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1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(7): 763-771, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882719

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, leading in some cases to a critical condition with poor long-term outcomes and residual disability requiring post-acute rehabilitation. A major concern in severe COVID-19 is represented by a concomitant prothrombotic state. However, contrasting data are available about the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). A detailed search on the association of COVID-19 with thromboembolic complications was conducted in the main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The weighted mean prevalence (WMP) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated with the random-effects model. Twenty studies enrolling 1,988 COVID-19 patients were included. The WMP of VTE was 31.3% (95% CI: 24.3-39.2%). The WMP of DVT was 19.8% (95% CI: 10.5-34.0%), whereas the WMP of PE was 18.9% (95% CI: 14.4-24.3%). Similar results were obtained when specifically analyzing studies on patients admitted to intensive care units and those on patients under antithrombotic prophylaxis. Regression models showed that an increasing age was associated with a higher prevalence of VTE (Z-score: 3.11, p = 0.001), DVT (Z-score: 2.33, p = 0.002), and PE (Z-score: 3.03, p = 0.002), while an increasing body mass index was associated with an increasing prevalence of PE (Z-score = 2.01, p = 0.04). Male sex did not impact the evaluated outcomes. The rate of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients is definitely high. Considering the risk of fatal and disabling complications, adequate screening procedures and antithrombotic strategies should be implemented.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9154-9160, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. An association between increased venous thromboembolism in patients with pneumonia-related to COVID-19 has not yet been well described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We aimed to illustrate cases of pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 treated in our intensive care unit. The medical records of patients affected by COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome in our institute from 1/3/2020 to 31/3/2020 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Our center registered a high prevalence of thromboembolic events among 62 patients affected by acute respiratory distress syndrome related to COVID-19 despite a regular antithrombotic prophylaxis. Out of these, 32 patients were transferred to other hospitals, and 30 were treated in our center. Venous thromboembolism was registered in 12 (19.3%) cases. In particular, 11 diagnoses of pulmonary embolism and 1 diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were formulated. We described a case series of venous thromboembolism in nine patients treated in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Main pulmonary arteries were always involved in these patients. None of them died. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, critically ill patients with ARDS related to COVID-19 may have an increased risk of VTE that could be a leading cause of mortality. These patients require a high index of clinical suspicion and an accurate diagnostic approach, in order to immediately start an appropriate anticoagulant treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9161-9168, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) predisposes patients to thrombosis which underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. We sought to investigate the balance between procoagulant factors and natural coagulation inhibitors in the critically ill COVID-19 patient and to evaluate the usefulness of hemostasis parameters to identify patients at risk of venous thromboembolic event (VTE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational study recording VTEs defined as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism using lower limb ultrasound (92% of the patients), computed tomography pulmonary angiography (6%) and both tests (2%). We developed a comprehensive analysis of hemostasis. RESULTS: Ninety-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients (age, 62 years [53-69] (median [25th-75th percentiles]); M/F sex ratio, 2.5; body-mass index, 28 kg/m2 [25-32]; past hypertension (52%) and diabetes mellitus (30%)) admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from 03/11/2020 to 5/05/2020, were included. When tested, patients were receiving prophylactic (74%) or therapeutic (26%) anticoagulation. Forty patients (43%) were diagnosed with VTE. Patients displayed inflammatory and prothrombotic profile including markedly elevated plasma fibrinogen (7.7 g/L [6.1-8.6]), D-dimer (3,360 ng/mL [1668-7575]), factor V (166 IU/dL [136-195]) and factor VIII activities (294 IU/dL [223-362]). We evidenced significant discrepant protein C anticoagulant and chromogenic activities, combined with slightly decreased protein S activity. Plasma D-dimer >3,300 ng/mL predicted VTE presence with 78% (95%-confidence interval (95% CI), 62-89) sensitivity, 69% (95% CI, 55-81) specificity, 66% (95% CI, 51-79) positive predictive value and 80% (95% CI, 65-90) negative predictive value [area under the ROC curve, 0.779 (95%CI, 0.681-0.859), p=0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients present with an imbalance between markedly increased factor V/VIII activity and overwhelmed protein C/S pathway. Plasma D-dimer may be a useful biomarker at the bedside for suspicion of VTE.


Assuntos
Inibidores dos Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Fator V/análise , Fator VIII/análise , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteína C/análise , Proteína S/análise , Curva ROC , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 68-75, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736466

RESUMO

The paper is a narrative review of the literature on the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the VTE treatment in challenging patients: senile age (≥75 years), impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤50 ml/min), fragility (one of the previous characteristics and/or bodyweight ≤50 kg). The paper discusses the studies of EINSTEIN DVT and PE (rivaroxaban), AMPLIFY (apixaban), HOKUSAI-VTE (edoxaban), RE-COVER I and II (dabigatran) in the focus of the secondary analysis in the pre-specified patient's subgroups, as well as their pooled analyzes and meta-analyzes. Based on the results of this review, it was concluded that in a subgroup of senile age patients, dabigatran increases the risk of major bleeding by 4.8 times and has no advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKA); rivaroxaban and apixaban retain superiority over VKA on the safety outcomes and reduce the risk of major bleeding by 73% and 77%. In the subgroup of patients with impaired renal function, the use of apixaban and dabigatran is associated with an increase in the risk of major bleeding by 6.5 and 7.3 times, and these DOACs do not have advantages over VKA; rivaroxaban retains its superiority over VKA and reduces the risk of major bleeding by 78%. For fragile patients, a secondary analysis is available only for rivaroxaban, which remains superior to VKA on safety endpoints and reduces the risk of major bleeding by 73%. In the absence of direct comparisons between the available DOACs, the presented data can be used as a rational approach for the choice of appropriate treatment for VTE in challenging patients.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antitrombinas , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests aspirin may be an effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for orthopaedic trauma patients, with fewer bleeding complications. We used a patient-centered weighted composite outcome to globally evaluate aspirin versus low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for VTE prevention in fracture patients. METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial of adult patients admitted to an academic trauma center with an operative extremity fracture, or a pelvis or acetabular fracture. Patients were randomized to receive LMWH (enoxaparin 30-mg) twice daily (n = 164) or aspirin 81-mg twice daily (n = 165). The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of bleeding complications, deep surgical site infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and death within 90 days of injury. A Global Rank test and weighted time to event analysis were used to determine the probability of treatment superiority for LMWH, given a 9% patient preference margin for oral administration over skin injections. RESULTS: Overall, 18 different combinations of outcomes were experienced by patients in the study. Ninety-nine patients in the aspirin group (59.9%) and 98 patients in the LMWH group (59.4%) were event-free within 90 days of injury. Using a Global Rank test, the LMWH had a 50.4% (95% CI, 47.7-53.2%, p = 0.73) probability of treatment superiority over aspirin. In the time to event analysis, LMWH had a 60.5% probability of treatment superiority over aspirin with considerable uncertainty (95% CI, 24.3-88.0%, p = 0.59). CONCLUSION: The findings of the Global Rank test suggest no evidence of superiority between LMWH or aspirin for VTE prevention in fracture patients. LMWH demonstrated a 60.5% VTE prevention benefit in the weighted time to event analysis. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance and was similar to the elicited patient preferences for aspirin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(11): 1246-1253, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cancer-VTE Registry evaluates the occurrence and management of venous thromboembolism in Japanese participants with major solid tumors. Using Registry data, we evaluated the frequency of concurrent venous thromboembolism in cancer patients prior to treatment initiation by cancer type. METHODS: The Cancer-VTE Registry is an ongoing (March 2017-September 2020) prospective cohort study using a nationwide, multicentre clinical registry. Participants aged ≥20 years with colorectal, lung, stomach, pancreatic, breast or gynecologic cancer, confirmed staging, ≥6 months life expectancy post-registration and who had undergone venous thromboembolism screening were managed with routine clinical care. Venous thromboembolism frequency at registration was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 9735 participants, 571 (5.9%) had venous thromboembolism at baseline, including asymptomatic [5.5% (n = 540)] and symptomatic venous thromboembolism [0.3% (n = 31)]. Most participants with venous thromboembolism (n = 506, 5.2%) had deep vein thrombosis only; 65 (0.7%) had pulmonary embolism with/without deep vein thrombosis. The prevalence of distal and proximal deep vein thrombosis was 4.8% (n = 466) and 0.9% (n = 83), respectively. The highest prevalence of venous thromboembolism was for pancreatic cancer (8.5%) and the lowest for breast cancer (2.0%). Venous thromboembolism prevalence increased as cancer stage advanced. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a marked difference in venous thromboembolism by cancer type, the data suggest that cancer stage is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism. Thus, metastasis seems a critical risk factor for venous thromboembolism. This is the first demonstration of venous thromboembolism prevalence and risk factors in Japanese cancer patients prior to treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000024942.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Relatório de Pesquisa , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 155(2): 51-56, jul. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195696

RESUMO

AIMS: The association of on-admission CRP and early adverse outcomes in acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not been investigated. We hypothesized that increased on-admission CRP levels would correlate with adverse outcomes in patients with acute VTE. METHOD: In this prospective observational study, consecutive patients with acute VTE were enrolled and CRP levels were measured within the first 24h after diagnosis. Mortality, bleeding and recurrence were recorded during a 30-day follow-up. RESULTS: 586 patients were included. Higher CRP levels were found in patients with mortality (7.5 vs 4.0mg/dL; p = 0.01) and bleeding (7.8 vs 3.9mg/dL; p = 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression showed that CRP levels >5mg/dL were associated with higher mortality (OR 6.25; 95% CI, 2.1-18.6) and bleeding (OR 2.7; CI 95% 1.3-5.7). These results were independent to ESC risk score and simplified PESI score for mortality prediction. The predictive capacity of CRP showed an area under the ROC curve - AUC - of .7 (CI 95% .56-.85) for mortality and .65 (CI 95% .54-.75) for bleeding. The prognostic capacity of the ESC risk score and simplified PESI score was improved after adding the CRP cutoff of 5mg/dL (AUC of .87 CI 95% .79-.95). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that on-admission CRP level may be a simple, widely available and valuable biomarker to identify high-risk VTE patients for early mortality and bleeding. CRP ≥5mg/dL was independently associated with 30-day VTE related death and bleeding


OBJETIVOS: La asociación de la medición de PCR al ingreso y las complicaciones precoces en la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa (ETV) aguda no ha sido evaluado. Nuestra hipótesis es que los niveles elevados de PCR al ingreso podrían estar correlacionados con complicaciones precoces en pacientes con ETV aguda. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional prospectivo, en el que se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos con ETV aguda en los que se midió la PCR en las primeras 24h del diagnóstico. La mortalidad, el sangrado y la recurrencia fueron registrados durante el seguimiento a 30 días. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 586 pacientes. Se encontraron niveles más elevados de PCR en pacientes que fallecieron (7,5 vs. 4mg/dl; p = 0,01) y que sangraron (7,8 vs. 3,9mg/dl; p = 0,03). Una regresión logística multivariante mostró que niveles de PCR>5mg/dl se asociaron significativamente con mayor mortalidad (OR: 6,25; IC 95%: 2,1-18,6) y sangrado (OR: 2,7; IC 95%: 1,3-5,7). Estos resultados fueron independientes de las escalas pronósticas de mortalidad ESC y PESI simplificada. La capacidad predictiva de la PCR mostró un área bajo la curva (ABC) ROC de 0,7 (IC 95%: 0,56-0,85) para mortalidad y 0,65 (IC 95%: 0,54-0,75) para sangrado. La capacidad pronóstica de las escalas pronósticas ESC y PESI simplificada mejoró de forma significativa al añadir el punto de corte de PCR>5mg/dl (ABC de 0,87; IC 95%: 0,79-0,95). CONCLUSIÓN: La medición de PCR al ingreso puede ser un marcador sencillo y ampliamente disponible para identificar a pacientes con ETV aguda y alto riesgo de mortalidad y sangrado precoces. Niveles de PCR≥5mg/dl se asociaron de forma independiente con mayor mortalidad y sangrado a 30 días en pacientes con ETV aguda


Assuntos
Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos de Coortes , Hemorragia/complicações , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Modelos Logísticos , Biomarcadores , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Transl Res ; 225: 20-32, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554071

RESUMO

Pregnancy associated venous thromboembolism (PA-VTE) is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the availability of international guidance on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment, practice differs between countries and clinical institutions. The evidence base in this area is limited due to the vulnerable population who are affected, with the majority of guidelines deriving their recommendations from experience in surgical and medical venous thromboembolic disease. This review includes best evidence in PA-VTE management, highlighting specific literature which supports current diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strategies. Additionally, we hope to demonstrate emerging trends in the field through discussion of ongoing trials designed to progress towards evidence-based practice in the context of PA-VTE.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
12.
Acta Haematol ; 143(5): 417-424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396903

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is responsible for the ongoing 2019-2020 pandemic. Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a frequent cardiovascular and/or respiratory complication among hospitalized patients, is one of the known sequelae of the illness. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are often elderly, immobile, and show signs of coagulopathy. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume a high incidence of VTE among these patients. Presently, the incidence of VTE is estimated at around 25% of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for COVID-19 even under anticoagulant treatment at prophylactic doses. In this review, we discuss present knowledge of the topic, the unique challenges of diagnosis and treatment of VTE, as well as some of the potential mechanisms of increased risk for VTE during the illness. Understanding the true impact of VTE on patients with COVID-19 will potentially improve our ability to reach a timely diagnosis and initiate proper treatment, mitigating the risk for this susceptible population during a complicated disease.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/mortalidade , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Troponina/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 313: 129-131, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471650

RESUMO

There is some evidence that Covid 19 pneumonia is associated with prothrombotic status and increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). Over a two-week period we admitted in our Unit 25 patients with Covid-19 pneumonia, of these pulmonary embolism was diagnosed using computed tomography angiography in 7. We report on clinical and biochemical features of these patients. They were all males, with a mean age of 70.3 years (range 58-84); traditional risk factors for venous thromboembolism were identified in the majority of patients with pulmonary embolism, however not differently from those without pulmonary embolism. Clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism patients was usually characterized by persistence or worsening of respiratory symptoms, with increasing oxygen requirement. D-dimer levels were several fold higher than the upper threshold of normal; in patients in whom PE was recognized during hospital stay, a rapid and relevant increase of D-dimer levels was observed. Computed tomographic findings ranged from massive acute pulmonary embolism to a segmental or sub-segmental pattern; furthermore, thrombosis of sub-segmental pulmonary arteries within lung infiltrates were occasionally seen, suggesting local mechanisms. Six out of 7 patients were treated with unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin with clinical benefit within few days; one patient needed systemic thrombolysis (death from hemorrhagic complication).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Oxigênio/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003101, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have described a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in people living with an HIV infection (PWH). However, data on the risk of recurrent VTE in this population are lacking, although this question is more important for clinical practice. This study aims to estimate the risk of recurrent VTE in PWH compared to controls and to identify risk factors for recurrence within this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PWH with a first VTE were derived from the AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) cohort (2003-2015), a nationwide ongoing cohort following up PWH in care in the Netherlands. Uninfected controls were derived from the Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis (MEGA) follow-up study (1999-2003), a cohort of patients with a first VTE who initially participated in a case-control study in the Netherlands who were followed up for recurrent VTE. Selection was limited to persons with an index VTE suffering from deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). Participants were followed from withdrawal of anticoagulation to VTE recurrence, loss to follow-up, death, or end of study. We estimated incidence rates, cumulative incidence (accounting for competing risk of death) and hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for age, sex, and whether the index event was provoked or unprovoked. When analyzing risk factors among PWH, the main focus of analysis was the role of immune markers (cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4]+ T-cell count). There were 153 PWH (82% men, median 48 years) and 4,005 uninfected controls (45% men, median 49 years) with a first VTE (71% unprovoked in PWH, 34% unprovoked in controls) available for analysis. With 40 VTE recurrences during 774 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in PWH and 635 VTE recurrences during 20,215 PYFU in controls, the incidence rates were 5.2 and 3.1 per 100 PYFU (HR: 1.70, 95% CI 1.23-2.36, p = 0.003). VTE consistently recurred more frequently per 100 PYFU in PWH in all predefined subgroups of men (5.6 versus 4.8), women (3.6 versus 1.9), and unprovoked (6.0 versus 5.2) or provoked (3.1 versus 2.1) first VTE. After adjustment, the VTE recurrence risk was higher in PWH compared to controls in the first year after anticoagulant discontinuation (HR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.70, p = 0.03) with higher cumulative incidences in PWH at 1 year (12.5% versus 5.6%) and 5 years (23.4% versus 15.3%) of follow-up. VTE recurred less frequently in PWH who were more immunodeficient at the first VTE, marked by a better CD4+ T-cell recovery on antiretroviral therapy and during anticoagulant therapy for the first VTE (adjusted HR: 0.81 per 100 cells/mm3 increase, 95% CI 0.67-0.97, p = 0.02). Sensitivity analyses addressing potential sources of bias confirmed our principal analyses. The main study limitations are that VTEs were adjudicated differently in the cohorts and that diagnostic practices changed during the 20-year study period. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the risk of recurrent VTE was elevated in PWH compared to controls. Among PWH, recurrence risk appeared to decrease with greater CD4+ T-cell recovery after a first VTE. This is relevant when deciding to (dis)continue anticoagulant therapy in PWH with otherwise unprovoked first VTE.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
16.
Brasília; s.n; 28 maio 2020.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097366

RESUMO

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 11 artigos e 14 protocolos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico
17.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(8)2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês, No | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging reports indicate a high incidence of venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia during the spring 2020 pandemic. The pronounced pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses observed in these patients may contribute to a transient hypercoagulable state. In this setting, pulmonary embolism may cause further respiratory distress and clinical deterioration. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the clinical course of three patients admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection and respiratory distress, where pulmonary embolism was detected during the course of the hospitalisation. Two of the cases occurred despite early institution of standard dosage of low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis, and in one case, pulmonary embolism was diagnosed during the convalescent phase of an otherwise benign COVID-19 disease course. INTERPRETATION: These cases highlight the importance of awareness of the potentially increased incidence of venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 disease. Further research is required to establish appropriate clinical management guidelines for prevention of thromboembolic complications in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia Venosa , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
18.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(4): 328-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284207

RESUMO

Despite the high proportion of obese patients this population remains understudied in the field of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). Obesity is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis, especially when it is associated with other risk factors for VTE. Currently there is no validated diagnostic algorithm for VTE in the population of obese patients. Moreover, imaging examinations can be of poor quality and inconclusive. In the prevention of VTE, data concerning obese patients are mainly based on low-level studies. Apart from the context of bariatric surgery, an adjustment of heparin doses according to the weight of the patient is proposed only on a case-by-case basis. According to the current guidelines, therapeutic fixed dose oral anticoagulants should not be prescribed for patients with weights exceeding 120kg or a body mass index>40kg/m2. Heparin doses should be weight adjusted and monitored with anti-Xa activity. Anti vitamin K can be prescribed but require INR monitoring. Therefore, new studies specifically dedicated to obese patients are required in the field of VTE for better diagnostic and therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013422, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of distal (below the knee) deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is not clearly established. Distal DVT can either be treated with anticoagulation, or monitored with close follow-up to detect progression to the proximal veins (above the knee), which requires anticoagulation. Proponents of this monitoring strategy base their decision to withhold anticoagulation on the fact that progression is rare and most people can be spared from potential bleeding and other adverse effects of anticoagulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different treatment interventions for people with distal (below the knee) deep vein thrombosis (DVT). SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 12 February 2019. We also undertook reference checking to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of distal DVT. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by discussion. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), DVT and major bleeding and follow up ranged from three months to two years. We performed fixed-effect model meta-analyses with risk ratio (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs reporting on 1239 participants. Five trials randomised participants to anticoagulation for up to three months versus no anticoagulation. Three trials compared anticoagulation treatment for different time periods. Anticoagulant compared to no intervention or placebo for distal DVT treatment Anticoagulation with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) reduced the risk of recurrent VTE during follow-up compared with participants receiving no anticoagulation (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.77; 5 studies, 496 participants; I2 = 3%; high-certainty evidence), and reduced the risk of recurrence of DVT (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.67; 5 studies, 496 participants; I2 = 0%; high-certainty evidence). There was no clear effect on risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.18 to 3.59; 4 studies, 480 participants; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence). There was little to no difference in major bleeding with anticoagulation compared to placebo (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.13 to 4.62; 4 studies, 480 participants; I2 = 26%; low-certainty evidence). There was an increase in clinically relevant non-major bleeding events in the group treated with anticoagulants (RR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07 to 10.46; 2 studies, 322 participants; I2 = 0%; high-certainty evidence). There was one death, not related to PE or major bleeding, in the anticoagulation group. Anticoagulation for three months or more compared to anticoagulation for six weeks for distal DVT treatment Three RCTs of 736 participants compared three or more months of anticoagulation with six weeks of anticoagulation. Anticoagulation with a VKA for three months or more reduced the incidence of recurrent VTE to 5.8% compared with 13.9% in participants treated for six weeks (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.68; 3 studies, 736 participants; I2 = 50%; high-certainty evidence). The risk for recurrence of DVT was also reduced (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.64; 2 studies, 389 participants; I2 = 48%; high-certainty evidence), but there was probably little or no difference in PE (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.19 to 5.88; 2 studies, 389 participants; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence). There was no clear difference in major bleeding events (RR 3.42, 95% CI 0.36 to 32.35; 2 studies, 389 participants; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence) or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events (RR 1.76, 95% CI 0.90 to 3.42; 2 studies, 389 participants; I2 = 1%; low-certainty evidence) between three months or more of treatment and six weeks of treatment. There were no reports for overall mortality or PE and major bleeding-related deaths. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review found a benefit for people with distal DVT treated with anticoagulation therapy using VKA with little or no difference in major bleeding events although there was an increase in clinically relevant non-major bleeding when compared to no intervention or placebo. The small number of participants in this meta-analysis and strength of evidence prompts a call for more research regarding the treatment of distal DVT. RCTs comparing different treatments and different treatment periods with placebo or compression therapy, are required.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
20.
Neurology ; 94(18): e1892-e1899, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that markers of coagulation and hemostatic activation (MOCHA) help identify causes of cryptogenic stroke, we obtained serum measurements on 132 patients and followed them up to identify causes of stroke. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cryptogenic stroke who met embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) criteria from January 1, 2017, to October 31, 2018, underwent outpatient cardiac monitoring and the MOCHA profile (serum D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and fibrin monomer) obtained ≥2 weeks after the index stroke; abnormal MOCHA profile was defined as ≥2 elevated markers. Prespecified endpoints monitored during routine clinical visits included new atrial fibrillation (AF), malignancy, venous thromboembolism (VTE), or other defined hypercoagulable states (HS). RESULTS: Overall, 132 patients with ESUS (mean age 64 ± 15 years, 61% female, 51% nonwhite) met study criteria. During a median follow-up of 10 (interquartile range 7-14) months, AF, malignancy, VTE, or HS was identified in 31 (23%) patients; the 53 (40%) patients with ESUS with abnormal MOCHA were significantly more likely than patients with normal levels to have subsequent new diagnoses of malignancy (21% vs 0%, p < 0.001), VTE (9% vs 0%, p = 0.009), or HS (11% vs 0%, p = 0.004) but not AF (8% vs 9%, p = 0.79). The combination of 4 normal MOCHA and normal left atrial size (n = 30) had 100% sensitivity for ruling out the prespecified endpoints. CONCLUSION: The MOCHA profile identified patients with cryptogenic stroke more likely to have new malignancy, VTE, or HS during short-term follow-up and may be useful in direct evaluation for underlying causes of cryptogenic stroke.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antitrombina III , Coagulação Sanguínea , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemostasia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Peptídeo Hidrolases/sangue , Protrombina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombofilia/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
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