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1.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(8): 3113-3137, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435457

RESUMO

Endophytic strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from the halophytes Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae) and Tamarix aphylla L. (Tamaricaceae) from costal and continental regions in Algeria. Based on their salt tolerance (up to 5%), the strains were tested for their ability to alleviate salt stress in tomato and wheat. Bacillus sp. strain BH32 showed the highest potential to reduce salinity stress (up to + 50% and + 58% of dry weight improvement, in tomato and wheat, respectively, compared to the control). To determine putative mechanisms involved in salt tolerance and plant growth promotion, the whole genome of Bacillus sp. BH32 was sequenced, annotated, and used for comparative genomics against the genomes of closely related strains. The pangenome of Bacillus sp. BH32 and its closest relative was further analyzed. The phylogenomic analyses confirmed its taxonomic position, a member of the Bacillus cereus group, with intergenomic distances (GBDP analysis) pinpointing to a new taxon (digital DNA-DNA hybridization, dDDH < 70%). Genome mining unveiled several genes involved in stress tolerance, production of anti-oxidants and genes involved in plant growth promotion as well as in the production of secondary metabolites. KEY POINTS : • Bacillus sp. BH32 and other bacterial endophytes were isolated from halophytes, to be tested on tomato and wheat and to limit salt stress adverse effects. • The strain with the highest potential was then studied at the genomic level to highlight numerous genes linked to plant growth promotion and stress tolerance. • Pangenome approaches suggest that the strain belongs to a new taxon within the Bacillus cereus group.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Bacillus/genética , DNA , Endófitos/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Estresse Salino , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Triticum/microbiologia
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456402

RESUMO

Wheat blast (WB) is a devastating fungal disease that has recently spread to Bangladesh and poses a threat to the wheat production in India, which is the second-largest wheat producing country in the world. In this study, 350 Indian wheat genotypes were evaluated for WB resistance in 12 field experiments in three different locations, namely Jashore in Bangladesh and Quirusillas and Okinawa in Bolivia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the genome were obtained using DArTseq® technology, and 7554 filtered SNP markers were selected for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). All the three GWAS approaches used identified the 2NS translocation as the only major source of resistance, explaining up to 32% of the phenotypic variation. Additional marker-trait associations were located on chromosomes 2B, 3B, 4D, 5A and 7A, and the combined effect of three SNPs (2B_180938790, 7A_752501634 and 5A_618682953) showed better resistance, indicating their additive effects on WB resistance. Among the 298 bread wheat genotypes, 89 (29.9%) carried the 2NS translocation, the majority of which (60 genotypes) were CIMMYT introductions, and 29 were from India. The 2NS carriers with a grand mean WB index of 6.6 showed higher blast resistance compared to the non-2NS genotypes with a mean index of 46.5. Of the 52 durum wheats, only one genotype, HI 8819, had the 2NS translocation and was the most resistant, with a grand mean WB index of 0.93. Our study suggests that the 2NS translocation is the only major resistance source in the Indian wheat panel analysed and emphasizes the urgent need to identify novel non-2NS resistance sources and genomic regions.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2123299119, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412884

RESUMO

SignificanceWheat is a globally important food crop that suffers major yield losses due to outbreaks of severe disease. A better mechanistic understanding of how wheat responds to pathogen attack could identify new strategies for enhancing disease resistance. Here, we discover six pathogen-induced biosynthetic pathways that share a common regulatory network and form part of an orchestrated defense response. Investigation of the wheat genome reveals that these pathways are each encoded by biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). We further show that these BGCs produce flavonoids and terpenes that may serve as phytoalexins or defense-related signaling molecules. Our results provide key insights into the molecular basis of biotic stress responses in wheat and open potential avenues for crop improvement.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Pão , Resistência à Doença/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
4.
Phytopathology ; 112(5): 1134-1140, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378055

RESUMO

Resistance to the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is desirable in adapted wheat and barley but remains an elusive trait for prebreeders and breeders. In a previous study, we observed that emergence and root growth was faster in the Rhizoctonia-susceptible 'Scarlet' than in its resistant counterpart, 'Scarlet-Rz1'. The objective of the current study was to quantify early root growth rate and total root length in resistant and susceptible synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, including parental lines and 22 recombinant inbred lines derived crosses between parental lines. In Petri dish assays, the susceptible lines displayed a faster rate of root growth during the first 40 h of root emergence compared with resistant lines. This growth differential was observed in 14-day and 48-h greenhouse assays, in which the total root length of susceptible parental lines was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of resistant parental lines. However, the resistant lines sustained less root loss compared with susceptible lines when R. solani AG-8 was present in the soil. Early root growth rate and total root length were not correlated to freezing tolerance in a set of wheat cultivars selected for cold tolerance. The findings indicated that early root growth was negatively correlated to R. solani AG-8 damage in resistant synthetic wheat lines developed for the Pacific Northwest, United States, and suggested that the dynamics of root emergence affect resistance to this soilborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Rhizoctonia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324719

RESUMO

This work introduces an alternative workflow for the discovery of novel bacterial biocontrol agents in wheat against Fusarium head blight (FHB). Unlike the mass testing of isolate collections, we started from a diverse inoculum by extracting microbiomes from ears of field-grown plants at grain filling stage. Four distinct microbial communities were generated which were exposed to 3 14-day culture-independent experimental enrichments on detached wheat spikes infected with F. graminearum PH1. We found that one bacterial community reduced infection symptoms after 3 cycles, which was chosen to subsequently isolate bacteria through limiting dilution. All 94 isolates were tested in an in vitro and in planta assay, and a selection of 14 isolates was further tested on detached ears. The results seem to indicate that our enrichment approach resulted in bacteria with different modes-of-action in regard to FHB control. Erwinia persicina isolate C3 showed a significant reduction in disease severity (Fv/Fm), and Erwinia persicina C3 and Pseudomonas sp. B3 showed a significant reduction in fungal biomass (cGFP). However, the mycotoxin analysis of both these treatments showed no reduction in DON levels. Nevertheless, Pantoea ananatis H3 and H11 and Erwinia persicina H2 were able to reduce DON concentrations by more than 50%, although these effects were not statistically significant. Lastly, Erwinia persicina H2 also showed a significantly greater glucosylation of DON to the less phytotoxic DON-3G. The bacterial genera isolated through the enrichment cycles have been reported to dominate microbial communities that develop in open habitats, showing strong indications that the isolated bacteria can reduce the infection pressure of F. graminearum on the spike phyllosphere.


Assuntos
Erwinia , Fusarium , Tricotecenos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0011022, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266812

RESUMO

Belowground fungi are closely related to crop growth, and agricultural fertilization is widely known to affect soil fungal communities. Yet it remains unclear whether fungal communities in differing belowground habitats-root endosphere, rhizosphere soil, and bulk soil-respond differently to long-term fertilization. Here we investigated the variation in fungal communities of root endosphere, rhizosphere soil, and bulk soil under 35 years of fertilization in wheat fields. Specifically, the fertilization regimes were applied as five treatments: soils receiving NPK fertilizer, NPK and cow manure (NPK+CM), NPK and pig manure (NPK+PM), NPK and wheat straw (NPK+WS), and no fertilizer (Control). Long-term fertilization significantly impacted fungal community composition in all three habitats, and these effects were stronger in the rhizosphere and bulk soils than root endosphere. Mantel test results showed that fungal community composition was significantly correlated with phosphorus and zinc contents. Further, fungal alpha diversity was lowest in the NPK+PM treatment and was negatively correlated with both phosphorus and zinc contents. Moreover, NPK+PM treatment had the lowest complexity of fungal co-occurrence network, and in general network complexity was significantly negatively correlated with the zinc and phosphorus contents. Taken together, these results suggest that long-term fertilization can impact fungal communities not only in soils but in root endosphere, and this is strongly associated with the contents of phosphorus and zinc there, a finding important for guiding fertilization management practices and supporting sustainable agriculture. IMPORTANCE Fungi, an essential component in nutrient cycling and plant growth, are highly sensitive to fertilization. However, there are limited studies on fungi in root endosphere under long-term fertilization management. Our research extended the study on the endophytic fungal community of crop roots under agricultural management and found that its responses were similar to the communities in soil habitats. In addition, the type of organic materials was reported as the main driver affecting soil fungal community under long-term fertilization. Our research further revealed that the underlying mechanism of affecting the fungal communities in the soils and roots was the differences in phosphorus and zinc contents caused by the application of different organic materials. Therefore, our results highlight that except for phosphorus, zinc content of the organic materials should be considered in long-term organic fertilization systems.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Fósforo , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Suínos , Triticum/microbiologia , Zinco
7.
Nat Genet ; 54(3): 227-231, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288708

RESUMO

The cloning of agronomically important genes from large, complex crop genomes remains challenging. Here we generate a 14.7 gigabase chromosome-scale assembly of the South African bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Kariega by combining high-fidelity long reads, optical mapping and chromosome conformation capture. The resulting assembly is an order of magnitude more contiguous than previous wheat assemblies. Kariega shows durable resistance to the devastating fungal stripe rust disease1. We identified the race-specific disease resistance gene Yr27, which encodes an intracellular immune receptor, to be a major contributor to this resistance. Yr27 is allelic to the leaf rust resistance gene Lr13; the Yr27 and Lr13 proteins show 97% sequence identity2,3. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating chromosome-scale wheat assemblies to clone genes, and exemplify that highly similar alleles of a single-copy gene can confer resistance to different pathogens, which might provide a basis for engineering Yr27 alleles with multiple recognition specificities in the future.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Triticum , Pão , Clonagem Molecular , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 111, 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to their excellent resistance to abiotic and biotic stress, Thinopyrum intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJsJsStSt) and Th. ponticum (2n = 10x = 70) are both widely utilized in wheat germplasm innovation programs. Disomic substitution lines (DSLs) carrying one pair of alien chromosomes are valuable bridge materials for transmission of novel genes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotype construction and specific molecular marker development. RESULTS: Six wheat-Thinopyrum DSLs derived from crosses between Abbondanza nullisomic lines (2n = 40) and two octoploid Trititrigia lines (2n = 8x = 56), were characterized by sequential FISH-genome in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor GISH (mc-GISH), and an analysis of the wheat 15 K SNP array combined with molecular marker selection. ES-9 (DS2St (2A)) and ES-10 (DS3St (3D)) are wheat-Th. ponticum DSLs, while ES-23 (DS2St (2A)), ES-24 (DS3St (3D)), ES-25(DS2St (2B)), and ES-26 (DS2St (2D)) are wheat-Th. intermedium DSLs. ES-9, ES-23, ES-25 and ES-26 conferred high thousand-kernel weight and stripe rust resistance at adult stages, while ES-10 and ES-24 were highly resistant to stripe rust at all stages. Furthermore, cytological analysis showed that the alien chromosomes belonging to the same homoeologous group (2 or 3) derived from different donors carried the same FISH karyotype and could form a bivalent. Based on specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), two 2St-chromosome-specific markers (PTH-005 and PTH-013) and two 3St-chromosome-specific markers (PTH-113 and PTH-135) were developed. CONCLUSIONS: The six wheat-Thinopyrum DSLs conferring stripe rust resistance can be used as bridging parents for transmission of valuable resistance genes. The utility of PTH-113 and PTH-135 in a BC1F2 population showed that the newly developed markers could be useful tools for efficient identification of St chromosomes in a common wheat background.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Análise Citogenética , Variação Genética , Genótipo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269732

RESUMO

Common bunt, caused by two fungal species, Tilletia caries and Tilletia laevis, is one of the most potentially destructive diseases of wheat. Despite the availability of synthetic chemicals against the disease, organic agriculture relies greatly on resistant cultivars. Using two computational approaches-interolog and domain-based methods-a total of approximately 58 M and 56 M probable PPIs were predicted in T. aestivum-T. caries and T. aestivum-T. laevis interactomes, respectively. We also identified 648 and 575 effectors in the interactions from T. caries and T. laevis, respectively. The major host hubs belonged to the serine/threonine protein kinase, hsp70, and mitogen-activated protein kinase families, which are actively involved in plant immune signaling during stress conditions. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of the host proteins revealed significant GO terms (O-methyltransferase activity, regulation of response to stimulus, and plastid envelope) and pathways (NF-kappa B signaling and the MAPK signaling pathway) related to plant defense against pathogens. Subcellular localization suggested that most of the pathogen proteins target the host in the plastid. Furthermore, a comparison between unique T. caries and T. laevis proteins was carried out. We also identified novel host candidates that are resistant to disease. Additionally, the host proteins that serve as transcription factors were also predicted.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
10.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(3)2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285907

RESUMO

During germination, the seed releases nutrient-rich exudates into the spermosphere, thereby fostering competition between resident microorganisms. However, insight into the composition and temporal dynamics of seed-associated bacterial communities under field conditions is currently lacking. This field study determined the temporal changes from 11 to 31 days after sowing in the composition of seed-associated bacterial communities of winter wheat as affected by long-term soil fertilization history, and by introduction of the plant growth-promoting microbial inoculants Penicillium bilaiae and Bacillus simplex. The temporal dynamics were the most important factor affecting the composition of the seed-associated communities. An increase in the relative abundance of genes involved in organic nitrogen metabolism (ureC and gdhA), and in ammonium oxidation (amoA), suggested increased mineralization of plant-derived nitrogen compounds over time. Dynamics of the phosphorus cycling genes ppt, ppx and cphy indicated inorganic phosphorus and polyphosphate cycling, as well as phytate hydrolysis by the seed-associated bacteria early after germination. Later, an increase in genes for utilization of organic phosphorus sources (phoD, phoX and phnK) indicated phosphorus limitation. The results indicate that community temporal dynamics are partly driven by changed availability of major nutrients, and reveal no functional consequences of the added inoculants during seed germination.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Microbiota , Penicillium , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Penicillium/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Sementes , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/microbiologia
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(12): 3719-3729, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293725

RESUMO

Stripe rust is a widespread and harmful wheat disease caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) worldwide. Targeted metabolome and transcriptomics analyses of CYR23 infected leaves were performed to identify the differential metabolites and differentially expressed genes related to wheat disease resistance. We observed upregulation of 33 metabolites involved in the primary and secondary metabolism, especially for homogentisic acid (HGA), p-coumaroylagmatine, and saccharopine. These three metabolites were mainly involved in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway, hydroxycinnamic acid amides pathway, and saccharopine pathway. Combined with transcriptome data on non-compatible interaction, the synthesis-related genes of these three differential metabolites were all upregulated significantly. The gene regulatory network involved in response to Pst infection was constructed, which revealed that several transcription factor families including WRKYs, MYBs, and bZIPs were identified as potentially hubs in wheat resistance response against Pst. An in vitro test showed that HGA effectively inhibited the germination of stripe rust fungus urediniospores and reduced the occurrence of wheat stripe rust. The results of gene silencing and overexpression of HGA synthesis-related gene 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase proved that HGA was involved in wheat disease resistance. These results provided a further understanding of the disease resistance of wheat and indicated that HGA can be developed as a potential agent against Pst.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Triticum , Ácido Homogentísico , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Puccinia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Plant Dis ; 106(4): 1122-1127, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341329

RESUMO

Fusarium crown rot (FCR), caused by Fusarium species, is a serious soilborne fungal disease in many wheat growing regions in the world. A reliable FCR assessment method is essential for germplasm screening and host resistance studies. Here, we report a new assay in which we inoculated wheat seedlings grown in a glasshouse for FCR by injecting spore suspensions into the seedling stems. The effects of inoculum concentration and injection time points on disease severity were investigated. Of different treatments, the injection of 107 macroconidia/ml suspension at one leaf and one heart stage gave best results. A collection of 92 emmer-derived hexaploid bread wheats, 43 barley germplasms, and four wheat genotypes with known resistance levels to FCR was used to validate this new method. Repeatability of the two trials in the validation experiments was high (r = 0.97, P < 0.01). Two emmer-derived hexaploid bread wheat and three Chinese barley germplasms showed consistent resistance to FCR in multiple rounds of selection. The short timeframe of this assay for phenotypic screening makes it a valuable tool to eliminate germplasms with undesirable susceptibility to FCR at seedling stage before costly field assays.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Hordeum , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202130

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium is one of the most dangerous crop diseases, which has a wide geographic distribution and causes severe economic losses in the production of major cereal species. The infection leads to the accumulation of mycotoxins in grains, which compromises its suitability for human and animal consumption. The study demonstrated that grain samples from warmer regions of Poland, including Sulejów and Tomaszów Boleslawicki (results differed across years of the study), were colonized mainly by F. graminearum and were most highly contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). Samples from Northeastern Poland, i.e., Ruska Wies, which is located in a cooler region, were characterized by a predominance of Fusarium species typical of the cold climate, i.e., Fusarium poae and Penicillium verrucosum. A Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that the severity of grain infection with F. avenaceum/F. tricinctum was affected by the mean daily temperature and high humidity in May, and the corresponding values of the correlation coefficient were determined at R = 0.54 and R = 0.50. Competitive interactions were observed between the F. avenaceum/F. tricinctum genotype and DON-producing F. culmorum and F. graminearum, because the severity of grain infections caused by these pathogens was bound by a negative correlation.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Tricotecenos/análise , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Clima , DNA Fúngico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/genética , Polônia
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 64, 2022 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coevolutionary signatures of host-microbe interactions are considered to engineer the healthy microbiome of humans, little is known about the changes in root-microbiome during plant evolution. To understand how the composition of the wheat and its ancestral species microbiome have changed over the evolutionary processes, we performed a 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis on rhizobacterial communities associated with a phylogenetic framework of four Triticum species T. urartu, T. turgidum, T. durum, and T. aestivum along with their ancestral species Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii during vegetative and reproductive stages. RESULTS: In this study, we illustrated that the genome contents of wild species Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii can be significant factors determining the composition of root-associated bacterial communities in domesticated bread wheat. Although it was found that domestication and modern breeding practices might have had a significant impact on microbiome-plant interactions especially at the reproductive stage, we observed an extensive and selective control by wheat genotypes on associated rhizobacterial communities at the same time. Our data also showed a strong genotypic variation within species of T. aestivum and Ae. tauschii, suggesting potential breeding targets for plants surveyed. CONCLUSIONS: This study performed with different genotypes of Triticum and Aegilops species is the first study showing that the genome contents of Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii along with domestication-related changes can be significant factors determining the composition of root-associated bacterial communities in bread wheat. It is also indirect evidence that shows a very extensive range of host traits and genes are probably involved in host-microbe interactions. Therefore, understanding the wheat root-associated microbiome needs to take into consideration of its polygenetic mosaic nature.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Microbiota , Aegilops/genética , Genoma de Planta , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(2)2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205399

RESUMO

Durum wheat landraces have huge potential for the identification of genetic factors valuable for improving resistance to biotic stresses. Tunisia is known as a hot spot for Septoria tritici blotch disease (STB), caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (Z. tritici). In this context, a collection of 3166 Mediterranean durum wheat landraces were evaluated at the seedling and adult stages for STB resistance in the 2016-2017 cropping season under field conditions in Kodia (Tunisia). Unadapted/susceptible accessions were eliminated to reach the final set of 1059 accessions; this was termed the Med-collection, which comprised accessions from 13 countries and was also screened in the 2018-2019 cropping season. The Med-collection showed high frequency of resistance reactions, among which over 50% showed an immune reaction (HR) at both seedling and adult growth stages. Interestingly, 92% of HR and R accessions maintained their resistance levels across the two years, confirming the highly significant correlation found between seedling- and adult-stage reactions. Plant Height was found to have a negative significant effect on adult-stage resistance, suggesting that either this trait can influence disease severity, or that it can be due to environmental/epidemiological factors. Accessions from Italy showed the highest variability, while those from Portugal, Spain and Tunisia showed the highest levels of resistance at both growth stages, suggesting that the latter accessions may harbor novel QTLs effective for STB resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Triticum , Ascomicetos/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Tunísia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 83, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important disease affecting wheat production. Planting resistant cultivars is an effective, safe, and economical method to control the disease. Map construction using next-generation sequencing facilitates gene cloning based on genetic maps and high-throughput gene expression studies. In this study, specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF) was used to analyze Huixianhong (female parent), Hongyoumai (male parent) and two bulks (50 homozygous resistant and 50 susceptible F2:3 segregating population derived from Huixianhong × Hongyoumai to determine a candidate gene region for resistance to powdery mildew on the long arm of chromosome 7B in wheat landrace Hongyoumai. Gene expressions of candidate regions were obtained using bulked segregant RNA-seq in 10 homozygous resistant and 10 susceptible progeny inoculated by Bgt.. Candidate genes were obtained using homology-based cloning in two parents. RESULTS: A 12.95 Mb long candidate region in chromosome 7BL was identified, and five blocks in SLAF matched the scaffold of the existing co-segregation marker Xmp1207. In the candidate region, 39 differentially expressed genes were identified using RNA-seq, including RGA4 (Wheat_Chr_Trans_newGene_16173)-a disease resistance protein whose expression was upregulated in the resistant pool at 16 h post inoculation with Bgt. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR was used to further verify the expression patterns in Wheat_Chr_Trans_newGene_16173 that were significantly different in the two parents Hongyoumai and Huixianhong. Two RGA4 genes were cloned based on the sequence of Wheat_Chr_Trans_newGene_16173, respectively from two parent and there was one amino acid mutation: S to G in Huixianhong on 510 loci. CONCLUSION: The combination of SLAF and BSR-seq methods identified a candidate region of pmHYM in the chromosome 7BL of wheat landrace cultivar Hongyoumai. Comparative analysis between the scaffold of co-segregating marker Xmp1207 and SLAF-seq showed five matching blocks. qRT-PCR showed that only the resistant gene Wheat_Chr_Trans_newGene_16173 was significantly upregulated in the resistant parent Hongyoumai after inoculation with Bgt, and gene cloning revealed a difference in one amino acid between the two parent genes, indicating it was involved in the resistance response and may be the candidate resistance gene pmHYM.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Cromossomos de Plantas , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 73, 2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chitosan has shown potential for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease caused by Fusarium graminearum. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of chitosan hydrochloride applied pre- or post-fungal inoculation on FHB and to better understand its' mode of action via an untargeted metabolomics study. RESULTS: Chitosan inhibited fungal growth in vitro and, when sprayed on the susceptible wheat cultivar Remus 24 hours pre-inoculation with F. graminearum, it significantly reduced the number of infected spikelets at 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation. Chitosan pre-treatment also increased the average grain weight per head, the number of grains per head and the 1000-grain weight compared to the controls sprayed with water. No significant impact of chitosan on grain yield was observed when the plants were sprayed 24 hours post-inoculation with F. graminearum, even if it did result in a reduced number of infected spikelets at every time point. An untargeted metabolomic study using UHPLC-QTOF-MS on wheat spikes revealed that spraying the spikes with both chitosan and F. graminearum activated known FHB resistance pathways (e.g. jasmonic acid). Additionally, more metabolites were up- or down-regulated when both chitosan and F. graminearum spores were sprayed on the spikes (117), as compared with chitosan (51) or F. graminearum on their own (32). This included a terpene, a terpenoid and a liminoid previously associated with FHB resistance. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we showed that chitosan hydrochloride inhibited the spore germination and hyphal development of F. graminearum in vitro, triggered wheat resistance against infection by F. graminearum when used as a pre-inoculant, and highlighted metabolites and pathways commonly and differentially affected by chitosan, the pathogen and both agents. This study provides insights into how chitosan might provide protection or stimulate wheat resistance to infection by F. graminearum. It also unveiled new putatively identified metabolites that had not been listed in previous FHB or chitosan-related metabolomic studies.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(6): e0232021, 2022 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138927

RESUMO

Phenazines are a class of bacterially produced redox-active natural antibiotics that have demonstrated potential as a sustainable alternative to traditional pesticides for the biocontrol of fungal crop diseases. However, the prevalence of bacterial resistance to agriculturally relevant phenazines is poorly understood, limiting both the understanding of how these molecules might shape rhizosphere bacterial communities and the ability to perform a risk assessment for off-target effects. Here, we describe profiles of susceptibility to the antifungal agent phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) across more than 100 bacterial strains isolated from a wheat field where PCA producers are indigenous and abundant. We found that Gram-positive bacteria are typically more sensitive to PCA than Gram-negative bacteria, and there was significant variability in susceptibility both within and across phyla. Phenazine-resistant strains were more likely to be isolated from the wheat rhizosphere, where PCA producers were also more abundant, compared to bulk soil. Furthermore, PCA toxicity was pH-dependent for most susceptible strains and broadly correlated with PCA reduction rates, suggesting that uptake and redox-cycling were important determinants of phenazine toxicity. Our results shed light on which classes of bacteria are most likely to be susceptible to phenazine toxicity in acidic or neutral soils. In addition, the taxonomic and phenotypic diversity of our strain collection represents a valuable resource for future studies on the role of natural antibiotics in shaping wheat rhizosphere communities. IMPORTANCE Microbial communities contribute to crop health in important ways. For example, phenazine metabolites are a class of redox-active molecules made by diverse soil bacteria that underpin the biocontrol of diseases of wheat and other crops. Their physiological functions are nuanced. In some contexts, they are toxic. In others, they are beneficial. While much is known about phenazine production and the effect of phenazines on producing strains, our ability to predict how phenazines might shape the composition of environmental microbial communities is poorly constrained. In addition, phenazine prevalence in the rhizosphere has been predicted to increase in arid soils as the climate changes, providing an impetus for further study. As a step toward gaining a predictive understanding of phenazine-linked microbial ecology, we document the effects of phenazines on diverse bacteria that were coisolated from a wheat rhizosphere and identify conditions and phenotypes that correlate with how a strain will respond to phenazines.


Assuntos
Fenazinas , Triticum , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Prevalência , Triticum/microbiologia
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(4): 62, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199239

RESUMO

In vitro somatic callus culturing is used widely in plant biotechnology, but its effectiveness depends largely on the donor plant genotype. Bacteria or components of their cells are rarely used to activate morphogenesis. In this work, inoculation of explants from immature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) embryos with a suspension of living cells of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 resulted in callus death after 7 days of growth, in contrast to explant treatment with a suspension of heat-killed whole cells of Sp7. The experiments used two wheat lines, LRht-B1a and LRht-B1c, which differ in morphogenic activity. Growing calluses with the lipopolysaccharide of A. brasilense Sp7 increased the yield of regenerated plants 2- to 3.5-fold in both lines. This increase was through the activation of regenerant formation from morphogenic calluses. We have demonstrated for the first time the effects of bacterial flagellin on plant tissue culture. The polar-flagellum flagellin of A. brasilense Sp7 leveled the genotypic differences in the morphogenic ability of callus tissue. Specifically, it increased the yield of morphogenic calluses in the weakly morphogenic line LRht-B1a to the yield value in the highly morphogenic line LRht-B1c but lowered the yield of regenerants in the highly morphogenic line LRht-B1c to the yield value in the weakly morphogenic line LRht-B1a. Thus, bacterial lipopolysaccharides and flagellins can be used to regulate the formation of morphogenic calluses and regenerants in plant tissue culturing in vitro.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Azospirillum brasilense/genética , Flagelina , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Morfogênese , Regeneração , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163113

RESUMO

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat. In this study, we combined the bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-seq) and comparative genomics analysis to localize the powdery mildew resistance gene in Chinese landrace Xiaomaomai. Genetic analysis of F1 plants from a crossing of Xiaomaomai × Lumai23 and the derived F2 population suggests that a single recessive gene, designated as pmXMM, confers the resistance in this germplasm. A genetic linkage map was constructed using the newly developed SNP markers and pmXMM was mapped to the distal end of chromosome 2AL. The two flanking markers 2AL15 and 2AL34 were closely linked to pmXMM at the genetic distance of 3.9 cM and 1.4 cM, respectively. Using the diagnostic primers of Pm4, we confirmed that Xiaomaomai carries a Pm4 allele and the gene function was further validated by the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). In addition, we systematically analyzed pmXMM in comparison with the other Pm4 alleles. The results suggest that pmXMM is identical to Pm4d and Pm4e at sequence level. Pm4b is also not different from Pm4c according to their genome/amino acid sequences. Only a few nucleotide variances were detected between pmXMM and Pm4a/b, which indicate the haplotype variation of the Pm4 gene.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Ligação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
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