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1.
Nature ; 592(7852): 80-85, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692543

RESUMO

Placentas can exhibit chromosomal aberrations that are absent from the fetus1. The basis of this genetic segregation, which is known as confined placental mosaicism, remains unknown. Here we investigated the phylogeny of human placental cells as reconstructed from somatic mutations, using whole-genome sequencing of 86 bulk placental samples (with a median weight of 28 mg) and of 106 microdissections of placental tissue. We found that every bulk placental sample represents a clonal expansion that is genetically distinct, and exhibits a genomic landscape akin to that of childhood cancer in terms of mutation burden and mutational imprints. To our knowledge, unlike any other healthy human tissue studied so far, the placental genomes often contained changes in copy number. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships between tissues from the same pregnancy, which revealed that developmental bottlenecks genetically isolate placental tissues by separating trophectodermal lineages from lineages derived from the inner cell mass. Notably, there were some cases with full segregation-within a few cell divisions of the zygote-of placental lineages and lineages derived from the inner cell mass. Such early embryonic bottlenecks may enable the normalization of zygotic aneuploidy. We observed direct evidence for this in a case of mosaic trisomic rescue. Our findings reveal extensive mutagenesis in placental tissues and suggest that mosaicism is a typical feature of placental development.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Mutagênese , Mutação , Placenta/metabolismo , Biópsia , Massa Celular Interna do Blastocisto/citologia , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Mesoderma/citologia , Taxa de Mutação , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Trissomia/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Zigoto/citologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567726

RESUMO

Steroid hormones play a crucial role in supporting a successful pregnancy and ensuring proper fetal development. The placenta is one of the principal tissues in steroid production and metabolism, expressing a vast range of steroidogenic enzymes. Nevertheless, a comprehensive characterization of steroidogenic pathways in the human placenta and potential developmental changes occurring during gestation are poorly understood. Furthermore, the specific contribution of trophoblast cells in steroid release is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to (i) identify gestational age-dependent changes in the gene expression of key steroidogenic enzymes and (ii) explore the role of trophoblast cells in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism. Quantitative and Droplet Digital PCR analysis of 12 selected enzymes was carried out in the first trimester (n = 13) and term (n = 20) human placentas. Primary trophoblast cells (n = 5) isolated from human term placentas and choriocarcinoma-derived cell lines (BeWo, BeWo b30 clone, and JEG-3) were further screened for gene expression of enzymes involved in placental synthesis/metabolism of steroids. Finally, de novo steroid synthesis by primary human trophoblasts was evaluated, highlighting the functional activity of steroidogenic enzymes in these cells. Collectively, we provide insights into the expression patterns of steroidogenic enzymes as a function of gestational age and delineate the cellular origin of steroidogenesis in the human placenta.


Assuntos
Coriocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Placenta/metabolismo , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo , Esteroide Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Coriocarcinoma/patologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2273: 151-158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604851

RESUMO

The first differentiation event in mammalian embryos is the formation of the trophectoderm, which is the progenitor of the outer epithelial component of the placenta and supports the fetus during intrauterine life. Our understanding of these events is limited, particularly in human, because of ethical and legal restrictions and availability of adequate in vitro models would be very advantageous. Here we describe a method that converts human fibroblasts into trophoblast-like cells, combining the use of 5-azacytidine-CR (5-aza-CR) to erase the original cell phenotype and a cocktail containing bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) with inhibitors of the Activin/Nodal/ERK signaling pathways, to drive erased fibroblasts into the trophoblastic differentiation. This innovative method uses very easily accessible cells to derive trophoblast-like cells and it can be useful to study embryo implantation disorders related to aging.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Ativinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Implantação do Embrião , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Proteína Nodal/antagonistas & inibidores , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/citologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406768

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARß/δ, and PPARγ) belong to the transcription factor family, and they are highly expressed in all types of trophoblast during pregnancy. The present review discusses currently published papers that are related to the regulation of PPARs via lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, and amino acid metabolism to affect trophoblast physiological conditions, including differentiation, maturation, secretion, fusion, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Recent pieces of evidence have proven that the dysfunctions of PPARs in trophoblast lead to several related pregnancy diseases such as recurrent miscarriage, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of PPARs in the control of these processes have been discussed as well. Finally, this review's purposes are to provide more knowledge about the role of PPARs in normal and disturbed pregnancy with trophoblast, so as to find PPAR ligands as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Trofoblastos/citologia
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(1): 129757, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trophoblast stem (TS) cell renewal and differentiation are essential processes in placentation. Special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a key regulator of the TS cell stem state. In this study, we identified SATB1 downstream targets and investigated their actions. METHODS: RNA-sequencing analysis was performed in Rcho-1 TS cells expressing control or Satb1 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to identify candidate SATB1 targets. Differentially regulated transcripts were validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The role of a target of SATB1, L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase (TDH), in the regulation of trophoblast cell development was investigated using a loss-of-function approach. RESULTS: Among the differentially regulated transcripts in SATB1 knockdown TS cells, were downregulated transcripts known to affect the TS cell stem state and upregulated transcripts characteristic of trophoblast cell differentiation. Tdh expression was exquisitely responsive to SATB1 dysregulation. Tdh expression was high in the TS cell stem state and decreased as TS cells differentiated. Treatment of Rcho-1 TS cells with a TDH inhibitor or a TDH specific shRNA inhibited cell proliferation and attenuated the expression of TS cell stem state-associated transcripts and elevated the expression of trophoblast cell differentiation-associated transcripts. TDH disruption decreased TS cell colony size, Cdx2 expression, and blastocyst outgrowth. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the actions of SATB1 on TS cell maintenance are mediated, at least in part, through the regulation and actions of TDH. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Regulatory pathways controlling TS cell dynamics dictate the functionality of the placenta, pregnancy outcomes, and postnatal health.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111520, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254395

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes, including miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. In this study, MeHg cytotoxicity and its mechanisms in HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated. MeHg inhibited HTR-8/SVneo cell viability and severely disrupted the cellular submicrostructure, showing a time-dose effect relationship. After MeHg treatment, the reactive oxygen species levels, malondialdehyde content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in the HTR-8/SVneo cells increased significantly with increased MeHg concentration (P<0.05). Similarly, MeHg also induced HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of cells in G1 phase decreased with increasing MeHg concentration, while that in the S and G2/M phases gradually increased. Moreover, cell migration and invasion capacities gradually decreased with increasing MeHg concentration, showing a significant difference between the MeHg-treated and control groups. Genes related to oxidative stress (HSPA6, HSPA1A, Nrf2, SOD1, HO-1, NQO1, OSGIN1, and gPX1), cell cycle (P21 and CDC25A), apoptosis (CYCS and AIFM2), and migration and invasion (CXCL8, CXCL3, CLU, IL24, COL3A1, MAPT, and ITGA7) were differentially expressed in the MeHg-treated group, indicating MeHg toxicity and mechanism of action. This study will provide insights into the prevention and treatment of pregnancy-related diseases caused by MeHg.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Integrinas , Interleucina-8 , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Protoc ; 15(10): 3441-3463, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908314

RESUMO

The human placenta is essential for successful reproduction. There is great variation in the anatomy and development of the placenta in different species, meaning that animal models provide limited information about human placental development and function. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate trophoblast cells from the human placenta that proliferate in vitro. This has limited our ability to understand pregnancy disorders. Generating an in vitro model that recapitulates the unique features of the human placenta has been challenging. The first in vitro model system of human trophoblast that could be cultured long term and differentiated to syncytiotrophoblast (SCT) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) was a two-dimensional (2D) culture system of human trophoblast stem cells. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate trophoblast from first-trimester human placentas that can be grown long term in a three-dimensional (3D) organoid culture system. Trophoblast organoids can be established within 2-3 weeks, passaged every 7-10 d, and cultured for over a year. The structural organization of these human trophoblast organoids closely resembles the villous placenta with a layer of cytotrophoblast (VCT) that differentiates into superimposed SCT. Altering the composition of the medium leads to differentiation of the trophoblast organoids into HLA-G+ EVT cells which rapidly migrate and invade through the Matrigel droplet in which they are cultured. Our previous research confirmed that there is similarity between the trophoblast organoids and in vivo placentas in their transcriptomes and ability to produce placental hormones. This organoid culture system provides an experimental model to investigate human placental development and function as well as interactions of trophoblast cells with the local and systemic maternal environment.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Placenta/citologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Células-Tronco , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
9.
Life Sci ; 261: 118358, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866518

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by the onset of hypertension and proteinuria with onset after the 20th week of gestation. The pathogenesis of PE is attributed to increased trophoblast cell death and poor trophoblast migration/invasiveness. This study investigates the function of microRNA-23a (miR-23a) in PE and its effects on migration and invasion of trophoblast cells HTR-8/SVneo. We found higher expression of miR-23a in placental tissue samples from PE pregnant women compared to samples from normal pregnant women. Enhancing miR-23a expression by its specific mimic reduced HTR-8/SVneo cell migration and invasion and increased HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay revealed miR-23a binding with HDAC2. We found that HDAC2 was poorly expressed in placental tissue samples from PE pregnant women, and its expression correlated inversely with miR-23a expression. HTR-8/SVneo cells showed diminished HDAC2 expression upon miR-23a elevation and increased HDAC2 expression upon miR-23a inhibition. Lentivirus-mediated HDAC2 knockdown mimicked the effects of miR-23a on HTR-8/SVneo cells and led to NF-κB activation. Similarly, HDAC2 overexpression and NF-κB inhibition both abrogated the effects of miR-23a on HTR-8/SVneo cells, suggesting that miR-23a reduced HTR-8/SVneo cell migration and invasion and increased HTR-8/SVneo cell apoptosis by HDAC2 inhibition and NF-κB activation. In summary, these results support a novel role of miR-23b in invasion and apoptosis of trophoblast cells, and imply that targeting miR-23b may be a new avenue for treating PE.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lentivirus/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima/genética
10.
Nature ; 585(7825): 404-409, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848249

RESUMO

To implant in the uterus, the mammalian embryo first specifies two cell lineages: the pluripotent inner cell mass that forms the fetus, and the outer trophectoderm layer that forms the placenta1. In many organisms, asymmetrically inherited fate determinants drive lineage specification2, but this is not thought to be the case during early mammalian development. Here we show that intermediate filaments assembled by keratins function as asymmetrically inherited fate determinants in the mammalian embryo. Unlike F-actin or microtubules, keratins are the first major components of the cytoskeleton that display prominent cell-to-cell variability, triggered by heterogeneities in the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex. Live-embryo imaging shows that keratins become asymmetrically inherited by outer daughter cells during cell division, where they stabilize the cortex to promote apical polarization and YAP-dependent expression of CDX2, thereby specifying the first trophectoderm cells of the embryo. Together, our data reveal a mechanism by which cell-to-cell heterogeneities that appear before the segregation of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass influence lineage fate, via differential keratin regulation, and identify an early function for intermediate filaments in development.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Queratinas/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Divisão Celular , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Ectoderma/citologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614841

RESUMO

Placenta-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in communication between the placenta and maternal immune cells possibly leading to a modulation of maternal T-cell signaling components. The ability to identify EVs in maternal blood may lead to the development of diagnostic and treatment tools for pregnancy complications. The objective of this work was to differentiate EVs from bovine placenta (trophoblast) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by a label-free, non-invasive Raman spectroscopy technique. Extracellular vesicles were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to verify the presence and the size distribution of EVs. Raman peaks at 728 cm-1 (collagen) and 1573 cm-1 (protein) were observed only in PBMC-derived EVs, while the peaks 702 cm-1 (cholesterol) and 1553 cm-1 (amide) appeared only in trophoblast-derived EVs. The discrimination of the Raman spectral fingerprints for both types of EVs from different animals was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The PCA and LDA results clearly segregated the spectral clusters between the two types of EVs. Moreover, the PBMC-derived EVs from different animals were indistinguishable, while the trophoblast-derived EVs from three placental samples of different gestational ages showed separate clusters. This study reports for the first time the Raman characteristic peaks for identification of PBMC and trophoblast-derived EVs. The development of this method also provides a potential tool for further studies investigating the causes and potential treatments for pregnancy complications.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Trofoblastos/química , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Placenta/química , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Trofoblastos/citologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16409-16417, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601185

RESUMO

The polar trophoblast overlays the epiblast in eutherian mammals and, depending on the species, has one of two different fates. It either remains a single-layered, thinning epithelium called "Rauber's layer," which soon disintegrates, or, alternatively, it keeps proliferating, contributing heavily to the population of differentiating, invasive trophoblast cells and, at least in mice, to the induction of gastrulation. While loss of the persistent polar trophoblast in mice leads to reduced induction of gastrulation, we show here that prevention of the loss of the polar trophoblast in cattle results in ectopic domains of the gastrulation marker, BRACHYURY This phenotype, and increased epiblast proliferation, arose when Rauber's layer was maintained for a day longer by countering apoptosis through BCL2 overexpression. This suggests that the disappearance of Rauber's layer is a necessity, presumably to avoid excessive signaling interactions between this layer and the subjacent epiblast. We note that, in all species in which the polar trophoblast persists, including humans and mice, ectopic polar trophoblast signaling is prevented via epiblast cavitation which leads to the (pro)amniotic cavity, whose function is to distance the central epiblast from such signaling interactions.


Assuntos
Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Proteínas Fetais/genética , Proteínas Fetais/metabolismo , Gastrulação , Camadas Germinativas/embriologia , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Camadas Germinativas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17864-17875, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669432

RESUMO

Early pregnancy loss affects ∼15% of all implantation-confirmed human conceptions. However, evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of trophoblast progenitors and their association with early pregnancy loss are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that transcription factor TEAD4 ensures survival of postimplantation mouse and human embryos by controlling self-renewal and stemness of trophoblast progenitors within the placenta primordium. In an early postimplantation mouse embryo, TEAD4 is selectively expressed in trophoblast stem cell-like progenitor cells (TSPCs), and loss of Tead4 in postimplantation mouse TSPCs impairs their self-renewal, leading to embryonic lethality before embryonic day 9.0, a developmental stage equivalent to the first trimester of human gestation. Both TEAD4 and its cofactor, yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), are specifically expressed in cytotrophoblast (CTB) progenitors of a first-trimester human placenta. We also show that a subset of unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses (idiopathic RPLs) is associated with impaired TEAD4 expression in CTB progenitors. Furthermore, by establishing idiopathic RPL patient-specific human trophoblast stem cells (RPL-TSCs), we show that loss of TEAD4 is associated with defective self-renewal in RPL-TSCs and rescue of TEAD4 expression restores their self-renewal ability. Unbiased genomics studies revealed that TEAD4 directly regulates expression of key cell cycle genes in both mouse and human TSCs and establishes a conserved transcriptional program. Our findings show that TEAD4, an effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, is essential for the establishment of pregnancy in a postimplantation mammalian embryo and indicate that impairment of the Hippo signaling pathway could be a molecular cause for early human pregnancy loss.


Assuntos
Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Habitual/metabolismo , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Nature ; 583(7817): 625-630, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669713

RESUMO

The recent discovery of N6-methyladenine (N6-mA) in mammalian genomes suggests that it may serve as an epigenetic regulatory mechanism1. However, the biological role of N6-mA and the molecular pathways that exert its function remain unclear. Here we show that N6-mA has a key role in changing the epigenetic landscape during cell fate transitions in early development. We found that N6-mA is upregulated during the development of mouse trophoblast stem cells, specifically at regions of stress-induced DNA double helix destabilization (SIDD)2-4. Regions of SIDD are conducive to topological stress-induced unpairing of the double helix and have critical roles in organizing large-scale chromatin structures3,5,6. We show that the presence of N6-mA reduces the in vitro interactions by more than 500-fold between SIDD and SATB1, a crucial chromatin organizer that interacts with SIDD regions. Deposition of N6-mA also antagonizes SATB1 function in vivo by preventing its binding to chromatin. Concordantly, N6-mA functions at the boundaries between euchromatin and heterochromatin to restrict the spread of euchromatin. Repression of SIDD-SATB1 interactions mediated by N6-mA is essential for gene regulation during trophoblast development in cell culture models and in vivo. Overall, our findings demonstrate an unexpected molecular mechanism for N6-mA function via SATB1, and reveal connections between DNA modification, DNA secondary structures and large chromatin domains in early embryonic development.


Assuntos
Adenina/análogos & derivados , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenina/metabolismo , Animais , Pareamento de Bases , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Eucromatina/genética , Eucromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Trofoblastos/citologia
15.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597868

RESUMO

Human implantation, the apposition and adhesion to the uterine surface epithelia and subsequent invasion of the blastocyst into the maternal decidua, is a critical yet enigmatic biological event that has been historically difficult to study due to technical and ethical limitations. Implantation is initiated by the development of the trophectoderm to early trophoblast and subsequent differentiation into distinct trophoblast sublineages. Aberrant early trophoblast differentiation may lead to implantation failure, placental pathologies, fetal abnormalities, and miscarriage. Recently, methods have been developed to allow human embryos to grow until day 13 post-fertilization in vitro in the absence of maternal tissues, a time-period that encompasses the implantation period in humans. This has given researchers the opportunity to investigate human implantation and recapitulate the dynamics of trophoblast differentiation during this critical period without confounding maternal influences and avoiding inherent obstacles to study early embryo differentiation events in vivo. To characterize different trophoblast sublineages during implantation, we have adopted existing two-dimensional (2D) extended culture methods and developed a procedure to enzymatically digest and isolate different types of trophoblast cells for downstream assays. Embryos cultured in 2D conditions have a relatively flattened morphology and may be suboptimal in modeling in vivo three-dimensional (3D) embryonic architectures. However, trophoblast differentiation seems to be less affected as demonstrated by anticipated morphology and gene expression changes over the course of extended culture. Different trophoblast sublineages, including cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast and migratory trophoblast can be separated by size, location, and temporal emergence, and used for further characterization or experimentation. Investigation of these early trophoblast cells may be instrumental in understanding human implantation, treating common placental pathologies, and mitigating the incidence of pregnancy loss.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Implantação do Embrião , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Trofoblastos/citologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Blastocisto/citologia , Forma Celular , Células Cultivadas , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Fixação de Tecidos , Tripsina/metabolismo , Vitrificação
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14280-14291, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513715

RESUMO

In utero mammalian development relies on the establishment of the maternal-fetal exchange interface, which ensures transportation of nutrients and gases between the mother and the fetus. This exchange interface is established via development of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast cells (SynTs) during placentation. In mice, SynTs develop via differentiation of the trophoblast stem cell-like progenitor cells (TSPCs) of the placenta primordium, and in humans, SynTs are developed via differentiation of villous cytotrophoblast (CTB) progenitors. Despite the critical need in pregnancy progression, conserved signaling mechanisms that ensure SynT development are poorly understood. Herein, we show that atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCλ/ι) plays an essential role in establishing the SynT differentiation program in trophoblast progenitors. Loss of PKCλ/ι in the mouse TSPCs abrogates SynT development, leading to embryonic death at approximately embryonic day 9.0 (E9.0). We also show that PKCλ/ι-mediated priming of trophoblast progenitors for SynT differentiation is a conserved event during human placentation. PKCλ/ι is selectively expressed in the first-trimester CTBs of a developing human placenta. Furthermore, loss of PKCλ/ι in CTB-derived human trophoblast stem cells (human TSCs) impairs their SynT differentiation potential both in vitro and after transplantation in immunocompromised mice. Our mechanistic analyses indicate that PKCλ/ι signaling maintains expression of GCM1, GATA2, and PPARγ, which are key transcription factors to instigate SynT differentiation programs in both mouse and human trophoblast progenitors. Our study uncovers a conserved molecular mechanism, in which PKCλ/ι signaling regulates establishment of the maternal-fetal exchange surface by promoting trophoblast progenitor-to-SynT transition during placentation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Placenta/citologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13562-13570, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482863

RESUMO

Various pregnancy complications, such as severe forms of preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction, are thought to arise from failures in the differentiation of human placental trophoblasts. Progenitors of the latter either develop into invasive extravillous trophoblasts, remodeling the uterine vasculature, or fuse into multinuclear syncytiotrophoblasts transporting oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. However, key regulatory factors controlling trophoblast self-renewal and differentiation have been poorly elucidated. Using primary cells, three-dimensional organoids, and CRISPR-Cas9 genome-edited JEG-3 clones, we herein show that YAP, the transcriptional coactivator of the Hippo signaling pathway, promotes maintenance of cytotrophoblast progenitors by different genomic mechanisms. Genetic or chemical manipulation of YAP in these cellular models revealed that it stimulates proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulators and stemness-associated genes, but inhibits cell fusion and production of syncytiotrophoblast (STB)-specific proteins, such as hCG and GDF15. Genome-wide comparisons of primary villous cytotrophoblasts overexpressing constitutively active YAP-5SA with YAP KO cells and syncytializing trophoblasts revealed common target genes involved in trophoblast stemness and differentiation. ChIP-qPCR unraveled that YAP-5SA overexpression increased binding of YAP-TEAD4 complexes to promoters of proliferation-associated genes such as CCNA and CDK6 Moreover, repressive YAP-TEAD4 complexes containing the histone methyltransferase EZH2 were detected in the genomic regions of the STB-specific CGB5 and CGB7 genes. In summary, YAP plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the human placental trophoblast epithelium. Besides activating stemness factors, it also directly represses genes promoting trophoblast cell fusion.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Placentação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ligação Proteica , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of microRNA (miR)-34a-5p and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 6 in the regulation of cell viability, apoptosis and invasion of human placental trophoblastic cells and the relationship between miR-34a-5p and CDK6. METHODS: We examined the expression of miR-34a-5p using RT-qPCR in cultured human trophoblast HTR-8/Svneo cells and human choriocarcinoma cell lines BeWo and JEG-3HTR-8/Svneo. HTR-8/Svneo cells transfected with a miR-34a-5p-mimic, the miR-34a-5p-inhibitor, or pcDNA-CDK6 along with the mimic group were analyzed for changes in cell proliferation using MTT assay; the apoptosis of the cells were assessed by detecting caspase 3 activity and cleaved caspase 3 protein expression, and the cell invasion was evaluated using Transwell assay. Western blotting was used to determine the protein levels of CDK6, cleaved caspase 3, and MMP-9 in the cells. The interaction between CDK6 and miR-34a-5p analyzed using a luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: Transfection with the miR-34a-5p mimic significantly reduced the viability (P=0.000), suppressed the invasion (P=0.049), enhanced the cell apoptosis (P=0.018), down-regulated the expressions of MMP-9 (P=0.004) and CDK6 (P=0.014), and up-regulated caspase 3 activity (P=0.018) and cleaved caspase 3 expression (P=0.003) in cultured HTR-8/Svneo cells. CDK6 was confirmed as one of the target gene of miR-34a-5p. Transfection with pcDNA-CDK6 significantly reversed the effects of miR- 34a-5p overexpression on the cell viability (P=0.000), apoptosis (P=0.015), and invasion (P=0.046). Treatment of the cells with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), an activator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also significantly attenuated the effects of miR-34a- 5p overexpression on the cell viability (P=0.011), apoptosis (P=0.004), and invasion (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: miR-34a-5p promotes apoptosis and inhibits the viability and invasion of human placental trophoblastic cells by down-regulating CDK6 and inactivating the PI3K/AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Trofoblastos/citologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
19.
Gene ; 749: 144721, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360842

RESUMO

Fetal development is critically dependent on the efficiency of the placenta. Porcine trophoblast cell proliferation and invasion have crucial roles in placental fold development, which is one of the essential events determining placental efficiency. The membrane serine proteinase inhibitor hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) can regulate cellular invasion and motility in different types of epithelial cells, including trophoblast cells in mice. This work used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry to compare the expression level and location of HAI-1 in the placenta on gestational days 26, 50, and 95 in Yorkshire and Meishan pigs. The role of HAI-1 in porcine trophoblast cell (PTr2) proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro was investigated by analyzing the effects of HAI-1 gene silencing or overexpression. Polymorphism in the HAI-1gene was detected to determine associations between the genotype and piglet birth weight in 400 healthy pure-bred Yorkshire piglets. qPCR results showed that HAI-1 mRNA levels significantly increased (P < 0.01) between gestational days 26 and 50 and then decreased (P < 0.01) between days 50 and 95 in both Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that HAI-1 protein was strongly expressed by the high columnar trophoblast cells located at the top of the placental folds with low proliferative and invasion capacities. However, it was expressed at very low levels in cuboidal trophoblast cells located at the side and base of the placental folds with high proliferative and invasion capacities. In vitro experiments indicated that HAI-1 had the ability to reduce the proliferation, invasion and migration of trophoblast cells. In addition, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HAI-1 showed a significant association (P < 0.05) with piglet birth weight. These results revealed that HAI-1 could be a vital molecule in placental folds development by regulating trophoblast proliferation and invasion in pigs.


Assuntos
Placenta/metabolismo , Placentação , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/embriologia , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Placentação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/genética , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia
20.
Life Sci ; 253: 117668, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320706

RESUMO

AIMS: Preeclampsia (PE) accounts for the foremost cause of maternal and fetal mortality worldwide, whereas, there are no effective treatments for the disease yet. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in various human disorders, including PE. Here, we identified an up-regulated lncRNA HOTAIR, and explored its underlying mechanisms in PE. MAIN METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis was used to examine HOTAIR expression in PE tissues and cell lines. Trophoblast proliferation was examined by colony formation and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays. Trophoblast migration and invasion was determined by transwell and wound healing assays. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to verify the regulation HOTAIR on miRNAs. The interaction between HOTAIR and EZH2 was detected using RNA immunoprecipitation assay (RIP). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay was also performed to verify that the negative regulation of HOTAIR on miR-106a was dependent on the epigenetic repressor EZH2. KEY FINDINGS: HOTAIR was up-regulated in PE placenta tissues, which repressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells. HOTAIR significantly repressed miR-106a expression and the reduced miR-106a level was also observed in placentas from PE patients. Additionally, miR-106a mimic enhanced the migration and invasion of trophoblast cells. Further mechanistic analyses implied that the action of HOTAIR is moderately attributable to its repression of miR-106a via association with EZH2. SIGNIFICANCE: High level of HOTAIR repressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblast cells through targeting miR-106 in an EZH2-dependent manner, which may provide new insights into the roles of HOTAIR and miR-106a as potential regulators in PE.


Assuntos
Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Repressão Epigenética , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Trofoblastos/citologia , Regulação para Cima
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