, thiazolium) and aliphatic (guanidinium, ammonium, thiosemicarbazidium) polar heads, on germination, development and growth of wheat and cucumber was investigated. The study aimed to prove how changes in lipophilicity of surfactants and their various structural modifications (existence of the aliphatic or aromatic polar group, the introduction of oxygen and sulfur) influence toxicity towards investigated plants. The calculated lipophilic parameter (AlogP) is shown to be a useful parameter for predicting potential toxicity of the compound. The strategy of using surfactants with aliphatic polar heads instead of aromatic prove to be a promising strategy in reducing harmful effect, as well as the introduction of polar groups in the structure of cation. From all investigated compounds, surfactants with imidazolium polar head displayed the most harmful effect towards wheat and cucumber. The cucumber seeds were more sensitive to the addition of surfactants comparing to wheat. All obtained experimental results were additionally investigated using computational methods, simulating the transport of surfactants through a lipid bilayer. The influence of cation tendency to fit in lipid bilayer structure was correlated with toxicity. For the first time, it is concluded that cation ability to mimic the structure of bilayer have less harmful effect on plant development.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Compostos de Piridínio/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos de Piridínio/química , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tensoativos/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110959, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800231

RESUMO

Long-term field experiments were performed to evaluate the phytotoxic properties of fungal metabolites in oil-contaminated soil and to assess the impact of contamination on the allelopathic activity of soil mycobiota. Two contrasting soils of Northwest Russia (sandy and loamy podzols) exposed to oil contamination underwent changes in abundance and allelopathic activities of soil fungi. Shifts within the microbial community caused by oil contamination affected not only oil-decomposition rates but also ecotoxicity of contaminated soil. There were significant differences in soil toxicity dynamics between sandy and loamy podzols. Four years after contamination, ecotoxicity of loamy podzol decreased, whereas sandy podzol remained highly toxic even nine years after contamination. The abundance and allelopathic activity of fungi is correlated with hydrocarbon degradation dynamics. The soil fungal community demonstrated high allelopathic activity which decreased over time in fertile loamy podzolic soil, whereas in poor sandy podzolic soil it remained high over the nine-year monitoring period. The results illustrate how oil contamination may influence allelopathic interactions in soil and demonstrate the advantage of using fungal metabolite toxicity test for testing of oil-contaminated soil samples.


Assuntos
Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecotoxicologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Petróleo/análise , Federação Russa , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111030, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750587

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of Red-S3B textile dye on soil microbial activities, uptake of the dye by wheat plants and growth on the dye-contaminated soil. Moreover, pressmud (PM) application was investigated for its alleviative effect on wheat yield and dye uptake by plants. Preliminarily, soil was spiked with a wide concentration range (0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil) of Red-S3B dye and wheat was grown for 42-days. The dye did not suppress the activities of soil enzymes and growth of wheat seedlings at 100 mg kg-1; however, beyond this level the dye had a linear negative effect on these attributes. With 1000 mg dye kg-1 soil, wheat seedling biomass, viable microbial count, soil respiration, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and urease activities decreased by 84%, 33%, 45%, 69%, 24%, and 11%, respectively as compared to uncontaminated soil. Moreover, phosphorus and potassium content in wheat shoot decreased, while the nitrogen content increased in Red-S3B contaminated soil. In the subsequent pot experiment, PM application (12.5 g kg-1 soil) was assessed to alleviate the adverse effect of moderately toxic level of Red-S3B dye (500 mg kg-1 soil) on wheat growth and yield. Root and straw biomass, and grain yield of wheat decreased by 13, 19 and 12%, respectively in Red-S3B contaminated soil as compared to uncontaminated soil. However, PM application to dye-contaminated soil retrieved the dye-induced reduction in root and straw biomass and grain yield to become statistically (p ≤ 0.05) at par with control plants. The color of Red-S3B was clearly visible in spikes depicting that plants absorbed Red-S3B but probably could not metabolize it. Amending the dye-contaminated soil with PM decreased Red-S3B content in awns from 78 to 37 mg kg-1. Hence, it is concluded that Red-S3B textile dye is highly toxic to soil microbes and wheat plants at levels exceeding 100 mg kg-1 soil. Soil application of PM alleviates the adverse effect of Red-S3B dye on wheat growth through reducing its uptake by plants.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes/efeitos adversos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostagem , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111131, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827964

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic contaminants to food crops, and as such, decreasing crops uptake and accumulation of As cannot be overemphasized. Here, we characterized a functional wheat NIP2;1 homolog of the As transporter, TaNIP2;1. TaNIP2;1 expression was suppressed by arsenite (As(III)) in wheat. Ectopic expression of TaNIP2;1 in the Δfps1 yeast mutant enhanced yeast sensitivity towards As(III). Conversely, the elevated expression of TaNIP2;1 in Δacr3 mutants decreased yeast sensitivity to arsenate (As(V)), demonstrating that TaNIP2;1 showed both influx and efflux transport activities for As(III) in yeasts. This is further supported by increased As concentration in the yeast cells that overproduce TaNIP2;1 in Δfps1, while As concentration decreased in Δacr3. Furthermore, ectopic expression of TaNIP2;1 in Arabidopsis confirmed that TaNIP2;1 can transport As into plants, as supported by increased sensitivity to and uptake of As(III). No change in plant sensitivity was found to Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) or Ni(II), indicating that transport activity of TaNIP2;1 is specific for As(III). Taken together, our data show that TaNIP2;1 may be involved in As(III) transportation in plants. This finding reveals a functional gene that can be manipulated to reduce As content in wheat.


Assuntos
Aquagliceroporinas/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquagliceroporinas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790719

RESUMO

Melatonin is effective in enhancing various abiotic stress resistances of plants. However, its underlying mechanisms in drought-resistance in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is not clear. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of melatonin on seed germination and to evaluate leaf antioxidant physiology for two wheat varieties. Experiments included 20% PEG, melatonin plus 20% PEG and a control using two contrasting wheat varieties (JM22- drought sensitive and HG35- drought resistant). Melatonin levels were 0, 1, 10, 100 and 300 µmol L-1. Results revealed that 300 µmol L-1 of melatonin alleviated the negative effect of water stress on germination and increased radicle length, radicle number, and plumule length of the germinated seeds. Principal component analysis showed a significant change in amino acid content during germination and this change was dependent on melatonin concentration and the variety. Lysine (Lys) content in wheat seeds under the PEG plus 300 µmol L-1 melatonin treatment increased compared with that of the seeds under PEG alone. There was a significant and positive correlation between Lys content and morphological index of germination. During seedling growth, soluble protein was involved in osmotic adjustment and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased to mitigate the damage in the cytomembrane of JM 22 leaf under 300 µmol L-1 melatonin plus PEG treatment. The effect of melatonin was dependent on SOD activity increasing significantly for HG35-a drought resistant variety. The results of this work lays a foundation for further studies to determine if melatonin can be economically used to mitigate the impact of dry planting conditions on wheat productivity in North China Plain.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Secas , Osmose , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140926, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712499

RESUMO

Arsenic, copper, and zinc are common elements found in contaminated soils but little is known about their combined effects on plants when presented simultaneously. Here, we systematically investigated the phytotoxicity and uptake of binary and ternary mixtures of As, Cu, and Zn in a soil-plant system, using wheat (Triticum aestivum) as model species. The reference models of concentration addition (CA) and response addition (RA) coupled with different expressions of exposure (total concentrations in soil ([M]tot, mg/kg), free ion activities in soil solution ({M}, µM), and internal concentrations in plant roots ([M]int, µg/g)), were selected to assess the interaction mechanisms of binary mixtures of AsCu, AsZn, and CuZn. Metal(loid) interactions in soil were estimated in terms of solution-solid partitioning, root uptake, and root elongation effects. The partitioning of one metal(loid) between the soil solution and solid phase was most often inhibited by the presence of the other metal(loid). In terms of uptake, inhibitory effects and no effects were observed in the mixtures of As, Cu, and Zn, depending on the mixture combinations and the dose metrics used. In terms of toxicity, simple (antagonistic or synergistic) and more complex (dose ratio-dependent or dose level-dependent) interaction patterns of binary mixtures occurred, depending on the dose metrics selected and the reference models used. For ternary mixtures (As-Cu-Zn), nearly additive effects were observed irrespective of dose descriptors and reference models. The observed interactions in this study may help to understand and predict the joint toxicity of metal(loid)s mixtures in soil-plant system. Mixture interactions and bioavailability should be incorporated into the regulatory framework for accurate risk assessment of multimetal-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Solo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/análise , Zinco/toxicidade
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127288, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619935

RESUMO

This study examined the effect of green tea extract at 10 (GWG1%) and 50 (GWG5%) g/L as the steeping solution on the chemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of wheat grain during 14 days of germination. Fat, dry matter, and ash contents in the control was higher than GWG treatments due to the faster growth of control germs. Moisture, phenolic compounds, thiamin, niacin, and tocopherols decreased, whereas, fat, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein, crude fiber, ash, folic acid, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn increased significantly in all samples during germination. GWG5% showed the highest values in total phenols, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrate, followed by GWG1% and then the control. No significant differences in protein and crude fiber content were detected among treatments. GWG decreased the growth of total bacterial, yeast, and mold in germinated seeds. Overall, GWG improved the microbial and nutritional quality of wheat germ during 14 days of germination.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140457, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615437

RESUMO

Rhizosphere is a crucial site for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in agricultural soil. Pesticide contamination is ubiquitous in soil, such as chlorpyrifos as one of the most commonly used pesticides. However, limited knowledge is reported about ARGs profiles changes and the driving mechanism of ARGs prevalence in rhizosphere soil after adding pesticide. In this study, irrespective of chlorpyrifos presence, the abundances of ARGs (tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetX, sul1 and sul2) and intI1 in rhizosphere soil of wheat were obviously higher than those in bulk soil. 20.0 mg·kg-1 chlorpyrifos significantly increased the abundance of total ARGs and intI1 in bulk soil, respectively, at day 50 and 100, but not in rhizosphere soil. Rhizosphere influence on ARGs was far greater than chlorpyrifos. ARGs and intI1 abundances were higher at day 50 than ones at day 100. C/N ratio and NO3--N content, which were affected by rhizosphere and cultivation time, significantly explained the increased ARGs. Compared to bulk soil, rhizosphere shifted host bacteria of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs), intI1 at genus level, and host bacteria of sul1, sul2 at phylum level. Rhizosphere simplified the linkage of ARGs, host bacteria and metabolites. Bacterial communities played important roles in the variation of ARGs and intI1, and the difference in the distribution of potential hosts between bulk and rhizosphere soil was related to metabolites abundance and composition. These results provide valuable information for understanding the linkage of ARGs, associated bacteria communities and metabolites in the wheat rhizosphere soil.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clorpirifos , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127422, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623129

RESUMO

During wheat cultivation, glyphosate-based herbicides are recommended to be applied a week prior to harvest during the ripe stage of physiological maturity. However, some grains may not be at this physiological stage due to non-uniform maturation within the field. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide timing on the chemistry of wheat gluten proteins and shikimic acid accumulation. The results of the study indicate that pre-harvest glyphosate application does not impact the amino acid composition, protein secondary structure or gluten protein composition. However, pre-harvest glyphosate application decreased the molecular weight of SDS extractable and unextractable proteins, and significantly increased the amount of shikimic acid accumulation, especially when applied early. Thus, this study indicates that pre-harvest use of glyphosate-based herbicides can cause significant differences in wheat protein chemistry and shikimic acid levels, especially when applied earlier than recommended, emphasizing the importance of timely application.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Ácido Chiquímico/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110822, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534334

RESUMO

Boron (B) toxicity is an important abiotic constraint that limits crop productivity mainly in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. High levels of B in soil disturbs several physiological and biochemical processes in plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of melatonin (Mel) in the regulation of carbohydrate and proline (Pro) metabolism, photosynthesis process and antioxidant system of wheat seedlings under B toxicity conditions. High levels of B inhibited net photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), content of chlorophyll (Chl) a, b, δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and increased accumulation of B, Chl degradation and activity of chlorophyllase (Chlase; a Chl degrading enzyme), and downregulated the activity of enzymes (δ-ALAD; δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) involved in the biosynthesis of photosynthesis pigments, photosynthesis (carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) and carbohydrate metabolism (cell wall invertase, CWI) in wheat seedlings. Also, high levels of B caused oxidative damage by increasing the content of malondialdehyde, superoxide anion and H2O2, and activity of glycolate oxidase (an H2O2-producing enzyme) in leaves of seedlings. However, foliar application of Mel significantly improved photosynthetic pigments concentration by increasing δ-ALA, δ-ALAD and decreasing Chl degradation and Chlase activity and led to an increase of plant growth attributes under both B toxicity and non-toxicity conditions. Under normal and B toxicity conditions, exogenous Mel also improved content of N, P, total soluble carbohydrates (TSCs) and Pro, and upregulated activity of CWI and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase. Mel significantly suppressed the adverse effects of excess B by alleviating cellular oxidative damage through enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging by superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and lipoxygenase, and content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), ascorbate and reduced glutathione. These results postulate that Mel induced plant defense mechanisms by enhancing Pro, TSCs, TPC, nutrients (N and P) uptake and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Boro/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127445, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593005

RESUMO

Iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe2O3)-filled materials have been widely employed in various products and their effects on plants have attracted considerable attention because of their potential release into the environment. Currently, numerous studies reporting the influences of iron-bearing nanoparticles on plants are focused on root or seed exposure. However, plants exposed to atmospheric iron-bearing nanoparticles through the leaves and their impacts on plants are still not well understood. This study focused on the uptake, translocation, and effects of foliar exposure of nFe2O3 on wheat seedlings. Wheat seedlings were foliar applied to various concentrations of nFe2O3 (0, 60 and 180 µg per plant) for 1, 7, 14 or 21 d. Our results demonstrated that after exposure for 21 d, the concentrations of Fe in leaves, stems, and roots were 1100, 280 and 160 µg kg-1, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), as well as the backscattered electron (BSE) images, revealed the stomatal opening was likely the pathway for nFe2O3 uptake. Analysis of the transfer rate, translocation of Fe from leaves to stems and roots, suggested the involvement of plant Fe regulation processes. Particularly, the antioxidant enzymatic activities and malondialdehyde levels in leaves were modified, which was ascribed to the excessive hydroxyl radical (OH) generated via the Fenton-like reaction mediated by nFe2O3. Finally, the OH facilitated the degradation of chlorophyll, posting a negative impact on the photosynthesis, and thus inhibited the biomass production. These findings are meaningful to understand the fate and physiological effects of atmospheric nFe2O3 in crops.


Assuntos
Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110830, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559689

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) oxides are intimately coupled with phosphorus and closely associated with the bioavailability of potential toxic elements (PTEs) in soil. Thus, Fe oxides may influence the stabilization of PTEs in contaminated soils amended by phosphorus. To evaluate the effects of hematite (HMT) on the stabilization of PTEs, 1-5% (by weight) of HMT was added into a contaminated red soil amended with hydroxyapatite (HAP) to simulate naturally occurring Fe oxides. The stabilization efficiencies of soil copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) amended with HAP in soils with low, moderate, and high content of HMT were assessed after a 60-day incubation. HAP treated the soil with high rate HMT decreased the CaCl2-extractable and acid-soluble fractions of Cu and Cd than that of HAP alone. In particular, CaCl2-extactable Cu and Cd in the soil with 5% HMT amended by HAP were 91-95% and 41-68% lower than those amended with only HAP. High content of HMT in soil could decrease the concentration of labile phosphorus in the presence of HAP, but it did not increase the concentration of NaOH-extractable inorganic phosphorus (the fraction bound to Fe oxides). The concentrations of free and crystalline Fe oxides were significantly increased by adding high dosages of HMT with or without HAP. High content of HMT in soil amended by HAP reduced metal phytotoxicity and uptake by wheat shoots than the soil containing HAP without HMT. The results indicate that HMT can promote Cu and Cd stabilization while decrease labile phosphorus in red soil amended with HAP, suggesting that phosphorus-based amendments combined with Fe oxides can be used to stabilize PTEs in contaminated red soils.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Durapatita/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/metabolismo , China , Cobre/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12017-12028, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434917

RESUMO

Synthetic chemical elicitors, so called plant strengtheners, can protect plants from pests and pathogens. Most plant strengtheners act by modifying defense signaling pathways, and little is known about other mechanisms by which they may increase plant resistance. Moreover, whether plant strengtheners that enhance insect resistance actually enhance crop yields is often unclear. Here, we uncover how a mechanism by which 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FPA) protects cereals from piercing-sucking insects and thereby increases rice yield in the field. Four-FPA does not stimulate hormonal signaling, but modulates the production of peroxidases, H2O2, and flavonoids and directly triggers the formation of flavonoid polymers. The increased deposition of phenolic polymers in rice parenchyma cells of 4-FPA-treated plants is associated with a decreased capacity of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera to reach the plant phloem. We demonstrate that application of 4-PFA in the field enhances rice yield by reducing the abundance of, and damage caused by, insect pests. We demonstrate that 4-FPA also increases the resistance of other major cereals such as wheat and barley to piercing-sucking insect pests. This study unravels a mode of action by which plant strengtheners can suppress herbivores and increase crop yield. We postulate that this represents a conserved defense mechanism of plants against piercing-sucking insect pests, at least in cereals.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides , Hemípteros , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/análise , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464490

RESUMO

Soil phosphorus (P) occurs in pools of lower availability due to soil P fixation and therefore, it is a key constrain to crop production. Long term molybdenum-induced effects in wheat and rhizosphere/non-rhizosphere soil P dynamics have not yet been investigated. Here, a long term field experiment was conducted to explore these effects in wheat consisting of two treatments i.e. with molybdenum (+Mo) and without molybdenum (-Mo). The results revealed that molybdenum (Mo) supply increased plant biomass, grain yield, P uptake, preserved the configuration of chloroplast, stomata, and mesophyll tissue cells, suggesting the complementary effects of Mo on wheat yield and P accumulation. During the periods of vegetative growth, soil organic carbon, organic matter, and microbial biomass P were higher and tended to decrease in rhizosphere soil at maturity stage. In +Mo treatment, the most available P fractions [H2O-Pi (16.2-22.9 mg/kg and 4.24-7.57 mg/kg) and NaHCO3-Pi (130-149 mg/kg and 77.2-88 mg/kg)] were significantly increased in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. In addition, the +Mo treatment significantly increased the acid phosphatase activity and the expression of phoN/phoC, aphA, olpA/lppC gene transcripts in rhizosphere soil compared to -Mo. Our research findings suggested that Mo application has increased P availability not only through biochemical and chemical changes in rhizosphere but also through P assimilation and induced effects in the leaf ultra-structures. So, it might be a strategy of long term Mo fertilizer supply to overcome the P scarcity in plants and rhizosphere soil.


Assuntos
Molibdênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Rizosfera , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbono , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(1): 139-145, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458034

RESUMO

In this study, the responses of wheat seedlings to graphene oxide (GO) were investigated at a wide concentration range of 0-1000 mg L-1, including oxidative stress, real-time membrane potential as well as proton and calcium ion fluxes. The results show that GO induced a hormesis effect on root growth (low concentration (100 mg L-1) promotion and high concentration (1000 mg L-1) inhibition. Oxidative stress was responsible for the growth inhibition at GO concentration of 1000 mg L-1, as suggested from great stimulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and MDA content in roots or leaves. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) activities were highly correlated with MDA levels (r2 = 0.963, 0.984, and 0.960, respectively). GO exposure caused significant concentration-dependent membrane depolarization in roots, and significantly inhibited H+ efflux and extracellular Ca2+ influx in root cap.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289637

RESUMO

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, E.C. 2.2.1.6) is the target site of several herbicide classes including imidazolinones. Imidazolinone resistance in wheat is conferred by two major genes AhasL-D1 and AhasL-B1. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo AHAS activity and plant growth in response to imazamox of nine wheat cultivars. Dose-response curves for two-gene resistant cultivars were significantly different from the single-gene resistant and susceptible cultivars in the in vitro AHAS assay. Resistance levels at the in vivo AHAS and whole-plant assays for resistant cultivars were >10-fold higher than susceptible cultivars. Moreover, in vivo dose-response curves showed differences among cultivars with the same number of resistance genes. It was concluded that in the in vitro AHAS assay cultivar variability was due to differences in target-site sensitivity while the in vivo AHAS assay reflected the resistance at whole-plant level. Both in vitro and in vivo AHAS dose-response curves could be useful tools when exploring mechanisms involved in imidazolinone resistance in different wheat genetic backgrounds and for the selection of higher resistant genotypes.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Agricultura , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Resistência a Herbicidas , Imidazóis , Triticum , Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Agricultura/métodos , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Seleção Genética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/enzimologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335383

RESUMO

Effective functioning of the mitochondrial complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is necessary for ATP synthesis. The OXPHOS complexes exist both as individual forms and supercomplexes, whose formation and stability are supported by specific protein and lipid factors. In this paper, we report on the types and activities of OXPHOS complexes and supercomplexes from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root mitochondria analyzed by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The activity of OXPHOS complexes decreased when a mixture of rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I, and antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III (R + AA) was applied to the BN-PAGE gels. By contrast, the types and activities of the OXPHOS complexes and supercomplexes did not change when they were isolated from the R + AA treated roots. However, the amount of the mitochondrial membrane-bound low molecular mass proteins in these roots markedly increased. The proteins were identified as ANT1 and ANT2 (ADP/ATP translocators) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase. We suggest that these low molecular mass proteins contribute to fine control mechanisms that stabilize mitochondrial supercomplexes and help to overcome an inhibitor-induced energy deficit by enhancing ADP/ATP transfer and ultimately improving the supply of ATP.


Assuntos
Antimicina A , Mitocôndrias , Raízes de Plantas , Rotenona , Triticum , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Antimicina A/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rotenona/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
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