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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502055

RESUMO

Among the natural mechanisms used for wheat hybrid breeding, the most desirable is the system combining the cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) of the female parent with the fertility-restoring genes (Rf) of the male parent. The objective of this study was to identify Rf candidate genes in the wheat genome on the basis of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and paralog analysis data. Total RNA was isolated from the anthers of two fertility-restorer (Primépi and Patras) and two non-restorer (Astoria and Grana) varieties at the tetrad and late uninucleate microspore stages. Of 36,912 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 21 encoding domains in known fertility-restoring proteins were selected. To enrich the pool of Rf candidates, 52 paralogs (PAGs) of the 21 selected DEGs were included in the analyses. The expression profiles of most of the DEGs and PAGs determined bioinformatically were as expected (i.e., they were overexpressed in at least one fertility-restorer variety). However, these results were only partially consistent with the quantitative real-time PCR data. The DEG and PAG promoters included cis-regulatory elements common among PPR-encoding genes. On the basis of the obtained results, we designated seven genes as Rf candidate genes, six of which were identified for the first time in this study.


Assuntos
Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Poliploidia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/fisiologia
2.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111022, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482905

RESUMO

Drought has negative effects on cereal production. Studies have shown that many basic leucine zipper transcription factors (bZIP TFs) help to cope with drought stress. In this study, bZIP TF wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) FD-Like2 (TaFDL2) was isolated and functionally analyzed. Three homologs of TaFDL2 were identified and their expression was induced by drought and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. TaFDL2-1A has transactivation activity and two activation domains, and the domain D region has different effects on the transcriptional activity of the two domains. Analysis of TaFDL2-1A overexpression plants indicated their enhanced drought tolerance and greater sensitivity to ABA. TabZIP8-7A was identified as a protein that interacts with TaFDL2-1A in the nucleus, and the overexpression of TabZIP8-7A conferred greater drought resistance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Surprisingly, TaFDL2-1A × TabZIP8-7A double overexpression lines exhibited the highest drought resistance. Genetic and transcriptional regulation analyses demonstrated that stress-response gene transcription was initiated by TaFDL2-1A or TabZIP8-7A via the ABA signaling pathway. Importantly, TaFDL2-1A and TabZIP8-7A synergistically promoted ABA-inducible gene expression in a more efficient manner to form the transcriptional activation complex. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that allow bZIP TFs to regulate ABA signaling in response to drought stress.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
3.
Plant Sci ; 311: 111015, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482918

RESUMO

In the current climate change scenario, understanding crops' physiological performance under water shortage is crucial to overcome drought periods. Although the implication of leaf water relations maintaining leaf turgor and stomatal functioning under water deprivation has been suggested, the relationships between photosynthesis and osmotic and elastic adjustments remain misunderstood. Similarly, only few studies in dicotyledonous analysed how changes in cell wall composition affected photosynthesis and leaf water relations under drought. To induce modifications in photosynthesis, leaf water relations and cell wall composition, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum were subjected to different water regimes: control (CL, full irrigation), moderate and severe water deficit stress (Mod WS and Sev WS, respectively). Water shortage decreased photosynthesis mainly due to stomatal conductance (gs) declines, being accompanied by reduced osmotic potential at full turgor (πo) and increased bulk modulus of elasticity (ε). Whereas both species enhanced pectins when intensifying water deprivation, species-dependent adjustments occurred for cellulose and hemicelluloses. From these results, we showed that πo and ε influenced photosynthesis, particularly, gs. Furthermore, the (Cellulose+Hemicelluloses)/Pectins ratio determined ε and mesophyll conductance (gm) in grasses, presenting the lowest pectins content within angiosperms. Thus, we highlight the relevance of cell wall composition regulating grasses physiology during drought acclimation.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Secas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445448

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) play crucial roles in various biological processes, including plant developmental processes and response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no information is currently available about this gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, we identified the BZR gene family in wheat to understand the evolution and their role in diverse developmental processes and under different stress conditions. In this study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of the BZR gene family in the bread wheat and identified 20 TaBZR genes through a homology search and further characterized them to understand their structure, function, and distribution across various tissues. Phylogenetic analyses lead to the classification of TaBZR genes into five different groups or subfamilies, providing evidence of evolutionary relationship with Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Glycine max, and Oryza sativa. A gene exon/intron structure analysis showed a distinct evolutionary path and predicted the possible gene duplication events. Further, the physical and biochemical properties, conserved motifs, chromosomal, subcellular localization, and cis-acting regulatory elements were also examined using various computational approaches. In addition, an analysis of public RNA-seq data also shows that TaBZR genes may be involved in diverse developmental processes and stress tolerance mechanisms. Moreover, qRT-PCR results also showed similar expression with slight variation. Collectively, these results suggest that TaBZR genes might play an important role in plant developmental processes and various stress conditions. Therefore, this work provides valuable information for further elucidate the precise role of BZR family members in wheat.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/genética , Triazóis , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299055

RESUMO

Fusarium culmorum is a worldwide, soil-borne plant pathogen. It causes diseases of cereals, reduces their yield, and fills the grain with toxins. The main direction of modern breeding is to select wheat genotypes the most resistant to Fusarium diseases. This study uses seedlings and plants at the anthesis stage to analyze total soluble carbohydrates, total and cell-wall bound phenolics, chlorophyll content, antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide content, mycotoxin accumulation, visual symptoms of the disease, and Fusarium head blight index (FHBi). These results determine the resistance of three durum wheat accessions. We identify physiological or biochemical markers of durum wheat resistance to F. culmorum. Our results confirm correlations between FHBi and mycotoxin accumulation in the grain, which results in grain yield decrease. The degree of spike infection (FHBi) may indicate accumulation mainly of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the grain. High catalase activity in the infected leaves could be considered a biochemical marker of durum sensitivity to this fungus. These findings allowed us to formulate a strategy for rapid evaluation of the disease severity and the selection of plants with higher level, or resistance to F. culmorum infection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fusarium/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Genótipo , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/classificação , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15303, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315977

RESUMO

Hypergravity-an evolutionarily novel environment has been exploited to comprehend the response of living organisms including plants in the context of extra-terrestrial applications. Recently, researchers have shown that hypergravity induces desired phenotypic variability in seedlings. In the present study, we tested the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable phenotype/s for potential terrestrial crop improvement applications. To investigate, bread wheat seeds (UAS-375 genotype) were subjected to hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12, and 24 h), and evaluated for seedling vigor and plant growth parameters in both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. It was also attempted to elucidate the associated biochemical and hormonal changes at different stages of vegetative growth. Resultant data revealed that hypergravity treatment (10×g for 12 h) significantly enhanced root length, root volume, and root biomass in response to hypergravity. The robust seedling growth phenotype may be attributed to increased alpha-amylase and TDH enzyme activities observed in seeds treated with hypergravity. Elevated total chlorophyll content and Rubisco (55 kDa) protein expression across different stages of vegetative growth in response to hypergravity may impart physiological benefits to wheat growth. Further, hypergravity elicited robust endogenous phytohormones dynamics in root signifying altered phenotype/s. Collectively, this study for the first time describes the utility of hypergravity as a novel tool in inducing reliable root phenotype that could be potentially exploited for improving wheat varieties for better water usage management.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Hipergravidade , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14473, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262108

RESUMO

Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis tritici) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. The most effective ways to control stripe rust are the use of resistant cultivars and the timely use of an appropriate dose of fungicide. However, the changing nature of rust pathogen outwits the use of resistant cultivars, and the use of a fungicide is associated with environmental problems. To control the disease without sacrificing the environment, we screened 16 endophytic bacteria, which were isolated from stripe rust-resistant wheat cultivars in our previous study, for their biocontrol potential. A total of 5 bacterial strains Serratia marcescens 3A, Bacillus megaterium 6A, Paneibacillus xylanexedens 7A, Bacillus subtilis 11A, and Staphyloccus agentis 15A showed significant inhibition of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) urediniospores germination. Two formulations i.e., fermented liquid with bacterial cell (FLBC) and fermented liquid without bacterial cells (FL) of each bacterial strain, were evaluated against the urediniospores germination. Formulations of five selected endophytic bacteria strains significantly inhibited the uredinioospores germination in the lab experiments. It was further confirmed on seedlings of Pakistani susceptible wheat cultivar Inqilab-91 in the greenhouse, as well as in semi-field conditions. FLBC and FL formulations applied 24 h before Pst inoculation (hbi) displayed a protective mode. The efficacy of FLBC was between 34.45 and 87.77%, while the efficacy of FL was between 39.27 and 85.16% when applied 24 hbi. The inoculated wheat cultivar Inqilab-91 was also tested under semi-field conditions during the 2017-2018 cropping season at the adult plant stage. The strains Bacillus megaterium 6A and Paneibacillus xylanexedens 7A alone significantly reduced the disease severity of stripe rust with the efficacy of 65.16% and 61.11% for the FLBC in protective effect, while 46.07% and 44.47% in curative effect, respectively. Inoculated seedlings of Inqilab-91 showed higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The treated seedlings also showed higher expressions of pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, antifungal protein (PR-1), ß-1,3-endoglucanases (PR-2), endochitinases (PR-4), peroxidase (PR-9), and ribonuclease-like proteins (PR-10). These results indicated that endophytic bacteria have the biocontrol potential, which can be used to manage stripe rust disease. High production antioxidant enzymes, as well as high expression of PR protein genes, might be crucial in triggering the host defense mechanism against Pst.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico , Endófitos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Plântula/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Bacillus megaterium/fisiologia , Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Células Vegetais/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/fisiologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia
8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(9): 2991-3011, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095960

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The genetic basis of 27 seedling traits under normal and salt treatments was fully analyzed in a RIL wheat population, and seven QTL intervals were validated in two other genetic populations. Soil salinity seriously constrains wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally by influencing its growth and development. To explore the genetic basis of salt tolerance in wheat, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between high-yield wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 (ZM175) and salt-tolerant cultivar Xiaoyan 60 (XY60) was used to map QTL for seedling traits under normal and salt treatments based on a high-density genetic linkage map. A total of 158 stable additive QTL for 27 morphological and physiological traits were identified and distributed on all wheat chromosomes except 3A and 4D. They explained 2.35-46.43% of the phenotypic variation with a LOD score range of 2.61-40.38. The alleles from XY60 increased corresponding traits for 100 QTL, while the alleles from ZM175 had positive effects for the other 58 QTL. Nearly half of the QTL (78/158) were mapped in nine QTL clusters on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 2D, 4B, 5A, 5B, 5D, and 7D (2), respectively. To prove the reliability and potentiality in molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS), seven QTL intervals were validated in two other genetic populations. Besides additive QTL, 94 pairs of loci were detected with significant epistatic effect and 20 QTL were found to interact with treatment. This study provides a full elucidation of the genetic basis of seedling traits (especially root system-related traits) associated with salt tolerance in wheat, and the developed kompetitive allele-specific PCR markers closely linked to stable QTL would supply strong supports to MAS in salt-tolerant wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Plântula/genética , Triticum/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12650, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135422

RESUMO

Ethylene plays a crucial role throughout the life cycle of plants under optimal and stressful environments. The present study reports the involvement of exogenously sourced ethylene (as ethephon; 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) in the protection of the photosynthetic activity from glucose (Glu) sensitivity through its influence on the antioxidant system for adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants under salt stress. Ten-day-old plants were subjected to control and 100 mM NaCl and treated with 200 µl L-1 ethephon on foliage at 20 days after seed sowing individually or in combination with 6% Glu. Plants receiving ethylene exhibited higher growth and photosynthesis through reduced Glu sensitivity in the presence of salt stress. Moreover, ethylene-induced reduced glutathione (GSH) production resulted in increased psbA and psbB expression to protect PSII activity and photosynthesis under salt stress. The use of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, substantiated the involvement of ethylene-induced GSH in the reversal of Glu-mediated photosynthetic repression in salt-stressed plants. It was suggested that ethylene increased the utilization of Glu under salt stress through its influence on photosynthetic potential and sink strength and reduced the Glu-mediated repression of photosynthesis.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Triticum , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
10.
Plant Sci ; 309: 110913, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134840

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Ubiquitination plays important roles in regulating ABA signaling. E3 ligase, a key member in ubiquitination, actively participates in the regulation of biosynthesis, de-repression, and activation of ABA response and degradation of signaling components. In this study, we found that that overexpression of wheat E3 ligase TaPUB1 decreased the sensitivity of wheat seedlings to ABA, whereas TaPUB1-RNA interference (TaPUB1-RNAi) lines increased wheat sensitivity to ABA during germination, root growth, and stomatal opening. TaPUB1 influenced the expression of several ABA-responsive genes, and also interacted with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, which are involved in ABA signal transduction, and promoted their degradation. Additionally, we observed that TaPUB1-OE lines resulted in lower single-split grain numbers, larger seed size, and higher thousand kernel weight, when compared with the WT lines. Contrasting results were obtained for TaPUB1-RNAi lines. It suggests that TaPUB1 acts as a negative regulator in the ABA signaling pathway by interacting with TaPYL4 and TaABI5, subsequently affecting seed development in wheat. In addition, the enhanced abiotic tolerance of overexpression lines due to enhanced photosynthesis and root development may be related to the degradation of TaABI5 by TaPUB1.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triticum/genética , Germinação , Fotossíntese , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulches are widely used in crop production systems. Due to their benefits in improving soil fertility, retention of soil moisture and weed control. Field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to evaluate the effects of Jatropha leaves mulch on the growth of wheat varieties 'Wadan-17' (rainfed) and 'Pirsabaq-2013' (irrigated) under well irrigated and water stress conditions (non-irrigated maintaining 40% soil field capacity). Jatropha mulch was applied to the soil surface at 0, 1, 3 and 5 Mg ha-1 before sowing grains in the field. Under conditions of water stress, Jatropha mulch significantly maintained the soil moisture content necessary for normal plant growth. RESULTS: We noted a decrease in plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll, and carotenoid content due to water stress. However, water stress caused an increase in leaf and root phenolics content, leaf soluble sugars and electrolytes leakage. We observed that Jatropha mulch maintained LRWC, plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content under water stress. Moreover, water stress adverse effects on leaf soluble sugar content and electrolyte leakage were reversed to normal by Jatropha mulch. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded that Jatropha leaves mulch will minimize water stress adverse effects on wheat by maintaining soil moisture and plant water status.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Jatropha , Folhas de Planta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070033

RESUMO

Drought response in wheat is considered a highly complex process, since it is a multigenic trait; nevertheless, breeding programs are continuously searching for new wheat varieties with characteristics for drought tolerance. In a previous study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a mutant known as RYNO3936 that could survive 14 days without water. In this study, we reveal another mutant known as BIG8-1 that can endure severe water deficit stress (21 days without water) with superior drought response characteristics. Phenotypically, the mutant plants had broader leaves, including a densely packed fibrous root architecture that was not visible in the WT parent plants. During mild (day 7) drought stress, the mutant could maintain its relative water content, chlorophyll content, maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) and stomatal conductance, with no phenotypic symptoms such as wilting or senescence despite a decrease in soil moisture content. It was only during moderate (day 14) and severe (day 21) water deficit stress that a decline in those variables was evident. Furthermore, the mutant plants also displayed a unique preservation of metabolic activity, which was confirmed by assessing the accumulation of free amino acids and increase of antioxidative enzymes (peroxidases and glutathione S-transferase). Proteome reshuffling was also observed, allowing slow degradation of essential proteins such as RuBisCO during water deficit stress. The LC-MS/MS data revealed a high abundance of proteins involved in energy and photosynthesis under well-watered conditions, particularly Serpin-Z2A and Z2B, SGT1 and Calnexin-like protein. However, after 21 days of water stress, the mutants expressed ABC transporter permeases and xylanase inhibitor protein, which are involved in the transport of amino acids and protecting cells, respectively. This study characterizes a new mutant BIG8-1 with drought-tolerant characteristics suited for breeding programs.


Assuntos
Secas , Mutação , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Metanossulfonato de Etila/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fenótipo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 252, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids can protect plants against extreme temperatures and ROS due to their antioxidant activities. We found that deep-purple seed coat color was controlled by two gene interaction (12:3:1) from the cross between yellow and deep-purple seed coat colored inbreds. F2:3 seeds were grouped in 3 by seed coat color and germinated under chilling (4 °C) and non-acclimated conditions (18 °C) for a week, followed by normal conditions (18 °C) for three weeks and a subsequent chilling stress (4 °C) induction. We analyzed mean daily germination in each group. Additionally, to study the acclimation in relationship to the different seed coat colors on the germination ability and seedling performances under the cold temperatures, we measured the chlorophyll content, ROS scavenging activity, and expression levels of genes involved in ROS scavenging, flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and cold response in seedlings. RESULTS: The results of seed color segregation between yellow and deep purple suggested a two-gene model. In the germination study, normal environmental conditions induced the germination of yellow-seed, while under chilling conditions, the germination ratio of deep purple-seed was higher than that of yellow-colored seeds. We also found that the darker seed coat colors were highly responsive to cold acclimation based on the ROS scavenging enzymes activity and gene expression of ROS scavenging enzymes, flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and cold responsive genes. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that deep purple colored seed might be in a state of innate pre-acquired stress response state under normal conditions to counteract stresses in a more effective way. Whereas, after the acclimation, another stress should enhance the cold genes expression response, which might result in a more efficient chilling stress response in deep purple seed seedlings. Low temperature has a large impact on the yield of crops. Thus, understanding the benefit of seed coat color response to chilling stress and the identification of limiting factors are useful for developing breeding strategies in order to improve the yield of wheat under chilling stress.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Temperatura Baixa , Germinação/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fenóis , Pigmentos Biológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033647

RESUMO

With a possible reference to heat priming and to characterize the extent and variation in the heat stress responses in wheat, the effects of single vs. repeated heat stresses were examined by measuring the changes in morphological and grain yield-related traits and photosynthetic parameters. To achieve these objectives, 51 winter wheat cultivars of various geographic origins were included in two independent experiments covering different phenological stages. In Experiment I, a single heat stress event was applied at stem elongation (SE) and booting (B), and the repeated heat stress was applied at both of these stages (SE+B). In Experiment II, the single heat stress was applied at stem elongation (SE) and full heading (CH), while the repeated heat stress was applied at both stages (SE+CH). While genotype was a more important factor for determining the morphological and yield-related traits, it was the treatment effect that mostly influenced the photosynthetic parameters, with the exception of the chlorophyll content. The heading stage was more sensitive to heat stress than the booting stage, which was primarily due to the larger decrease in the average seed number. The importance of biomass in contributing to grain yield intensified with the heat stress treatments. There was a large variation between the wheat cultivars not only in yielding abilities under control conditions but also in sensitivities to the various heat stresses, based on which 7 distinct groups with specific response profiles could be identified at a highly significant level. The 7 wheat groups were also characterized by their reaction patterns of different magnitudes and directions in their responses to single vs. repeated heat stresses, which depended on the phenological phases during the second cycle of heat stress. The possible association between these findings and heat priming is discussed.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(7): 1867-1897, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969431

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This review summarizes the allelic series, effects, interactions between genes and with the environment, for the major flowering time genes that drive phenological adaptation of barley. The optimization of phenology is a major goal of plant breeding addressing the production of high-yielding varieties adapted to changing climatic conditions. Flowering time in cereals is regulated by genetic networks that respond predominately to day length and temperature. Allelic diversity at these genes is at the basis of barley wide adaptation. Detailed knowledge of their effects, and genetic and environmental interactions will facilitate plant breeders manipulating flowering time in cereal germplasm enhancement, by exploiting appropriate gene combinations. This review describes a catalogue of alleles found in QTL studies by barley geneticists, corresponding to the genetic diversity at major flowering time genes, the main drivers of barley phenological adaptation: VRN-H1 (HvBM5A), VRN-H2 (HvZCCTa-c), VRN-H3 (HvFT1), PPD-H1 (HvPRR37), PPD-H2 (HvFT3), and eam6/eps2 (HvCEN). For each gene, allelic series, size and direction of QTL effects, interactions between genes and with the environment are presented. Pleiotropic effects on agronomically important traits such as grain yield are also discussed. The review includes brief comments on additional genes with large effects on phenology that became relevant in modern barley breeding. The parallelisms between flowering time allelic variation between the two most cultivated Triticeae species (barley and wheat) are also outlined. This work is mostly based on previously published data, although we added some new data and hypothesis supported by a number of studies. This review shows the wide variety of allelic effects that provide enormous plasticity in barley flowering behavior, which opens new avenues to breeders for fine-tuning phenology of the barley crop.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Alelos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia
16.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1155-1170, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950277

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The drought and salt tolerances of wheat were enhanced by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis ornithine aminotransferase (AtOAT) encoded gene. The OAT was confirmed to play a role in proline biosynthesis in wheat. Proline (Pro) accumulation is a common response to both abiotic and biotic stresses in plants. Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) is pyridoxal-5-phosphate dependent enzyme involved in plant proline biosynthesis. During stress condition, proline is synthesized via glutamate and ornithine pathways. The OAT is the key enzyme in ornithine pathway. In this study, an OAT gene AtOAT from Arabidopsis was expressed in wheat for its functional characterization under drought, salinity, and heat stress conditions. We found that the expression of AtOAT enhanced the drought and salt stress tolerances of wheat by increasing the proline content and peroxidase activity. In addition, it was confirmed that the expression of AtOAT also played a partial tolerance to heat stress in the transgenic wheat plants. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the transformation of AtOAT up-regulated the expression of the proline biosynthesis associated genes TaOAT, TaP5CS, and TaP5CR, and down-regulated that of the proline catabolism related gene TaP5CDH in the transgenic plants under stress conditions. Moreover, the genes involved in ornithine pathway (Orn-OAT-P5C/GSA-P5CR-Pro) were up-regulated along with the up-regulation of those genes involved in glutamate pathway (Glu-P5CS-P5C/GSA-P5CR-Pro). Therefore, we concluded that the expression of AtOAT enhanced wheat abiotic tolerance via modifying the proline biosynthesis by up-regulating the expression of the proline biosynthesis-associated genes and down-regulating that of the proline catabolic gene under stresses condition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Ornitina-Oxo-Ácido Transaminase/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Prolina/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Triticum/genética
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112241, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000501

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) pollution has serious harm to crop growth, while little is known on the role of melatonin (MT) on seed germination and physiology in Cr-stressed wheat. The effects of seed soaking with MT on growth, reserve mobilization, osmotic regulation and antioxidant capacity of wheat seeds during germination under hexavalent chromium (100 µM) stress were investigated. The results indicated that Cr toxicity decreased the seed germination rate by 16% and suppressed the growth of germinated seeds compared to unstressed seeds. MT in the concentration-dependent manner increased germination rate and promoted subsequent growth when seeds were exposed to Cr stress, but the effect could be counteracted at high concentration. Seed soaking with MT (100 µM) markedly decreased Cr accumulation in seeds, radicals and coleoptiles by 15%, 6% and 15%, respectively, and enhanced α-amylase activity and soluble sugar and free amino acids content in seeds to improve reserve mobilization under Cr stress, compared with Cr treatment. Furthermore, decreasing the level of osmotic regulators (soluble sugar and soluble protein) in radicles under MT combined with Cr treatment confirmed the reduction of osmotic stress caused by Cr stress. Importantly, MT pretreatment reduced H2O2 content by 19% and O2·- release rate by 45% in radicles under Cr toxicity compared with Cr-stressed wheat, in terms of promoting scavenging ability and decreasing production ability, which was to upregulate the activities and encoding genes expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) and to downregulate plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase (NOX) encoding genes (TaRbohD, TaRbohF) expression, respectively. In all, these results provided evidence that seed soaking with MT could be a potentially method to protect wheat seeds from Cr toxicity, which effectively ameliorated germination under Cr stress by enhancing reserve mobilization and antioxidant metabolism in wheat.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromo/efeitos adversos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/metabolismo , Sementes/fisiologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Osmose , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9739, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958607

RESUMO

The plant specific TIFY (previously known as ZIM) transcription factor (TF) family plays crucial roles in cross talk between Jasmonic Acid and other phytohormones like gibberellins, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene signaling pathways. Wheat yield is severely affected by rust diseases and many abiotic stresses, where different phytohormone signaling pathways are involved. TIFYs have been studied in many plants yet reports describing their molecular structure and function in wheat are lacking. In the present study, we have identified 23 novel TIFY genes in wheat genome using in silico approaches. The identified proteins were characterized based on their conserved domains and phylogenetically classified into nine subfamilies. Chromosomal localization of the identified TIFY genes showed arbitrary distribution. Forty cis-acting elements including phytohormone, stress and light receptive elements were detected in the upstream regions of TIFY genes. Seventeen wheat microRNAs targeted the identified wheat TIFY genes. Gene ontological studies revealed their major contribution in defense response and phytohormone signaling. Secondary structure of TIFY proteins displayed the characteristic alpha-alpha-beta fold. Synteny analyses indicated all wheat TIFY genes had orthologous sequences in sorghum, rice, maize, barley and Brachypodium indicating presence of similar TIFY domains in monocot plants. Six TIFY genes had been cloned from wheat genomic and cDNA. Sequence characterization revealed similar characteristics as the in silico identified novel TIFY genes. Tertiary structures predicted the active sites in these proteins to play critical roles in DNA binding. Expression profiling of TIFY genes showed their contribution during incompatible and compatible leaf rust infestation. TIFY genes were also highly expressed during the initial hours of phytohormone induced stress. This study furnishes fundamental information on characterization and putative functions of TIFY genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/fisiologia
19.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(6): 1645-1662, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900415

RESUMO

In the coming decades, larger genetic gains in yield will be necessary to meet projected demand, and this must be achieved despite the destabilizing impacts of climate change on crop production. The root systems of crops capture the water and nutrients needed to support crop growth, and improved root systems tailored to the challenges of specific agricultural environments could improve climate resiliency. Each component of root initiation, growth and development is controlled genetically and responds to the environment, which translates to a complex quantitative system to navigate for the breeder, but also a world of opportunity given the right tools. In this review, we argue that it is important to know more about the 'hidden half' of crop plants and hypothesize that crop improvement could be further enhanced using approaches that directly target selection for root system architecture. To explore these issues, we focus predominantly on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a staple crop that plays a major role in underpinning global food security. We review the tools available for root phenotyping under controlled and field conditions and the use of these platforms alongside modern genetics and genomics resources to dissect the genetic architecture controlling the wheat root system. To contextualize these advances for applied wheat breeding, we explore questions surrounding which root system architectures should be selected for, which agricultural environments and genetic trait configurations of breeding populations are these best suited to, and how might direct selection for these root ideotypes be implemented in practice.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Triticum/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2303, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863881

RESUMO

Vernalization genes underlying dramatic differences in flowering time between spring wheat and winter wheat have been studied extensively, but little is known about genes that regulate subtler differences in flowering time among winter wheat cultivars, which account for approximately 75% of wheat grown worldwide. Here, we identify a gene encoding an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) that differentiates heading date between winter wheat cultivars Duster and Billings. We clone this TaOGT1 gene from a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for heading date in a mapping population derived from these two bread wheat cultivars and analyzed in various environments. Transgenic complementation analysis shows that constitutive overexpression of TaOGT1b from Billings accelerates the heading of transgenic Duster plants. TaOGT1 is able to transfer an O-GlcNAc group to wheat protein TaGRP2. Our findings establish important roles for TaOGT1 in winter wheat in adaptation to global warming in the future climate scenarios.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estações do Ano
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