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1.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 836-844, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549682

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the main food crops and widely grown in the world. It feeds more than 35% of the world's population. Obtaining high-quality genome sequences of wheat is important for its basic and breeding researches. However, the large and complex genome of wheat once led to its genome sequencing as an "impossible task". Recently, with the development of high-throughput sequencing and assembly technology, many wheat genome sequences have been released, and their sequencing and assembly quality is being improved continuously. In the last two years, five wheat reference genomes with different ploidy levels have been published, including two diploid ancestors Triticum urartu (AA) and Aegilops tauschii (DD), wild and cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (BBAA) and hexaploid wheat T. aestivum (BBAADD). Among them, the sequencing and analysis of the T. urartu genome, a donor of polyploid wheat A subgenome, was led by the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this review, we summarize the research progress on structure and evolution analyses of the T. urartu genome to provide some valuable information for promoting the basic and applied researches of wheat.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Poliploidia , Triticum/classificação
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10423-10431, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487168

RESUMO

Plants often produce antifungal peptides and proteins in response to infection. Also wheat, which is the main ingredient of bread dough, contains such components. Here, we show that while some industrial strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently ferment dough, some other strains show much lower fermentation capacities because they are sensitive to a specific wheat protein. We purified and identified what turned out to be a thaumatin-like protein through a combination of activity-guided fractionation, cation exchange chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC, and LC-MS/MS. Recombinant expression of the corresponding gene and testing the activity confirmed the inhibitory activity of the protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Fermentação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 333, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat grains contain gluten proteins, which harbour immunogenic epitopes that trigger Coeliac disease in 1-2% of the human population. Wheat varieties or accessions containing only safe gluten have not been identified and conventional breeding alone struggles to achieve such a goal, as the epitopes occur in gluten proteins encoded by five multigene families, these genes are partly located in tandem arrays, and bread wheat is allohexaploid. Gluten immunogenicity can be reduced by modification or deletion of epitopes. Mutagenesis technologies, including CRISPR/Cas9, provide a route to obtain bread wheat containing gluten proteins with fewer immunogenic epitopes. RESULTS: In this study, we analysed the genetic diversity of over 600 α- and γ-gliadin gene sequences to design six sgRNA sequences on relatively conserved domains that we identified near coeliac disease epitopes. They were combined in four CRISPR/Cas9 constructs to target the α- or γ-gliadins, or both simultaneously, in the hexaploid bread wheat cultivar Fielder. We compared the results with those obtained with random mutagenesis in cultivar Paragon by γ-irradiation. For this, Acid-PAGE was used to identify T1 grains with altered gliadin protein profiles compared to the wild-type endosperm. We first optimised the interpretation of Acid-PAGE gels using Chinese Spring deletion lines. We then analysed the changes generated in 360 Paragon γ-irradiated lines and in 117 Fielder CRISPR/Cas9 lines. Similar gliadin profile alterations, with missing protein bands, could be observed in grains produced by both methods. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using CRISPR/Cas9 to simultaneously edit multiple genes in the large α- and γ-gliadin gene families in polyploid bread wheat. Additional methods, generating genomics and proteomics data, will be necessary to determine the exact nature of the mutations generated with both methods.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Gliadina/genética , Glutens/genética , Triticum/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Glutens/imunologia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 349, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AFP is a negative regulator of ABA signaling that promotes ABI5 protein degradation and weakens regulation of ABA signaling by targeting upstream genes of ABI5, and TaABI5 gene was seed-specific, and accumulated during wheat grain maturation and dormancy acquisition, which played an important role in seed dormancy; TaAFP has a conserved domain with AFP, so TaAFP may also play an important role in seed dormancy in wheat. RESULTS: Two allelic variants of TaAFP were identified on chromosome 2BS in common wheat, and designated as TaAFP-B1a and TaAFP-B1b. Sequence analysis showed a 4-bp deletion in the 5'UTR region of TaAFP-B1b compared with TaAFP-B1a. Based on the 4-bp deletion, a co-dominant functional marker of TaAFP-B was developed and designated as AFPB. The genotype generating a 203-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1b) was more resistant to pre-harvest sprouting than the genotype producing a 207-bp fragment (TaAFP-B1a) in a test of 91 white-grained Chinese wheat cultivars and advanced lines. The average germination index(GI) values of TaAFP-B1a and that of TaAFP-B1b were 45.18 and 30.72%, respectively, indicating a significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, the 4-bp deletion located in the 5'UTR not only affected the transcription level of TaAFP-B but also affected the mRNA decay, reduced the translation level of GUS and tdTomatoER and GUS activity in wheat leaves of transient expression. The transcript expression and the mRNA half-life value of TaAFP-B1a in developing seeds and mature seeds were much higher than those of TaAFP-B1b. CONCLUSION: We identified a 4-bp InDel in the 5'UTR of TaAFP-B, which affected the mRNA transcription level, mRNA decay, translation levels of GUS and tdTomatoER, GUS activity, and was significantly associated with seed dormancy in common wheat. A functional marker was developed and validated based on this InDel.


Assuntos
Dormência de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 348, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the major objectives in wheat breeding programs. However, the complex quantitative nature of this trait presents challenges when breeding for PHS resistance. Characterization of PHS using near-isogenic lines (NILs) targeting major quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL/QTLs) can be an effective strategy for the identification of responsible genes and underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: In this study, multiple pairs of NILs were developed and confirmed for a major QTL located on the 4BL chromosome arm that contributes to PHS resistance in wheat, using a combined heterogeneous inbred family method and a fast generation cycling system. Phenotypic characterization of these confirmed NILs revealed significant differences in PHS resistance between the isolines, where the presence of the resistant allele increased the resistance to sprouting on spikes by 54.0-81.9% (average 70.8%) and reduced seed germination by 59.4-70.5% (average 66.2%). The 90 K SNP genotyping assay on the confirmed NIL pairs identified eight SNPs on 4BL, associated with five candidate genes; two of the candidate genes were related to seed dormancy. Agronomic traits in the NIL pairs were investigated; both plant height and grain number per spike were positively correlated with PHS susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed multiple pairs of NILs and identified SNPs between PHS isolines, which are valuable resources for further fine-mapping of this locus to clone the major genes for PHS resistance and investigate the possible functional regulation of these genes on important agronomic traits, such as plant height and grain number per spike.


Assuntos
Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2645-2651, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453747

RESUMO

Chinese wheat landrace Dahongtou was resistant to 35 of 38 tested Chinese isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici at the seedling stage. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and their derived F2:3 families of crosses of Dahongtou with the susceptible varieties Mingxian 169 and Huixianhong indicated that the resistance of Dahongtou to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 was conferred by a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as pmDHT. The gene was mapped to chromosome arm 7BL and flanked by markers Xwmc526/XBE443877 and Xgwm611/Xwmc511 at genetic distances of 0.8 and 0.3 cM, respectively. The chromosomal position of pmDHT was similar to the multi-allelic Pm5 locus on 7BL. Allelism tests with crosses of Dahongtou with Fuzhuang 30 (Pm5e) and Xiaobaidong (mlxbd) indicated that pmDHT was allelic to both Pm5e and mlxbd. However, pmDHT showed a different pattern of resistance to the 38 B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolates compared with wheat lines with Pm5a, Pm5b, Pm5e, mlxbd, and PmHYM and also differed from PmSGA. Thus, pmDHT was identified most likely as a new allele or at least a closely linked gene of the Pm5 locus. This gene can be transferred into susceptible wheat cultivars/lines and pyramided with other resistance genes through marker-assisted selection to improve powdery mildew resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Triticum , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9877-9884, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398030

RESUMO

Heavy metal contaminants and nutrient deficiencies in soil negatively affect crop growth and human health. The plant cadmium resistance (PCR) protein transports heavy metals. The abundance of PCR is correlated with that of cell number regulator (CNR) protein, and the two proteins have similar conserved domains. Hence, CNR might also participate in heavy metal transport. We isolated and analyzed TaCNR5 from wheat (Triticum aestivum). The expression level of TaCNR5 in the shoots of wheat increased under cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or manganese (Mn) treatments. Transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5 showed enhanced tolerance to Zn and Mn. Overexpression of TaCNR5 in Arabidopsis increased Cd, Zn, and Mn translocation from roots to shoots. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in rice grains were increased in transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5. These roles of TaCNR5 in the translocation and distribution of heavy metals mean that it has potential as a genetic biofortification tool to fortify cereal grains with micronutrients.


Assuntos
Manganês/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Zinco/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 296, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature senescence of flag leaf severely affects wheat yield and quality. Chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is the most obvious symptom during leaf senescence and catalyzed by a series of enzymes. Pheophytin pheophorbide hydrolase (Pheophytinase, PPH) gene encodes a Chl degradation hydrolase. RESULTS: In this study, the coding, genomic and promoter sequences of wheat TaPPH-A gene were cloned. The corresponding lengths were 1467 bp, 4479 bp and 3666 bp, respectively. Sequence structure analysis showed that TaPPH-A contained five exons and four introns. After the multiple sequences alignment of TaPPH-A genome from 36 accessions in a wheat diversity panel, four SNPs and one 2-bp InDel were observed, which formed two haplotypes, TaPPH-7A-1 and TaPPH-7A-2. Based on the SNP at 1299 bp (A/G), a molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS was developed to distinguish allelic variation (A/G). Using the molecular markers, 13 SSR, and 116 SNP markers, a linkage map of chromosome 7A were integrated. TaPPH-A was mapped on the chromosome region flanked by Xwmc9 (0.94 cM) and AX-95634545 (1.04 cM) on 7A in a DH population. Association analysis between TaPPH-7A allelic variation and agronomic traits found that TaPPH-7A was associated with TGW in 11 of 12 environments and Chl content at grain-filling stage under drought stress using Population 1 consisted of 323 accessions. The accessions possessed TaPPH-7A-1 (A) had higher TGW and Chl content than those possessed TaPPH-7A-2 (G), thus TaPPH-7A-1 (A) was a favorable allelic variation. By analyzing the frequency of favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) in Population 2 with 157 landraces and Population 3 with 348 modern cultivars, we found it increased from pre-1950 (0) to 1960s (54.5%), then maintained a relatively stable level about 56% from 1960s to 1990s. CONCLUSION: These results suggested the favorable allelic variation TaPPH-7A-1 (A) should be valuable in enhancing grain yield by improving the source (chlorophyll content) and sink (the developing grain) simultaneously. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker TaPPH-7A-dCAPS could be integrated into a breeding kit of screening high TGW wheat for marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8559-8572, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298518

RESUMO

Avenin-like b protein is rich in cysteine residues, providing the possibility to form intermolecular disulfide bonds and then participate in glutenin polymerization. Site-directed mutagenesis was adopted to produce mutant avenin-like b gene encoding mutant avenin-like b protein, in which one tyrosine codon at the C-terminal is substituted by a cysteine codon. Compared with the control lines, both transgenic lines with wild-type and mutant avenin-like b genes demonstrated superior dough properties. While compared within the transgenic lines, the mutant lines showed relative weaker dough strength and decreased sodium-dodecyl-sulfate sedimentation volumes (from 69.7 mL in line WT alb-1 to 41.0 mL in line Mut alb-4). These inferior dough properties were accompanied by the lower contents of large-sized glutenin polymers, the decreased particle diameters of glutenin macropolymer (GMP), due to the lower content of intermolecular ß-sheets (from 39.48% for line WT alb-2 to 30.21% for line Mut alb-3) and the varied contents of disulfide bonds (from 137.37 µmol/g for line WT alb-1 to 105.49 µmol/g for line Mut alb-4) in wheat dough. The extra cysteine might alter the original disulfide bond structure, allowing cysteine residue usually involved in an intermolecular disulfide bond to become available for an intrachain disulfide bond. Avenin-like b proteins were detected in glutenin macropolymers, providing further evidence for this protein to participate in the polymerization of glutenin. This is the first time to investigate the effect of a specific cysteine residue in the avenin-like b protein on flour quality.


Assuntos
Cisteína/genética , Farinha/análise , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Prolaminas/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão/análise , Cisteína/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolaminas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8706-8714, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310118

RESUMO

Gradients in the contents and compositions of gluten proteins and free amino acids and the expression levels of gluten protein genes in developing wheat caryopses were determined by dividing the caryopsis into three longitudinal sections, namely, proximal (En1), middle (En2), and distal (En3) to embryo. The total gluten protein content was lower in En1 than in En2 and En3, with decreasing proportions of HMW-GS, LMW GS, and α/ß- and γ-gliadins and increasing proportions of ω-gliadins. These differences were associated with the abundances of gluten protein transcripts. Gradients in the proportions of the gluten protein polymers which affect dough processing quality also occurred, but not in total free amino acids. Microscopy showed that the lower gluten protein content in En1 may have resulted, at least in part, from the presence of modified cells in the dorsal part of En1, but the reasons for the differences in composition are not known.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Glutens/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/embriologia , Farinha/análise , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Yi Chuan ; 41(7): 599-610, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307969

RESUMO

Variety pedigree contains a lot of information, including parental origin, breeding methods, genetic relationship, and so on. Studying them could reveal the evolution characteristics and rules of breeding and ultimately guide practice. The pedigrees of 326 wheat varieties from 1936 to 2017 in the history of the Sichuan Province was collected and analyzed in terms of breeding methods, parental composition, changes of high frequency parents and backbone parents, genetic contribution, distribution of translocation lines and synthetic germplasms. Over the past 80 years since 1930s, breeders have selected 387 direct parents from a large number of materials, made 256 combinations by means of cross breeding, and have released 314 varieties from them, which contributed directly to wheat breeding and production in Sichuan. Wheat breeding experienced a process from utilizing landraces, introducing foreign germplasm to creating breeding materials independently; high-frequency parents and backbone parents used for breeding gradually changed in different stage of the breeding history. Synthetic germplasms contributed greatly to wheat breeding in recent years. The consistency of breeding objectives will inevitably lead to the loss of genetic diversity and the fragility of genetic basis. In the future, the protection and utilization of genetic resources should be strengthened. In this review, the development of wheat breeding in Sichuan was summarized through pedigree analysis, in order to provide a reference for future research.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , China , Linhagem
12.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 136, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bread wheat is one of the most important and broadly studied crops. However, due to the complexity of its genome and incomplete genome collection of wild populations, the bread wheat genome landscape and domestication history remain elusive. RESULTS: By investigating the whole-genome resequencing data of 93 accessions from worldwide populations of bread wheat and its diploid and tetraploid progenitors, together with 90 published exome-capture data, we find that the B subgenome has more variations than A and D subgenomes, including SNPs and deletions. Population genetics analyses support a monophyletic origin of domesticated wheat from wild emmer in northern Levant, with substantial introgressed genomic fragments from southern Levant. Southern Levant contributes more than 676 Mb in AB subgenomes and enriched in the pericentromeric regions. The AB subgenome introgression happens at the early stage of wheat speciation and partially contributes to their greater genetic diversity. Furthermore, we detect massive alien introgressions that originated from distant species through natural and artificial hybridizations, resulting in the reintroduction of ~ 709 Mb and ~ 1577 Mb sequences into bread wheat landraces and varieties, respectively. A large fraction of these intra- and inter-introgression fragments are associated with quantitative trait loci of important traits, and selection events are also identified. CONCLUSION: We reveal the significance of multiple introgressions from distant wild populations and alien species in shaping the genetic components of bread wheat, and provide important resources and new perspectives for future wheat breeding.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização Genética , Triticum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Domesticação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 139, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bread wheat is an allohexaploid species with a 16-Gb genome that has large intergenic regions, which presents a big challenge for pinpointing regulatory elements and further revealing the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Chromatin profiling to characterize the combinatorial patterns of chromatin signatures is a powerful means to detect functional elements and clarify regulatory activities in human studies. RESULTS: In the present study, through comprehensive analyses of the open chromatin, DNA methylome, seven major chromatin marks, and transcriptomic data generated for seedlings of allohexaploid wheat, we detected distinct chromatin architectural features surrounding various functional elements, including genes, promoters, enhancer-like elements, and transposons. Thousands of new genic regions and cis-regulatory elements are identified based on the combinatorial pattern of chromatin features. Roughly 1.5% of the genome encodes a subset of active regulatory elements, including promoters and enhancer-like elements, which are characterized by a high degree of chromatin openness and histone acetylation, an abundance of CpG islands, and low DNA methylation levels. A comparison across sub-genomes reveals that evolutionary selection on gene regulation is targeted at the sequence and chromatin feature levels. The divergent enrichment of cis-elements between enhancer-like sequences and promoters implies these functional elements are targeted by different transcription factors. CONCLUSIONS: We herein present a systematic epigenomic map for the annotation of cis-regulatory elements in the bread wheat genome, which provides new insights into the connections between chromatin modifications and cis-regulatory activities in allohexaploid wheat.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Código das Histonas , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Triticum/genética , Evolução Biológica , Epigenômica , Genoma de Planta , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 332, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Good establishment is important for rapid leaf area development in wheat crops. Poor establishment results in fewer, later-emerging plants, reduced leaf area and tiller number. In addition, poorly established crops suffer from increased soil moisture loss through evaporation and greater competition from weeds while fewer spikes are produced which can reduce grain yield. By protecting the emerging first leaf, the coleoptile is critical for achieving good establishment, and its length and interaction with soil physical properties determine the ability of a cultivar to emerge from depth. RESULTS: Here we characterise a locus on chromosome 1AS, that increases coleoptile length in wheat, which we designate as Lcol-A1. We identified Lcol-A1 by bulked-segregant analysis and used a Halberd-derived population to fine map the gene to a 2 cM region, equivalent to 7 Mb on the IWGSC genome reference sequence of Chinese Spring (RefSeqv1.0). By sowing recently released cultivars and near-isogenic lines in the field at both conventional and deep sowing depths, we confirmed that Locl-A1 was associated with increased emergence from depth in the presence and absence of conventional dwarfing genes. Flanking markers IWB58229 and IWA710 were developed to assist breeders to select for long coleoptile wheats. CONCLUSIONS: Increased coleoptile length is sought in many global wheat production areas to improve crop emergence. The identification of the gene Lcol-A1, together with tools to allow wheat breeders to track the gene, will enable improvements to be made for this important trait.


Assuntos
Cotilédone/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 203-220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297725

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here, a functional characterization of a wheat MSR has been presented: this protein makes a contribution to the plant's tolerance of abiotic stress, acting through its catalytic capacity and its modulation of ROS and ABA pathways. The molecular mechanism and function of certain members of the methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) gene family have been defined, however, these analyses have not included the wheat equivalents. The wheat MSR gene TaMSRA4.1 is inducible by salinity and drought stress and in this study, we demonstrate that its activity is restricted to the Met-S-SO enantiomer, and its subcellular localization is in the chloroplast. Furthermore, constitutive expression of TaMSRA4.1 enhanced the salinity and drought tolerance of wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana. In these plants constitutively expressing TaMSRA4.1, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found to be influenced through the modulation of genes encoding proteins involved in ROS signaling, generation and scavenging, while the level of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and the sensitivity of stomatal guard cells to exogenous ABA, was increased. A yeast two-hybrid screen, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) interacted with TaMSRA4.1, and that this interaction depended on a TaHO1 C-terminal domain. In plants subjected to salinity or drought stress, TaMSRA4.1 reversed the oxidation of TaHO1, activating ROS and ABA signaling pathways, but not in the absence of HO1. The aforementioned properties advocate TaMSRA4.1 as a candidate for plant genetic enhancement.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Triticum/enzimologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Metionina Sulfóxido Redutases/genética , Oxirredução , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
16.
Plant Dis ; 103(9): 2337-2344, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306087

RESUMO

Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSF+ was collected from the South African wheat cultivar 'Matlabas' in 2010. F2 and F3 populations derived from a Matlabas × Line 37-07 cross segregated for a single resistance gene to race TTKSF that is avirulent to Matlabas. In screening genomic DNA bulks of susceptible or resistant F2 plants with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, three chromosome arm 2BS markers and one multilocus marker amplified alleles present only in the resistant bulks and Matlabas. Additional 2B-specific SSR markers, incorporating markers spanning regions containing Sr9h, SrWLR, Sr28, and Sr47, were screened in the parental lines and mapped in the F2 population. Linkage and QTL mapping showed that the gene is located between Xbarc160 in the centromeric region and Xgwm47 on the long arm of chromosome 2B. When 2B-specific SNP markers were mapped, the area of interest was delimited to a 15.3 cM region on chromosome arm 2BL, with XIWA543-HRM and Xgwm47 as flanking loci. Matlabas, Webster, and related Sr9h lines all produced a similar, low infection type to race TTKSF, but were susceptible to race TTKSF+. Phenotypic data and allelic studies suggested that stem rust resistance in Matlabas was derived from an Sr9h source.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Resistência à Doença , Triticum , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 242, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent drought associated with climate change is a major constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity. This study aimed to (i) quantify the effects of addition/substitution/translocation of chromosome segments from wild relatives of wheat on the root, physiological and yield traits of hexaploid wheat under drought, and (ii) understand the mechanism(s) associated with drought tolerance or susceptibility in wheat-alien chromosome lines. METHODS: A set of 48 wheat-alien chromosome lines (addition/substitution/translocation lines) with Chinese Spring background were used. Seedling root traits were studied on solid agar medium. To understand the influence of drought on the root system of adult plants, these 48 lines were grown in 150-cm columns for 65 d under full irrigation or withholding water for 58 d. To quantify the effect of drought on physiological and yield traits, the 48 lines were grown in pots under full irrigation until anthesis; after that, half of the plants were drought stressed by withholding water for 16 d before recording physiological and yield-associated traits. RESULTS: The alien chromosome lines exhibited altered root architecture and decreased photochemical efficiency and seed yield and its components under drought. The wheat-alien chromosome lines T5DS·5S#3L (TA5088) with a chromosome segment from Aegilops speltoides (5S) and T5DL.5 V#3S (TA5638) with a chromosome segment from Dasypyrum villosum (5 V) were identified as drought tolerant, and the drought tolerance mechanism was associated with a deep, thin and profuse root system. CONCLUSIONS: The two germplasm lines (TA5088 and TA5638) could be used in wheat breeding programs to improve drought tolerance in wheat and understand the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms of root architecture and drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Secas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Triticum/genética , Aegilops/genética , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/genética , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 252, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thermo-sensitive male-sterility based on Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm (K-TCMS) plays an important role in hybrid wheat breeding. This has important possible applications in two-line hybrid wheat breeding but the genetic basis and molecular regulation mechanism related to fertility restoration are poorly understood. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling based on RNA sequencing was conducted for two near-isogenic lines comprising KTM3315R and its sterile counterpart KTM3315A, a total of six samples (3 repetitions per group), in order to identify fertility restoration genes and their metabolic pathways. RESULTS: In total, 2642 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, among which 1238 were down-regulated and 1404 were up-regulated in fertile anthers. Functional annotation enrichment analysis identified important pathways related to fertility restoration, such as carbohydrate metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism and biosynthesis, as well as candidate genes encoding pectin methylesterase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase. Moreover, transcription factor analysis showed that a large number of DEGs were mainly involved with the WRKY, bHLH, and MYB transcription factor families. Determination of total soluble sugar and flavonoid contents demonstrated that important metabolic pathways and candidate genes are associated with fertility restoration. Twelve DEGs were selected and detected by quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR, and the results indicated that the transcriptome sequencing results were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that identified DEGs were related to the fertility restoration and they proved to be crucial in Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm. These findings also provide a basis for exploring the molecular regulation mechanism associated with wheat fertility restoration as well as screening and cloning related genes.


Assuntos
Aegilops/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Citoplasma/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
19.
Gene ; 710: 210-217, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176733

RESUMO

Low temperature is a key stress factor for the growth and development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and glycometabolism plays an important role in plant cold tolerance. Our previous study identified trehalose 6-phosphate synthase 11 gene (TaTPS11), which had a significantly different expression pattern between a high freezing-tolerant wheat cultivar and a low freezing-tolerant wheat cultivar. In this study, TaTPS11 was isolated from a winter-hardy wheat cultivar (D1) and overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to study its effect on cold tolerance in plants. Transgenic plants expressing TaTPS11 had lower sucrose content, higher starch content, and higher activity of key enzyme (sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase) involved in sucrose metabolism. In addition, the expression level of sucrose non-fermenting 1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1), which catalyzes the sucrose in plants, increased in the TaTPS11-overexpressed plants. These results indicated that heterologous expression of TaTPS11 influenced carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis plants. The resultant plants had a significantly higher survival rate after -5 °C treatment for 2 h and exhibited enhanced cold tolerance without unfavorable phenotypes compared to wild-type. Our findings indicated that manipulation of TaTPS11 improved cold tolerance in plants and TaTPS11 had potential values in wheat cold-tolerance breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sacarose/metabolismo , Triticum/genética
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 239, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ammonium transporters (AMTs), a family of proteins transporting ammonium salt and its analogues, have been studied in many aspects. Although numerous studies have found that ammonium affects the interaction between plants and pathogens, the role of AMTs remains largely unknown, especially that of the AMT2-type AMTs. RESULTS: In the present study, we found that the concentration of ammonium in wheat leaves decreased after infection with Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal agent of stripe rust. Then, an AMT2-type ammonium transporter gene induced by Pst was identified and designated as TaAMT2;3a. Transient expression assays indicated that TaAMT2;3a was located to the cell and nuclear membranes. TaAMT2;3a successfully complemented the function of a yeast mutant defective in NH4+ transport, indicating its ammonium transport capacity. Function of TaAMT2;3a in wheat-Pst interaction was further analyzed by barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced gene silencing. Pst growth was significantly retarded in TaAMT2;3a-knockdown plants, in which ammonium in leaves were shown to be induced at the early stage of infection. Histological observation showed that the hyphal length, the number of hyphal branches and haustorial mother cells decreased in the TaAMT2;3a knockdown plants, leading to the impeded growth of rust pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that the induction of AMT2-type ammonium transporter gene TaAMT2;3a may facilitates the nitrogen uptake from wheat leaves by Pst, thereby contribute to the infection of rust fungi.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
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