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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638765

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in diverse plant growth processes through a complex signaling pathway. Components orchestrating the BR signaling pathway include receptors such as kinases, transcription factors, protein kinases and phosphatases. The proper functioning of the receptor kinase BRI1 and the transcription factors BES1/BZR1 depends on their dephosphorylation by type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A). In this work, we report that an additional phosphatase family, type one protein phosphatases (PP1), contributes to the regulation of the BR signaling pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BiFC experiments performed in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing durum wheat TdPP1 showed that TdPP1 interacts with dephosphorylated BES1, but not with the BRI1 receptor. Higher levels of dephosphorylated, active BES1 were observed in these transgenic lines upon BR treatment, indicating that TdPP1 modifies the BR signaling pathway by activating BES1. Moreover, ectopic expression of durum wheat TdPP1 lead to an enhanced growth of primary roots in comparison to wild-type plants in presence of BR. This phenotype corroborates with a down-regulation of the BR-regulated genes CPD and DWF4. These data suggest a role of PP1 in fine-tuning BR-driven responses, most likely via the control of the phosphorylation status of BES1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Triticum/enzimologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576012

RESUMO

The current study evaluates the role of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the associated metabolic complex in the accumulation of lignin in common wheat plants (Tríticum aestívum L.) at the early stages of ontogenesis. The data analysis was performed using plant samples that had reached Phases 4 and 5 on the Feekes scale-these phases are characterized by a transition to the formation of axial (stem) structures in cereal plants. We have shown that the substrate stimulation of PAL with key substrates, such as L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, leads to a significant increase in lignin by an average of 20% in experimental plants compared to control plants. In addition, the presence of these compounds in the nutrient medium led to an increase in the number of gene transcripts associated with lignin synthesis (PAL6, C4H1, 4CL1, C3H1). Inhibition was the main tool of the study. Potential competitive inhibitors of PAL were used: the optical isomer of L-phenylalanine-D-phenylalanine-and the hydroxylamine equivalent of phenylalanine-O-Benzylhydroxylamine. As a result, plants incubated on a medium supplemented with O-Benzylhydroxylamine were characterized by reduced PAL activity (almost one third). The lignin content of the cell wall in plants treated with O-Benzylhydroxylamine was almost halved. In contrast, D-phenylalanine did not lead to significant changes in the lignin-associated metabolic complex, and its effect was similar to that of specific substrates.


Assuntos
Lignina/biossíntese , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Amônia-Liases/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15303, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315977

RESUMO

Hypergravity-an evolutionarily novel environment has been exploited to comprehend the response of living organisms including plants in the context of extra-terrestrial applications. Recently, researchers have shown that hypergravity induces desired phenotypic variability in seedlings. In the present study, we tested the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable phenotype/s for potential terrestrial crop improvement applications. To investigate, bread wheat seeds (UAS-375 genotype) were subjected to hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12, and 24 h), and evaluated for seedling vigor and plant growth parameters in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. It was also attempted to elucidate the associated biochemical and hormonal changes at different stages of vegetative growth. Resultant data revealed that hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12 h) significantly enhanced root length, root volume, and root biomass in response to hypergravity. The robust seedling growth phenotype may be attributed to increased alpha-amylase and TDH enzyme activities observed in seeds treated with hypergravity. Elevated total chlorophyll content and Rubisco (55 kDa) protein expression across different stages of vegetative growth in response to hypergravity may impart physiological benefits to wheat growth. Further, hypergravity elicited robust endogenous phytohormones dynamics in root signifying altered phenotype/s. Collectively, this study for the first time describes the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable root phenotype that could be potentially exploited for improving wheat varieties for better water usage management.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Hipergravidade , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073183

RESUMO

Sharp eyespot, caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a serious fungal disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Certain wall-associated receptor kinases (WAK) mediate resistance to diseases caused by biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens in several plant species. Yet, none of wheat WAK genes with positive effect on the innate immune responses to R. cerealis has been reported. In this study, we identified a WAK gene TaWAK7D, located on chromosome 7D, and showed its positive regulatory role in the defense response to R. cerealis infection in wheat. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses showed that TaWAK7D transcript abundance was elevated in wheat after R. cerealis inoculation and the induction in the stem was the highest among the tested organs. Additionally, TaWAK7D transcript levels were significantly elevated by pectin and chitin treatments. The knock-down of TaWAK7D transcript impaired resistance to R. cerealis and repressed the expression of five pathogenesis-related genes in wheat. The green fluorescent protein signal distribution assays indicated that TaWAK7D localized on the plasma membrane in wheat protoplasts. Thus, TaWAK7D, which is induced by R. cerealis, pectin and chitin stimuli, positively participates in defense responses to R. cerealis through modulating the expression of several pathogenesis-related genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas Quinases , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
5.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110937, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134844

RESUMO

Small GTP-binding proteins, also known as ROPs (Rho of Plants), are a subfamily of the Ras superfamily of signaling G-proteins and are required for numerous signaling processes, ranging from growth and development to biotic and abiotic signaling. In this study, we cloned and characterized wheat TaRop10, a homolog of Arabidopsis ROP10 and member of the class II ROP, and uncovered a role for TaRop10 in wheat response to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). TaRop10 was downregulated by actin depolymerization and was observed to be differentially induced by abiotic stress and the perception of plant hormones. A combination of yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that TaRop10 interacted with a h-type thioredoxin (TaTrxh9). Knocking-down of TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 was performed using the BSMV-VIGS (barley stripe mosaic virus-based virus-induced gene silencing) technique and revealed that TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 play a role in the negative regulation of defense signaling in response to Pst infection. In total, the data presented herein further illuminate our understanding of how intact plant cells accommodate fungal infection structures, and furthermore, support the function of TaRop10 and TaTrxh9 in negative modulation of defense signaling in response to stripe rust infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Puccinia/fisiologia , Triticum/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Inativação Gênica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 302, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the determinants of free asparagine concentration in wheat grain is necessary to reduce levels of the processing contaminant acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat products. Although crop management strategies can help reduce asparagine concentrations, breeders have limited options to select for genetic variation underlying this trait. Asparagine synthetase enzymes catalyse a critical step in asparagine biosynthesis in plants and, in wheat, are encoded by five homeologous gene triads that exhibit distinct expression profiles. Within this family, TaASN2 genes are highly expressed during grain development but TaASN-B2 is absent in some varieties. RESULTS: Natural genetic diversity in the asparagine synthetase gene family was assessed in different wheat varieties revealing instances of presence/absence variation and other polymorphisms, including some predicted to affect the function of the encoded protein. The presence and absence of TaASN-B2 was determined across a range of UK and global common wheat varieties and related species, showing that the deletion encompassing this gene was already present in some wild emmer wheat genotypes. Expression profiling confirmed that TaASN2 transcripts were only detectable in the grain, while TaASN3.1 genes were highly expressed during the early stages of grain development. TaASN-A2 was the most highly expressed TaASN2 homeologue in most assayed wheat varieties. TaASN-B2 and TaASN-D2 were expressed at similar, lower levels in varieties possessing TaASN-B2. Expression of TaASN-A2 and TaASN-D2 did not increase to compensate for the absence of TaASN-B2, so total TaASN2 expression was lower in varieties lacking TaASN-B2. Consequently, free asparagine concentrations in field-produced grain were, on average, lower in varieties lacking TaASN-B2, although the effect was lost when free asparagine accumulated to very high concentrations as a result of sulphur deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Selecting wheat genotypes lacking the TaASN-B2 gene may be a simple and rapid way for breeders to reduce free asparagine concentrations in commercial wheat grain.


Assuntos
Asparagina/metabolismo , Aspartato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Deleção de Genes , Triticum/genética , Aspartato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 481-489, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933544

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of microwave-ultrasound or/and toughening treatment on the physicochemical, structural properties, and in vitro digestibility of A- and B-type granules isolated from wheat starch were investigated. From the SEM, microwave-ultrasound and toughening treatment (MU-T) led to the appearance of irregular and disrupted structure significantly and an increment in the resistant starch content of A- and B-type granule. Furthermore, the MU-T starch possessed the lowest swelling power, light transmittance, and gelatinization temperature range (Tc -To) and the highest ΔH. After MU-T, the relative crystallinity (RC) of X-ray pattern, Fourier transform infrared ratio of 1047/1022 cm-1, and the content of double helix and single helix of 13C CP/MAS NMR had increased significantly. In particular, there was a difference in the content of RS and SDS between A-starch granules and B-starch granules as well as their changes after modification (from 69.305% to 82.93 for A-starch and form 74.97% to 88.17 for B-starch, respectively), which was a similar trend with RC and helix content. This study indicated that, for both A-type granule and B-type granule starches, microwave-ultrasound and toughening treated samples had unique properties compared to singly modified starches.


Assuntos
Amilose/metabolismo , Digestão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Micro-Ondas , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Ultrassom , Amilose/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Hidrólise , Amido Resistente/análise , Triticum/química
9.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(5): 544-552, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814021

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA), a phytohormone, has been considered to be a key regulator mediating plant defence against pathogens. It is still vague how SA activates plant defence against herbivores such as chewing and sucking pests. Here, we used an aphid-susceptible wheat variety to investigate Sitobion avenae response to SA-induced wheat plants, and the effects of exogenous SA on some defence enzymes and phenolics in the plant immune system. In SA-treated wheat seedlings, intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), fecundity and apterous rate of S. avenae were 0.25, 31.4 nymphs/female and 64.4%, respectively, and significantly lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, the increased activities of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase in the SA-induced seedlings obviously depended on the sampling time, whereas activities of catalase and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase were suppressed significantly at 24, 48 and 72 h in comparison with the control. Dynamic levels of p-coumaric acid at 96 h, caffeic acid at 24 and 72 h and chlorogenic acid at 24, 48 and 96 h in wheat plants were significantly upregulated by exogenous SA application. Nevertheless, only caffeic acid content was positively correlated with PPO activity in SA-treated wheat seedlings (P = 0.031). These findings indicate that exogenous SA significantly enhanced the defence of aphid-susceptible wheat variety against aphids by regulating the plant immune system, and may prove a potential application of SA in aphid control.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química , Plântula , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/imunologia
10.
Photosynth Res ; 148(1-2): 47-56, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796933

RESUMO

Diurnal rhythms and light availability affect transcription-translation feedback loops that regulate the synthesis of photosynthetic proteins. The CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco is the most abundant protein in the leaves of major crop species and its activity depends on interaction with the molecular chaperone Rubisco activase (Rca). In Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), three Rca isoforms are present that differ in their regulatory properties. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the relative abundance of the redox-sensitive and redox-insensitive Rca isoforms could be differentially regulated throughout light-dark diel cycle in wheat. While TaRca1-ß expression was consistently negligible throughout the day, transcript levels of both TaRca2-ß and TaRca2-α were higher and increased at the start of the day, with peak levels occurring at the middle of the photoperiod. Abundance of TaRca-ß protein was maximal 1.5 h after the peak in TaRca2-ß expression, but the abundance of TaRca-α remained constant during the entire photoperiod. The redox-sensitive TaRca-α isoform was less abundant, representing 85% of the redox-insensitive TaRca-ß at the transcript level and 12.5% at the protein level. Expression of Rubisco large and small subunit genes did not show a consistent pattern throughout the diel cycle, but the abundance of Rubisco decreased by up to 20% during the dark period in fully expanded wheat leaves. These results, combined with a lack of correlation between transcript and protein abundance for both Rca isoforms and Rubisco throughout the entire diel cycle, suggest that the abundance of these photosynthetic enzymes is post-transcriptionally regulated.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/enzimologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética
11.
Nat Plants ; 7(3): 327-341, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707738

RESUMO

Crop breeding for resistance to pathogens largely relies on genes encoding receptors that confer race-specific immunity. Here, we report the identification of the wheat Pm4 race-specific resistance gene to powdery mildew. Pm4 encodes a putative chimeric protein of a serine/threonine kinase and multiple C2 domains and transmembrane regions, a unique domain architecture among known resistance proteins. Pm4 undergoes constitutive alternative splicing, generating two isoforms with different protein domain topologies that are both essential for resistance function. Both isoforms interact and localize to the endoplasmatic reticulum when co-expressed. Pm4 reveals additional diversity of immune receptor architecture to be explored for breeding and suggests an endoplasmatic reticulum-based molecular mechanism of Pm4-mediated race-specific resistance.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Ascomicetos/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Recombinação Genética , Triticum/enzimologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6911, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767270

RESUMO

Black point is a cereal disease caused by complex pathogens, of which the pathogenicity of Bipolaris sorokiniana is the most serious in wheat. Resistance to black point is quantitative in nature, and thus the mechanism is poorly understood. We conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in black point-slightly susceptible and -highly susceptible wheat lines at different timepoints following B. sorokiniana inoculation. DEGs associated with photosynthesis were upregulated in black point-slightly susceptible lines. The top Gene Ontology enrichment terms for biological processes were oxidation-reduction, response to cold, salt stress, oxidative stress, and cadmium ion; terms for cellular component genes were mainly involved in plasma membrane and cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle, whereas those for molecular function were heme binding and peroxidase activity. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were higher in slightly susceptible lines than those in highly susceptible lines (except peroxidase 12-24 days post-inoculation). Thus, resistance to B. sorokiniana-caused black point in wheat was mainly related to counteracting oxidative stress, although the specific metabolic pathways require further study. This study presents new insights for understanding resistance mechanisms of selected wheat lines to black point.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bipolaris/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Oxidativo , Transcriptoma , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248717, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750963

RESUMO

Wheat germ acid phosphatase (WGAP) is a commercial preparation of partially purified protein commonly used in laboratory settings for non-specific enzymatic dephosphorylation. It is known that these preparations contain multiple phosphatase isozymes and are still relatively crude. This study therefore aimed to identify the protein components of a commercial preparation of wheat germ acid phosphatase using mass spectroscopy and comparative genomics. After one post-purchase purification step, the most prevalent fifteen proteins in the mixture included heat shock proteins, beta-amylases, glucoseribitol dehydrogenases, enolases, and an aminopeptidase. While not among the most abundant components, eight unique dephosphorylation enzymes were also present including three purple acid phosphatases. Furthermore, it is shown that some of these correspond to previously isolated isozymes; one of which has been also previously shown by transcriptome data to be overexpressed in wheat seeds. In summary, this study identified the major components of WGAP including phosphatases and hypothesizes the most active components towards a better understanding of this commonly used laboratory tool.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Ácida/isolamento & purificação , Células Germinativas/enzimologia , Isoenzimas/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/enzimologia , Fosfatase Ácida/química , Fosfatase Ácida/genética , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Isoenzimas/genética , Cinética , Especificidade por Substrato/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246880, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571310

RESUMO

The current study involves the biogenesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) by using Moringa oleifera Lam. aqueous leaf extract for the reduction of titanium dioxide salt into TiO2 nanoparticles. The biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by using the UV-visible spectrophotometry, SEM, EDX and XRD analytical methods. It was confirmed that the nanoparticles are crystalline and exist in the size range of 10-100 nm. The FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of O-H (hydrogen bonding), N-H (amide), C-C (alkanes) and C-I (Iodo-stretch) functional groups responsible for the stabilization of nanoparticles. Various concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L) of TiO2 NPs were applied exogenously on wheat plants infected with a fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana responsible to cause spot blotch disease at different time intervals. The measurement of disease incidence and percent disease index showed the time-dependent response and 40 mg/L was reported a stable concentration of TiO2 NPs to reduce the disease severity. The effects of biosynthesized TiO2 NPs were also evaluated for agro-morphological (leaf and root surface area, plant fresh and dry weight and yield parameters), physiological (relative water content, membrane stability index and chlorophyll content) and non-enzymatic metabolites (soluble sugar, protein, soluble phenol and flavonoid content) in wheat plants under biotic stress and 40 mg/L concentration of TiO2 NPs was found to be effective to elicit modifications to reduce biotic stress. The current study highlights the significant role of biosynthesized TiO2 NPs in controlling fungal diseases of wheat plants and thus ultimately improving the quality and yield of wheat plants.


Assuntos
Bipolaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/enzimologia
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 74, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of nutritionally appropriate foods is one of the leading causes of obesity in the US and worldwide. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) provides 20% of the calories consumed daily across the globe. The nutrients in the wheat grain come primarily from the starch composed of amylose and amylopectin. Resistant starch content, which is known to have significant human health benefits, can be increased by modifying starch synthesis pathways. Starch synthase enzyme SSIIa, also known as starch granule protein isoform-1 (SGP-1), is integral to the biosynthesis of the branched and readily digestible glucose polymer amylopectin. The goal of this work was to develop a triple null mutant genotype for SSIIa locus in the elite hard red winter wheat variety 'Jagger' and evaluate the effect of the knock-out mutations on resistant starch content in grains with respect to wild type. RESULTS: Knock-out mutations in SSIIa in the three genomes of wheat variety 'Jagger' were identified using TILLING. Subsequently, these loss-of function mutations on A, B, and D genomes were combined by crossing to generate a triple knockout mutant genotype Jag-ssiia-∆ABD. The Jag-ssiia-∆ABD had an amylose content of 35.70% compared to 31.15% in Jagger, leading to ~ 118% increase in resistant starch in the Jag-ssiia-∆ABD genotype of Jagger wheat. The single individual genome mutations also had various effects on starch composition. CONCLUSIONS: Our full null Jag-ssiia-∆ABD mutant showed a significant increase in RS without the shriveled grain phenotype seen in other ssiia knockouts in elite wheat cultivars. Moreover, this study shows the potential for developing nutritionally improved foods in a non-GM approach. Since all the mutants have been developed in an elite wheat cultivar, their adoption in production and supply will be feasible in future.


Assuntos
Amilose/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Poliploidia , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sintase do Amido/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
16.
Plant Cell ; 33(5): 1728-1747, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565586

RESUMO

Plant pathogens suppress defense responses to evade recognition and promote successful colonization. Although identifying the genes essential for pathogen ingress has traditionally relied on screening mutant populations, the post-genomic era provides an opportunity to develop novel approaches that accelerate identification. Here, RNA-seq analysis of 68 pathogen-infected bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties, including three (Oakley, Solstice and Santiago) with variable levels of susceptibility, uncovered a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (termed TaBCAT1) as a positive regulator of wheat rust susceptibility. We show that TaBCAT1 is required for yellow and stem rust infection and likely functions in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, as TaBCAT1 disruption mutants had elevated BCAA levels. TaBCAT1 mutants also exhibited increased levels of salicylic acid (SA) and enhanced expression of associated defense genes, indicating that BCAA regulation, via TaBCAT1, has a key role in SA-dependent defense activation. We also identified an association between the levels of BCAAs and resistance to yellow rust infection in wheat. These findings provide insight into SA-mediated defense responses in wheat and highlight the role of BCAA metabolism in the defense response. Furthermore, TaBCAT1 could be manipulated to potentially provide resistance to two of the most economically damaging diseases of wheat worldwide.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transaminases/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 346: 128974, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465571

RESUMO

The effects of argon and nitrogen cold plasma treatments on the lipolytic enzymes activity in wheat germ were investigated. Using argon as plasma gas, the residual activity of lipase and lipoxygenase decreased to 42.50% and 87.72%, respectively after 30 min. Switching plasma input gas to nitrogen, the residual activities of lipase and lipoxygenase after the same time of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) treatment were 77.50% and 92.52%, respectively. The antioxidant potential and phenolic compounds show no significant difference during ACP duration. However, the remaining activities of lipase and lipoxygenase after 30 min steam autoclaving were 6.25% and 18.60%, respectively. Also, the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content reduced by 14.70% and 30.80%, respectively. In brief, the ACP treatment efficiency was function of the input gas and the treatment time. The presented results about the input gas impacts would be useful in industrial development of ACP application for wheat germ stabilization.


Assuntos
Lipase/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Gases em Plasma/química , Triticum/enzimologia , Antioxidantes/química , Argônio/química , Nitrogênio/química , Fenóis/química , Temperatura , Triticum/química
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 433, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469010

RESUMO

The poverty of disease resistance gene reservoirs limits the breeding of crops for durable resistance against evolutionary dynamic pathogens. Zymoseptoria tritici which causes Septoria tritici blotch (STB), represents one of the most genetically diverse and devastating wheat pathogens worldwide. No fully virulent Z. tritici isolates against synthetic wheats carrying the major resistant gene Stb16q have been identified. Here, we use comparative genomics, mutagenesis and complementation to identify Stb16q, which confers broad-spectrum resistance against Z. tritici. The Stb16q gene encodes a plasma membrane cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase that was recently introduced into cultivated wheat and which considerably slows penetration and intercellular growth of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Genes de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Sementes/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/microbiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508026

RESUMO

Chapatti (unleavened flatbread) is a staple food in northern India and neighboring countries but the genetics behind its processing quality are poorly understood. To understand the genes determining chapatti quality, differentially expressed genes were selected from microarray data of contrasting chapatti cultivars. From the gene and trait association studies, a null allele of granule bound starch synthase (GBSS; Wx-B1) was found to be associated with low amylose content and good chapatti quality. For validation, near-isogenic lines (NILs) of this allele were created by marker assisted backcross (MAB) breeding. Background screening indicated 88.2 to 96.7% background recovery in 16 selected BC3F5 NILs. Processing quality and sensory evaluation of selected NILs indicated improvement in chapatti making quality. Traits that showed improvement were mouthfeel, tearing strength and softness indicating that the Wx-B1 may be one of the major genes controlling chapatti softness.


Assuntos
Alelos , Amilose , Pão , Proteínas de Plantas , Sementes , Sintase do Amido , Triticum , Amilose/genética , Amilose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Sementes/genética , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 167: 279-288, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275969

RESUMO

α-Amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) delay digestion of dietary starch by inhibiting α-amylase in the gut, thereby reducing the postprandial glycemia, which is beneficial to the patients with obesity and diabetes. The proteinaceous α-AIs from wheat can effectively control starch digestion and regulate postprandial hyperglycemia. However, their gastric intolerance remains a challenge, which limits its commercial production and industrial application. In this study, sodium alginate/chitosan aerogels loaded with wheat protein α-AIs were prepared and evaluated as potential transportation and protection matrices for important components in food or pharmaceutical applications. Specifically, the biodegradable aerogel cross-linked with sodium alginate-chitosan-calcium chloride, has a large surface area and open porous structure, which can adsorb staple wheat proteins as an integrated edible material to block around 88,660 U/g of α-amylase activity. The aerogel particles were able to protect the activity of wheat α-AIs in the stomach, leading to the slow passage of the wheat α-AIs through the small intestine to inhibit starch digestion more effectively. Animal experiments further showed that the postprandial blood glucose levels in rats were effectively controlled through delayed increase, after administration of wheat protein-functionalized aerogel particles loaded with wheat α-AIs, which are natural biological macromolecules. This is a novel, safe, and economical method for the prevention and pretreatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Géis/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Glicemia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Estabilidade Enzimática , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/química , Triticum/enzimologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Amilases/isolamento & purificação
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