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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10423-10431, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487168

RESUMO

Plants often produce antifungal peptides and proteins in response to infection. Also wheat, which is the main ingredient of bread dough, contains such components. Here, we show that while some industrial strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can efficiently ferment dough, some other strains show much lower fermentation capacities because they are sensitive to a specific wheat protein. We purified and identified what turned out to be a thaumatin-like protein through a combination of activity-guided fractionation, cation exchange chromatography, reversed-phase HPLC, and LC-MS/MS. Recombinant expression of the corresponding gene and testing the activity confirmed the inhibitory activity of the protein.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Fermentação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374415

RESUMO

This study focused on evaluate the effectiveness of biochar alone compare integrated with bacterial consortium amendment on the gaseous emissions mitigation as well as carbon and nitrogen sequestration during pig manure composting. Six additive treatments were performed based on uniform mixing pig manure with wheat straw [bacterial consortium (T2), 12%wood biochar (T3), 12%wood biochar + bacterial consortium (T4), 12%wheat straw biochar (T5), 12%wheat straw biochar + bacterial consortium (T6), while T1 without any additive]. The results obviously indicated that integrated use of biochar and bacterial consortium could remarkably relieved gaseous emissions, improved carbon and nitrogen conservation as well as accelerated maturity of composting. Notably the optimum combination was existed in T6 owing to lowest nutrient losses (nitrogen and carbon losses were 9.91 g/kg and 189.54 g/kg) and gas emissions (30.16 g/kg) as well as supreme maturity (germination index > 100%); it's an economic-practical and environmental protection novel disposal approach for solid waste.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem , Gases/metabolismo , Esterco , Nutrientes , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/análise , Suínos , Triticum/química , Madeira/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9877-9884, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398030

RESUMO

Heavy metal contaminants and nutrient deficiencies in soil negatively affect crop growth and human health. The plant cadmium resistance (PCR) protein transports heavy metals. The abundance of PCR is correlated with that of cell number regulator (CNR) protein, and the two proteins have similar conserved domains. Hence, CNR might also participate in heavy metal transport. We isolated and analyzed TaCNR5 from wheat (Triticum aestivum). The expression level of TaCNR5 in the shoots of wheat increased under cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), or manganese (Mn) treatments. Transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5 showed enhanced tolerance to Zn and Mn. Overexpression of TaCNR5 in Arabidopsis increased Cd, Zn, and Mn translocation from roots to shoots. The concentrations of Zn and Mn in rice grains were increased in transgenic plants expressing TaCNR5. These roles of TaCNR5 in the translocation and distribution of heavy metals mean that it has potential as a genetic biofortification tool to fortify cereal grains with micronutrients.


Assuntos
Manganês/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Zinco/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biofortificação , Transporte Biológico , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 300: 125176, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351258

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi or molds, which may cause serious harm to human health through polluted cereal foods. In order to measure the typical mycotoxin contaminations in wheat and corn, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method was established using SPR sensor chip that was fabricated based on self-assembled monolayer. The minimum detection limit of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol were identified as 0.59 ng/mL, 1.27 ng/mL, 7.07 ng/mL and 3.26 ng/mL, respectively. The cross-reactivity for all four mycotoxins were demonstrated to be low. Moreover, the test data were compared with HPLC-MS/MS confirmatory analysis results and good agreement was found between them. In conclusion, the SPR method for simultaneously detecting four mycotoxins has been developed with high sensitivity, good linearity and specificity, which can meet the detection requirements of cereal foods.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas/análise , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/imunologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Reações Cruzadas , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrazonas/química , Limite de Detecção , Micotoxinas/imunologia , Ocratoxinas/análise , Ocratoxinas/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tricotecenos/análise , Tricotecenos/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/imunologia
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9096-9103, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356079

RESUMO

A monoclonal antibody (mAb) was raised against tebuconazole (TEB) using a hapten where the p-chloro substituent of the TEB molecule was replaced with a long-chain carboxylic acid. The resulting mAb showed high sensitivity and specificity against TEB characterized by ELISA with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.19 ng mL-1 and with cross-reactivity (CR) values below 0.01% to several analogues of triazole fungicides. On the basis of the mAb produced, a quantum dot beads-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip assay (QBs-FITSA) was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of TEB in agricultural product samples. The QBs-FITSA exhibited a linear detection range from 0.02 to 1.25 ng mL-1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.02 ng mL-1. Furthermore, using produced mAb, multiple high-throughput rapid immunoassay formats could be achieved as a convenient monitoring tool for evaluation of human and environmental exposure to TEB.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Cucumis sativus/química , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Triazóis/análise , Triticum/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/isolamento & purificação , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Pontos Quânticos/química , Triazóis/isolamento & purificação
6.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 391-398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256321

RESUMO

A maize milling by-product was defatted by aqueous extraction and the residue was dehydrated, comminuted and sieved to obtain two powders differing in particle size and having a very high fibre content. The powders were then incorporated into the structure of short-dough biscuit, at two wheat flour substitution levels (10 and 20%), aiming at the development of a nutritionally improved product. Their impact on biscuit dough properties and the quality and sensory characteristics of the final products was evaluated. As it was revealed, powders' addition altered dough consistency and alveograph indices mainly due to interactions between wheat flour proteins and polysaccharides and enhanced the nutritional profile of the biscuits by inducing a 4- to 6-fold increase of their fibre content. Additionally, it influenced only to a limited extent the degree of some of the final product characteristics, e.g., protein and fat content, spread ratio, breaking strength, depending both on the level of incorporation and the particle size of the residue. On the whole, products' sensory quality was not negatively influenced, suggesting that it is possible to use both powders for the fortification with fibre of biscuits and possibly other bakery products.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Alimentos Fortificados , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Pós , Paladar , Água/química
7.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 446-447, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273640

RESUMO

Cookies are one of the most consumed bakery products and the formulation could be modified to consider them as a functional food. The high amylose maize starch (HAMS) is considered as resistant starch (RS) type 2. The objective of this work was to assess the starch fractions, texture, sensory properties and acceptability of wheat flour cookies added with HAMS at different percentages. Adding 15% of HAMS into the formulation increased the amount of RS from 2.3 to 12.8%. In sensory analysis, children and adults showed a good acceptability of cookies since the addition of HAMS did not result in significant changes in flavor or color. Cookies made with HAMS could be considered as functional foods since they had an acceptable texture and low caloric content.


Assuntos
Amilose/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Adulto , Criança , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Paladar
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8096-8106, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260296

RESUMO

Field experiments were conducted on wheat to study the effects of foliar-applied iodine(I) alone, Zn (zinc) alone, and a micronutrient cocktail solution containing I, Zn, Se (selenium), and Fe (iron) on grain yield and grain concentrations of micronutrients. Plants were grown over 2 years in China, India, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, and Turkey. Grain-Zn was increased from 28.6 mg kg-1 to 46.0 mg-1 kg with Zn-spray and 47.1 mg-1 kg with micronutrient cocktail spray. Foliar-applied I and micronutrient cocktail increased grain I from 24 µg kg-1 to 361 µg kg-1 and 249 µg kg-1, respectively. Micronutrient cocktail also increased grain-Se from 90 µg kg-1 to 338 µg kg-1 in all countries. Average increase in grain-Fe by micronutrient cocktail solution was about 12%. The results obtained demonstrated that foliar application of a cocktail micronutrient solution represents an effective strategy to biofortify wheat simultaneously with Zn, I, Se and partly with Fe without yield trade-off in wheat.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Iodo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Índia , Iodo/análise , Ferro/análise , México , Micronutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , África do Sul , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Turquia , Zinco/análise
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7886-7897, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283218

RESUMO

Hard, medium, and soft wheat proteins, based on gluten content, were studied for their important roles in nanometallic surface chemistry. In situ synthesis of Au nanoparticles (NPs) was followed to determine the surface adsorption behavior of wheat protein based on the gluten contents. A greater amount of gluten contents facilitated the nucleation to produce Au NPs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis clearly showed the surface adsorption of protein on nanometallic surfaces which was almost equally prevalent for the hard, medium, and soft wheat proteins. Wheat protein conjugated NPs were highly susceptible to phase transfer from aqueous to organic phase that was entirely related to the amount of gluten contents. The presence of higher gluten content in hard wheat protein readily enabled the hard wheat protein conjugated NPs to move across the aqueous-organic interface followed by medium and soft wheat protein conjugated NPs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS page) analysis allowed us to determine molar masses of nanometallic surface adsorbed protein fractions. Only two protein fractions of high molar masses (74 and 85 kDa) from SDS solubilized hard, medium, and soft wheat proteins preferred to adsorb on nanometallic surfaces out of more than 15 protein fractions of pure wheat protein. This made the surface adsorption of wheat protein highly selective and closely related to gluten content. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solubilized wheat protein conjugated NPs demonstrated their strong antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria making them suitable for their applications in food industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Glutens/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Triticum/química , Adsorção , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dureza
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8559-8572, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298518

RESUMO

Avenin-like b protein is rich in cysteine residues, providing the possibility to form intermolecular disulfide bonds and then participate in glutenin polymerization. Site-directed mutagenesis was adopted to produce mutant avenin-like b gene encoding mutant avenin-like b protein, in which one tyrosine codon at the C-terminal is substituted by a cysteine codon. Compared with the control lines, both transgenic lines with wild-type and mutant avenin-like b genes demonstrated superior dough properties. While compared within the transgenic lines, the mutant lines showed relative weaker dough strength and decreased sodium-dodecyl-sulfate sedimentation volumes (from 69.7 mL in line WT alb-1 to 41.0 mL in line Mut alb-4). These inferior dough properties were accompanied by the lower contents of large-sized glutenin polymers, the decreased particle diameters of glutenin macropolymer (GMP), due to the lower content of intermolecular ß-sheets (from 39.48% for line WT alb-2 to 30.21% for line Mut alb-3) and the varied contents of disulfide bonds (from 137.37 µmol/g for line WT alb-1 to 105.49 µmol/g for line Mut alb-4) in wheat dough. The extra cysteine might alter the original disulfide bond structure, allowing cysteine residue usually involved in an intermolecular disulfide bond to become available for an intrachain disulfide bond. Avenin-like b proteins were detected in glutenin macropolymers, providing further evidence for this protein to participate in the polymerization of glutenin. This is the first time to investigate the effect of a specific cysteine residue in the avenin-like b protein on flour quality.


Assuntos
Cisteína/genética , Farinha/análise , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Prolaminas/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão/análise , Cisteína/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolaminas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8706-8714, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310118

RESUMO

Gradients in the contents and compositions of gluten proteins and free amino acids and the expression levels of gluten protein genes in developing wheat caryopses were determined by dividing the caryopsis into three longitudinal sections, namely, proximal (En1), middle (En2), and distal (En3) to embryo. The total gluten protein content was lower in En1 than in En2 and En3, with decreasing proportions of HMW-GS, LMW GS, and α/ß- and γ-gliadins and increasing proportions of ω-gliadins. These differences were associated with the abundances of gluten protein transcripts. Gradients in the proportions of the gluten protein polymers which affect dough processing quality also occurred, but not in total free amino acids. Microscopy showed that the lower gluten protein content in En1 may have resulted, at least in part, from the presence of modified cells in the dorsal part of En1, but the reasons for the differences in composition are not known.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Glutens/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/embriologia , Farinha/análise , Glutens/genética , Glutens/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8441-8451, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339045

RESUMO

The increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration is predicted to influence wheat production and grain quality and nutritional properties. In the present study, durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Sula) was grown under two different CO2 (400 versus 700 µmol mol-1) concentrations to examine effects on the crop yield and grain quality at different phenological stages (from grain filling to maturity). Exposure to elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground biomass and grain yield components. Growth at elevated CO2 diminished the elemental N content as well as protein and free amino acids, with a typical decrease in glutamine, which is the most represented amino acid in grain proteins. Such a general decrease in nitrogenous compounds was associated with altered kinetics of protein accumulation, N remobilization, and N partitioning. Our results highlight important modifications of grain metabolism that have implications for its nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8419-8424, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267740

RESUMO

Increasing the dietary fiber of staple foods such as bread is an attractive way to promote healthy eating in a large part of the population, where dietary fiber consumption is reportedly below the recommended values. However, many consumers prefer white breads, which are typically low in dietary fiber. In this work, white bread was made from two wheat cultivars with differing fiber contents. The resulting breads showed similar quality parameters (volume, specific volume, firmness, inner structure characteristics) with any differences maintained below 7%. Bread digestibility was evaluated using a novel dynamic in vitro digestion model. Reduced digestion rates of 30% were estimated for the high-fiber white bread compared to that in the control. Overall, this work demonstrates the potential to produce healthy, high-fiber white breads that are acceptable to consumers, with a reduced rate of starch digestion, by exploiting a genetic variation in the dietary fiber content of wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química
14.
Food Chem ; 298: 125003, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260957

RESUMO

The oral breakdown, sensory properties, and volatile release during mastication of white bread were investigated. The results of correlation analysis for white bread's physical properties and it's oral physiological parameters during chewing have elucidated that bread's physical properties determined the oral processing behavior. During chewing of white bread, 15 dominant ions with regularly changing patterns were monitored by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). These dominant ions derived from 32 volatile compounds were further confirmed by pure standards. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to explore the positive correlations between the sensory analysis and the dominant aroma compounds. Results have shown that 9 aroma compounds were predicted as the potent odorants contributing to the changes in aroma profiles. Finally, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and heptanoic acid were confirmed as the key aroma compounds contributing to the changes in aroma profiles of white bread before and after chewing.


Assuntos
Pão , Mastigação , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Acetoína/análise , Adulto , Pão/análise , Butanóis/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Heptanoicos/análise , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Triticum/química
15.
Food Chem ; 298: 125002, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260958

RESUMO

Lipids are only minor wheat flour constituents but play major roles in bread making (BM). Here, the importance of a well-balanced lipid population in BM was studied by applying a lipase from Fusarium oxysporum in the process. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines were the most accessible lipase substrates. Hydrolysis thereof into their corresponding lysolipids was largely if not entirely responsible for loaf volume increases upon lipase application. Degradation of endogenously present lipids and enzymatically released lysolipids caused loaf volume to decrease, confirming that an appropriate balance between different types of lipids is crucial in BM. For optimal dough gas cell stability, the level of lipids promoting lamellar mesophases and, thus, liquid condensed monolayers needs to be maximal while maintaining an appropriate balance between lipids promoting hexagonal I phases, non-polar lipids and lipids promoting hexagonal II or cubic phases.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Triticum , Fermentação , Fusarium/enzimologia , Galactolipídeos/química , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lipase/química , Lisofosfolipídeos/química , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 298: 125032, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260968

RESUMO

A dietary fibre prepared from sugarcane stalk was compared with psyllium husk and wheat dextrin. In contrast to the other dietary fibres, sugarcane fibre was found to contain significant amounts of insoluble dietary fibre (73-86%), lignin (18.66-20.23%), and rare minerals such as chromium (0.67-2.54 mg/100 g) and manganese (1.07-2.34 mg/100 g). Analysis of the ethanol extract also detected compounds with antioxidant activity. Characterisation of five sugarcane fibres prepared from selected strains, harvest periods (growth or storage phase), and processing conditions showed these factors influenced the final composition. Furthermore, using in vitro digestion, we found that potassium, magnesium, chromium, and zinc in were bioaccessible in sugarcane samples. Also, sodium was shown to bind to the sugarcane fibre potentially indicating bile salt binding activity. Results from this study support the use of sugarcane as a source of dietary fibre in functional foods.


Assuntos
Dextrinas/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Plantago/química , Saccharum/química , Triticum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromo/análise , Cromo/farmacocinética , Dextrinas/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lignina/análise , Metais/análise , Metais/farmacocinética
17.
Food Chem ; 298: 125081, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260952

RESUMO

The impact of kansui on the dough rheology and quality characteristics of chickpea-wheat composite flour-based noodles was investigated. For noodle dough, both the relative crystallinity and degree of order obtained from X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy increased with the low level of kansui addition (0.5-1.5%), followed by a decreased trend at higher levels of alkali concentration (2.0-3.0%). Such variation was in accordance with the trend observed for G' and G″. Based on the confocal laser scanning microscopic observation for cooked noodle samples, the low concentration of kansui addition (0.5-1.5%) protected the well-embedded starch granules being disassociate from the gluten network, whereas with the increased alkali addition (2.0-3.0%), the protein network was impaired with a greater amount of ruptured starch granules being disassociated from the gluten network. The observation corresponded well with the electrophoretic profile, and the results of cooking properties, -SH content, and textural properties of cooked noodles.


Assuntos
Cicer/química , Farinha , Triticum/química , Carbonatos/química , Culinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutens/química , Microscopia Confocal , Potássio/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Amido/química , Difração de Raios X
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125090, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272055

RESUMO

In this study, molecular properties of wheat starch from three different types of breads were analyzed using asymmetric flow field-flow (AF4) connected to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detectors. This analysis allowed the determination of molecular properties, i.e. molar mass (M), root-mean-square radius (rrms), apparent density (ρapp) and conformation. Complementary analyses, such as resistant starch and amylose content, were also performed. The results show that wheat starch extracted from breads can have different properties reflected in changes in M, rrms and ρapp. In addition, the results suggest that some of the changes in molecular properties may be related to the presence of resistant starch.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Fracionamento por Campo e Fluxo/métodos , Refratometria/métodos , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Amilose/análise , Bolívia , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Peso Molecular , Espalhamento de Radiação
19.
Food Chem ; 299: 125115, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288161

RESUMO

The nutritional and antinutritional components of minor millets were correlated with mixolab dough mixing behavior and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Total arabinoxylan (r = -0.53, p < 0.05) and dietary fiber (r = -0.66, p < 0.05) content significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein weakening. Peak viscosity negatively correlated with phenolic (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) content. The dietary fiber and phenolics suppressed retrogradation. Protein digestibility negatively correlated with tannin (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = -0.69, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = -0.79, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.84, p < 0.05). A positive correlation of resistant starch (RS) with total dietary fiber (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = 0.83, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and tannin content (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) was observed. Millets predicted lower glycemic index than wheat and it was found to be negatively associated with the RS (r = -0.96, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.89, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) with rapidly digestible starch. The millets may be diversified for personalized nutrition and development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pão , Milhetes , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Milhetes/química , Panicum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Reologia , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Viscosidade , Xilanos/análise
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2825, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249299

RESUMO

The formation of stomata and leaf mesophyll airspace must be coordinated to establish an efficient and robust network that facilitates gas exchange for photosynthesis, however the mechanism by which this coordinated development occurs remains unclear. Here, we combine microCT and gas exchange analyses with measures of stomatal size and patterning in a range of wild, domesticated and transgenic lines of wheat and Arabidopsis to show that mesophyll airspace formation is linked to stomatal function in both monocots and eudicots. Our results support the hypothesis that gas flux via stomatal pores influences the degree and spatial patterning of mesophyll airspace formation, and indicate that this relationship has been selected for during the evolution of modern wheat. We propose that the coordination of stomata and mesophyll airspace pattern underpins water use efficiency in crops, providing a target for future improvement.


Assuntos
Células do Mesofilo/química , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/química , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Porosidade , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
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