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1.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 22(4): 100634, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864529

RESUMO

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome or KTS is a complex vascular syndrome associated with overgrowth occurring as a result of somatic mutations in the PIK3CA gene. Patients are diagnosed on the basis of physical findings, sometimes with supportive imaging, of commonly a segmental anomaly with a cutaneous port-wine stain, lymphatic and venous malformations and overgrowth. The severity of the component vascular malformations and the degree of overgrowth varies from patient to patient which demands care given by a multi-professional team with regular follow-up in a specialist clinic. Some patients may present with acute life-threatening problems, often as a result of veno-thromboembolic events (VTEs) especially following surgical and invasive radiological procedures. Awareness of such problems is vital and prophylactic measures to reduce such risks are paramount. The interventional radiologist is vital to the care team as he/she can undertake procedures including endovascular closure of significant venous anomalies which predispose to such VTEs. Although these procedures can be lengthy and complex, they can now provide a minimally invasive means to reduce the risk from life-threatening and sometimes fatal VTEs. The results however from such interventions will require long-term studies which to date are unavailable.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Malformações Arteriovenosas/mortalidade , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/genética , Hemangioma/terapia , Humanos , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/genética , Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber/mortalidade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Radiografia Intervencionista , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
2.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 764-768, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate real-world data on warfarinisation rates and results in the elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: AF is the most frequent arrhythmia in the elderlies with considerable risk of devastating stroke-related consequences. Guidelines prefer non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) to warfarin for thromboprophylaxis. Nevertheless, warfarin is still widely used, even if it is challenging, especially in polymorbid elderlies, to achieve the therapeutic international normalised ratio (INR). There are only scarce real-world data on INR in warfarinised elderly AF patients. METHODS: The study was based on multicentric observational Slovak audit of atrial fibrillation in seniors (SAFIS) performed on 4,252 hospitalised AF patients aged over 64 years (mean age 80.9 yrs.). INR data from warfarinised patients were analysed (955 at admission and 870 at discharge). RESULTS: At hospital admission and discharge, the warfarin medication rates were 22.6 % and 23.5 %, respectively, INR lower than 2 was present in 41.8 % and 30.6 % of patients, respectively, and INR higher than 3 was in 27.0 % and 7.7 %, respectively and altogether, 68.8 % and 38.3 % of warfarinised patients, respectively, were out of therapeutic range. CONCLUSION: Warfarin is still frequently used in the elderlies with AF, but the success rates are unsatisfactory in a huge number of patients. It is urgent to improve seniors' access to NOAC (Fig. 2, Ref. 34).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos
3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1934-1939, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643154

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolic events (VTE), defined by deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, are potentially serious complications after gynecologic surgery. Without thromboprophylaxis, they are common and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Conversely, poorly adapted prophylaxis can be hazardous. Risk factors related to the patients and to the types of surgery have been identified and can be used to adapt the prophylaxis. Several recommendations have been proposed; however, no clear consensus exists. This article reviews the pathophysiology and specific risk factors of post-gynecologic surgical VTE and provides comprehensive and practical recommendations for perioperative thromboprophylaxis in gynecology, based on various international recommendations.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
JAMA ; 322(9): 834-842, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479138

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal international normalized ratio (INR) to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in warfarin-treated patients with recent arthroplasty is unknown. Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of a target INR of 1.8 vs 2.5 for VTE prophylaxis after orthopedic surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: The randomized Genetic Informatics Trial (GIFT) of Warfarin to Prevent Deep Vein Thrombosis enrolled 1650 patients aged 65 years or older initiating warfarin for elective hip or knee arthroplasty at 6 US medical centers. Enrollment began in April 2011 and follow-up concluded in October 2016. Interventions: In a 2 × 2 factorial design, participants were randomized to a target INR of 1.8 (n = 823) or 2.5 (n = 827) and to either genotype-guided or clinically guided warfarin dosing. For the first 11 days of therapy, open-label warfarin dosing was guided by a web application. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite of VTE (within 60 days) or death (within 30 days). Participants underwent screening duplex ultrasound postoperatively. The hypothesis was that an INR target of 1.8 would be noninferior to an INR target of 2.5, using a noninferiority margin of 3% for the absolute risk of VTE. Secondary end points were bleeding and INR values of 4 or more. Results: Among 1650 patients who were randomized (mean age, 72.1 years; 1049 women [63.6%]; 1502 white [91.0%]), 1597 (96.8%) received at least 1 dose of warfarin and were included in the primary analysis. The rate of the primary composite outcome of VTE or death was 5.1% (41 of 804) in the low-intensity-warfarin group (INR target, 1.8) vs 3.8% (30 of 793) in the standard-treatment-warfarin group (INR target, 2.5), for a difference of 1.3% (1-sided 95% CI, -∞ to 3.05%, P = .06 for noninferiority). Major bleeding occurred in 0.4% of patients in the low-intensity group and 0.9% of patients in the standard-intensity group, for a difference of -0.5% (95% CI, -1.6% to 0.4%). The INR values of 4 or more occurred in 4.5% of patients in the low-intensity group and 12.2% of the standard-intensity group, for a difference of -7.8% (95% CI, -10.5% to -5.1%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among older patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty and receiving warfarin prophylaxis, an international normalized ratio goal of 1.8 compared with 2.5 did not meet the criterion for noninferiority for risk of the composite outcome of VTE or death. However, the trial may have been underpowered to meet this criterion and further research may be warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006733.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
6.
Unfallchirurg ; 122(8): 633-645, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367841

RESUMO

As the population gets older the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism also increases. Therefore, more patients require anticoagulation and currently direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), such as dabigatran etexilate, apixaban, rivaroxaban and edoxaban are preferred to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), mainly because of the more favorable risk-benefit profile with respect to bleeding. Older patients in particular frequently present at the accident and emergency department due to falls and an increased risk of fractures. The perioperative management of these patients who are treated with DOACs is a challenge in the clinical routine and needs special consideration. This article discusses these issues in an interdisciplinary approach and develops strategies for the perioperative management of patients treated with DOACs and undergoing trauma or orthopedic surgery.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 983-986, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372865

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests there is an inverse and independent association between sauna bathing and arterial thrombotic disease. However, the potential association between sauna bathing and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has not yet been investigated. We aimed to assess the prospective association between frequency of sauna bathing and the risk of VTE. Baseline sauna bathing habits were assessed in 2242 men aged 42-61 years without a history of VTE in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE. During a median follow-up of 24.9 years, 146 (6.5%) incident VTE events were recorded. In age-adjusted analyses, the HRs 95% (CIs) of VTE were 0.67 (0.47-0.96) and 0.95 (0.53-1.70) for participants who had 2-3 and ≥ 4 sauna sessions per week respectively compared with participants who had ≤ 1 sauna session per week. After further adjustment for several established risk factors including lifestyle factors, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.67 (0.46-0.96) and 0.92 (0.51-1.68) respectively. Having sauna baths was associated with a reduced risk of VTE in a middle-aged male Caucasian population. Further studies in other populations and age groups are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Banho a Vapor/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD004318, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This an update of the review first published in 2009.Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well-documented, but the optimal duration of prophylaxis after surgery remains controversial. Some studies suggest that patients undergoing major abdominopelvic surgery benefit from prolongation of the prophylaxis up to 28 days after surgery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH for at least 14 days after abdominal or pelvic surgery compared with thromboprophylaxis administered during the in-hospital period only in preventing late onset VTE. SEARCH METHODS: We performed electronic searches on 28 October 2017 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and registered trials (Clinicaltrials.gov October 28, 2017 and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) 28 October 2017). Abstract books from major congresses addressing thromboembolism were handsearched from 1976 to 28 October 2017, as were reference lists from relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We assessed randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing prolonged thromboprophylaxis (≥ fourteen days) with any LMWH agent with placebo, or other methods, or both to thromboprophylaxis during the admission period only. The population consisted of persons undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for both benign and malignant pathology. The outcome measures included VTE (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE)) as assessed by objective means (venography, ultrasonography, pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, spiral computed tomography (CT) scan or autopsy). We excluded studies exclusively reporting on clinical diagnosis of VTE without objective confirmation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors identified studies and extracted data. Outcomes were VTE (DVT or PE) assessed by objective means. Safety outcomes were defined as bleeding complications and mortality within three months after surgery. Sensitivity analyses were also performed with unpublished studies excluded, and with study participants limited to those undergoing solely open and not laparoscopic surgery. We used a fixed-effect model for analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We identified seven RCTs (1728 participants) evaluating prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH compared with control or placebo. The searches resulted in 1632 studies, of which we excluded 1528. One hundred and four abstracts, eligible for inclusion, were assessed of which seven studies met the inclusion criteria.For the primary outcome, the incidence of overall VTE after major abdominal or pelvic surgery was 13.2% in the control group compared to 5.3% in the patients receiving out-of-hospital LMWH (Mantel Haentzel (M-H) odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.54; I2 = 28%; moderate-quality evidence).For the secondary outcome of all DVT, seven studies, n = 1728, showed prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH to be associated with a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of all DVT (M-H OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.55; I2 = 28%; moderate-quality evidence).We found a similar reduction when analysis was limited to incidence in proximal DVT (M-H OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.47; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence).The incidence of symptomatic VTE was also reduced from 1.0% in the control group to 0.1% in patients receiving prolonged thromboprophylaxis, which approached significance (M-H OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.11; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence).No difference in the incidence of bleeding between the control and LMWH group was found, 2.8% and 3.4%, respectively (M-H OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.81; I2 = 0%; moderate-quality evidence).No difference in mortality between the control and LMWH group was found, 3.8% and 3.9%, respectively (M-H OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.84; moderate-quality evidence).Estimates of heterogeneity ranged between 0% and 28% depending on the analysis, suggesting low or unimportant heterogeneity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH significantly reduces the risk of VTE compared to thromboprophylaxis during hospital admittance only, without increasing bleeding complications or mortality after major abdominal or pelvic surgery. This finding also holds true for DVT alone, and for both proximal and symptomatic DVT. The quality of the evidence is moderate and provides moderate support for routine use of prolonged thromboprophylaxis. Given the low heterogeneity between studies and the consistent and moderate evidence of a decrease in risk for VTE, our findings suggest that additional studies may help refine the degree of risk reduction but would be unlikely to significantly influence these findings. This updated review provides additional evidence and supports the previous results reported in the 2009 review.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Pelve/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
9.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(10): e530-e539, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a major patient safety concern. Provision of prophylaxis to patients admitted for elective total knee replacement surgery has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to assess the relative efficacy and safety of all available prophylaxis strategies in this setting. METHODS: We did a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials to assess the relative efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies and to populate an economic model that assessed the cost-effectiveness of these strategies and informed the updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendations for patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Embase, and Medline were last searched on June 19, 2017, with key terms relating to the population (venous thromboembolism and total knee replacement) and the interventions compared, including available pharmacological and mechanical interventions. Outcomes of interest were deep vein thrombosis (symptomatic and asymptomatic), pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding. Risk of bias was assessed, and relevant data extracted from the included randomised controlled trials for the network meta-analyses. Relative risks (RR; with 95% credible intervals [95% CrI]) compared to no prophylaxis, median ranks (with 95% CrI), and the probability of being the best intervention were calculated. The study was done in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. FINDINGS: 25 randomised controlled trials were included in the network meta-analyses. 23 trials (19 interventions; n=15 028) were included in the deep vein thrombosis network, 12 in the pulmonary embolism network (13 interventions; n=15 555), and 19 in the major bleeding network (11 interventions; n=19 797). Risk of bias ranged from very low to high. Rivaroxaban ranked first for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (RR 0·12 [95% CrI 0·06-0·22]). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; standard prophylactic dose, 28-35 days) ranked first in the pulmonary embolism network (RR 0·02 [95% CrI 0·00-3·86]) and LMWH (low prophylactic dose, 10-14 days) ranked first in the major bleeding network (odds ratio 0·08 [95% CrI 0·00-1·76]), but the results for pulmonary embolism and major bleeding are highly uncertain. INTERPRETATION: Single prophylaxis strategies are more effective in prevention of deep vein thrombosis in the elective total knee replacement population than combination strategies, with rivaroxaban being the most effective. The results of the pulmonary embolism and major bleeding meta-analyses are uncertain and no clear conclusion can be made other than what is biologically plausible (eg, that no prophylaxis and mechanical prophylaxis strategies should have the lowest risk of major bleeding). FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho , Hemorragia/etiologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 175-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417269

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Compared with the general population, cancer patients with VTE have higher rates of both VTE recurrence and bleeding. While low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been the mainstay of treatment for cancer-associated VTE for over a decade, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have recently emerged as a new therapeutic option due to their ease of administration and because they do not require laboratory monitoring. Several large randomized clinical trials have been performed or are ongoing at the time of writing, comparing DOACs with LMWH in this population. Three of these trials have thus far been published and suggest that DOACs are a reasonable alternative to LMWH for management of cancer-associated VTE. Despite the advantages offered by DOACs, these agents may not be appropriate for certain patient groups owing to increased risk of bleeding, organ compromise, extremes of weight, and other issues. Finally, data are emerging suggesting that DOACs may be useful for primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients in conjunction with validated risk assessment scores. In this evidence-based review, data for the use of DOACs to treat cancer-associated VTE will be examined, focusing on efficacy, safety, and timing of treatment. Guidance on choosing the optimal anticoagulant for a given patient is also offered.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16514, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348262

RESUMO

ABSTRCT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban for the treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE).We performed a retrospective chart review of cancer patients with a pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or both. Our analysis included all patients who received rivaroxaban from March 2013 to June 2016 at the Hemato-Oncology Division at the Pusan National University Hospital in Korea.Preliminary results identified 123 patients with a history of cancer that were treated with rivaroxaban. The average duration of rivaroxaban therapy was 95.25 days. While 35 patients had resolved VTE after the initiation of rivaroxaban, only one patient had it recur on rivaroxaban treatment. Major bleeding was observed in 6 (4.9%) patients and minor bleeding in 12 (9.8%) patients. The majority of bleeding events occurred spontaneously and most incidences of bleeding could be treated conservatively. Recurrence and major bleeding events on rivaroxaban were relatively low despite the fact that many patients had metastatic disease. Among 52 patient deaths (42.3%), none were due to VTE or bleeding complications; the cause of death in the majority of cases was cancer progression.Rivaroxaban is effective and safe for the treatment of cancer-associated VTE.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Treat Res ; 179: 55-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317480

RESUMO

Cancer and its treatments are commonly complicated by venous thromboembolism (VTE), but there is a substantial variation in risk between individual cancer patients. The risk of VTE in cancer patients is influenced by multiple risk factors including primary site of cancer, stage, comorbidities, use of specific antineoplastic agents. Several biomarkers have been associated with subsequent VTE including D-dimer and tissue factor, although no single risk factor or biomarker accurately is predictive of VTE on its own. The risk of VTE is best predicted by a validated risk assessment score. Cancer patients at risk of VTE benefit from thromboprophylaxis, supported by evidence in the setting of hospitalization for acute medical illness and surgery, and emerging data from two large randomized trials in the outpatient setting. This chapter focuses on approaches to identifying risk of VTE and approaches to reducing this risk with appropriate thromboprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
13.
Cancer Treat Res ; 179: 87-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317482

RESUMO

Cancer patients have an increased risk of thrombosis. The development of cancer thrombosis is dependent on a number of factors including cancer type, stage, various biologic markers, and the use of central venous catheters. In addition, cancer treatment itself may increase thrombotic risk. Tamoxifen increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) by two- to sevenfold, while an impact on risk of arterial thrombosis is uncertain. Immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs) such as thalidomide and lenalidomide increase the risk of VTE in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) by about 10-40% when given in combination with glucocorticoids or other chemotherapy agents; the risk of VTE in MM patients treated with IMiD-containing regimens necessitates that such patients receive thromboprophylaxis with aspirin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or warfarin. Among cytotoxic chemotherapy agents, cisplatin, and to a lesser extent fluorouracil, has been described in association with thrombosis. L-asparaginase in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is significantly associated with increased thrombosis particularly affecting the CNS, which may be due to acquired antithrombin deficiency; at some centers, plasma infusions or antithrombin replacement is used to mitigate this. Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, increases arterial and possibly venous thrombotic risk, although the literature is conflicting about the latter. Supportive care agents in cancer care, such as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and steroids, also have some impact on thrombosis. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which these and other therapies modulate thrombotic risks and how such risks may be managed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15833, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169685

RESUMO

Few prospective studies have reported the cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the intensive care unit (ICU), especially for patients receiving guideline-recommended VTE prophylaxis. We aimed to design a prospective observational study to investigate the cumulative incidence and risk factors of ICU-acquired VTE for those populations.We prospectively studied 281 consecutively included patients in the ICU at a single center. All patients provided informed consent. Patients received ultrasound evaluation and were followed for VTE before ICU discharge or within 28 days of ICU stay. The type of VTE thromboprophylaxis was also recorded for all patients. Variables from univariate analyses that were associated with VTE were included in the binary logistic regression analysis to determine VTE predictors. The cumulative VTE incidence with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods.Patients had a median age of 60 years (range, 18-89) and an acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score of 17 (range, 4-36). Despite all patients receiving guideline-recommended thromboprophylaxis, the cumulative incidence of VTE at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days was 4.45% (95% CI 2.55-7.71), 7.14% (95% CI 4.61-10.97), 7.53% (95% CI 4.92-11.43), and 9.55% (95% CI 6.55-13.81), respectively. Central venous catheter use (P = .002, odds ratio [OR] = 4.50), Caprini score (P = .012, OR = 1.20), and ICU length of stay (P = .006, OR = 1.08) were independent risk factors related to the incidence of VTE for patients admitted to the ICU.Our prospective observational study found that the 28-day cumulative incidence of VTE was relatively high for patients admitted to the ICU, despite the use of guideline-recommended thromboprophylaxis. Patients with femoral central venous catheter, prolonged ICU length of stay, or a high Caprini score may have an increased risk of developing VTE.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , APACHE , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/normas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(8): 781-790, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242782

RESUMO

Introduction: There is a high incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in solid organ transplant recipients. The safety and efficacy of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC) have been well established in clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of VTE in broad populations. However, the management of VTE in the setting of solid organ transplantation remains a challenge to clinicians due to limited evidence of DOAC usage with calcineurin inhibitors. Areas covered: The current literature available on the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interaction between DOACs and calcineurin inhibitors is presented. A comprehensive review was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, drug product labeling, and drug product review conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration using Drugs@FDA. The potential for mitigation strategies and clinical management using extant knowledge is explored. Expert opinion: Immunosuppression therapy is necessary to prevent graft rejection by the host. The sparsity of data together with the lack of well-designed prospective studies of DOAC use in solid organ transplant recipients presents a unique challenge to clinicians in determining the clinical relevance of possible drug interactions. Existing evidence suggests that with attention to concomitant drug use and renal function, the co-administration of DOACs and calcineurin inhibitors is safe and effective.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Interações de Medicamentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
17.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(6): 726-729, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198001

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a standardized venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention program for burn patients and verify its safety and effectiveness by comparing with traditional thrombus prophylaxis. Methods: All burn patients admitted and met selection criteria betweem April 2017 and September 2018 were included. Patients between January 2018 and September 2018 were included as the interventional group to implement standardized VTE prevention programs, while patients between April 2017 and December 2017 were included as the control group and traditional active and passive exercises were used to prevent VTE. There was no significant difference in the age, gender, ethnic group, marriage, education, occupation, type and site of the injury, burn area, operation time, and hospital stay between the two groups ( P>0.05), which was comparable. The incidence of VTE, number of cases of tissue or organ hemorrhage, survival rate of skin grafting, and time of wound healing were compared. Results: The incidence of VTE was obviously lower in the interventional group (1.56%, 1/64) than in the control group (10.17%, 6/59) ( χ 2=-2.05, P=0.04). No bleeding occurred in any tissue or organ in the two groups. The survival rate of skin grafting and the time of wound healing were 89.06% (57/64) and (11.78±3.08) days respectively in the interventional group and 91.53% (54/59) and (11.66±2.30) days respectively in the control group; and the differences between the two groups were not statistically significant ( χ 2=0.21, P=0.65; t=-0.22, P=0.83). Conclusion: The standardized VTE prevention program can effectively prevent the occurrence of VTE, and its safety is relatively high.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes , Queimaduras/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
18.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 25: 1076029619853629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132874

RESUMO

Efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for preventing primary and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the most up-to-date evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Our primary outcomes included the benefit outcome (VTE) and safety outcome (major bleeding). A random-effects model was used to pool the relative risks (RRs) for data syntheses. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation tool was used to evaluate the quality of the entire body of evidence across studies. We included 11 RCTs with a total of 3741 patients with cancer for analyses. The DOACs were significantly related with a reduced risk of VTE when compared with non-DOACs: RR = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61-0.99, P = .04. Nonsignificant trend towards a higher risk of major bleeding was found in DOACs: RR = 1.28 95% CI: 0.81-2.02, P = .29. The quality of the entire body of evidence was graded as moderate for risk of VTE, and low for risk of major bleeding. To summarize, DOACs were found to have a favorable effect on risk of VTE but a nonsignificant higher risk of major bleeding compared with non-DOACs in patients with cancer. The safety effect of DOACs in patients with cancer requires further evaluation in adequately powered and designed studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
19.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(2): e2075, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090863

RESUMO

Total knee arthroplasty is an elective procedure performed on relatively healthy individuals. However, due to the inherent risk of venous thromboembolism, drugs are used for its prophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to compare the efficacy of enoxaparin and rivaroxaban in preventing this complication and the risk of intraoperative bleeding. We reviewed the SciELO, Pubmed and Cochrane databases with the descriptors knee arthroplasty, rivaroxaban and enoxaparin through the PICO search strategy. Inclusion criteria were the articles during the study period comparing both drugs in knee arthroplasty. Relevant criteria to study eligibility were articles published since 2010 and with a sample of more than 20 patients; studies obtained in their entirety; and studies with follow-up of more than 12 months. The variables used to compare the articles were the most common postoperative complications of knee arthroplasties: venous thromboembolism and bleeding. We used the Review Man software, version 5.3, for structuring the review. In the studies analyzed, considering symptomatic venous thromboembolism, rivaroxaban resulted in higher benefits when compared to enoxaparin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
20.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 57(5): 685-701, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim was to review the relative efficacy and safety of anticoagulation for managing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out. On 17 May 2018 the MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Eligible RCTs had to be performed in patients with cancer exclusively or to report results on a subset of patients with cancer. The main study outcomes (efficacy/recurrent VTE and safety/bleeding events) were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The quality of evidence was assessed following the GRADE method. RESULTS: Twenty-three RCTs with 6980 patients were identified. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) were more effective than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in preventing recurrent VTE (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45-0.75) and deep vein thrombosis (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.69) but not pulmonary embolism (PE), bleeding, or overall mortality. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were more effective than VKAs in preventing recurrent VTE (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.95) but not DVT, PE, overall mortality, or bleeding. However, anti-Xa DOACs were more effective (RR for VTE 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97) and caused less bleeding than VKAs, although major bleeding was reduced only with DOACs not requiring initial parenteral anticoagulation (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.97). In a direct comparison, DOACs were more effective than LMWHs in preventing VTE recurrence (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.90) but caused more major bleeding (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.77), with no difference in fatal bleeding and overall mortality. Quality of evidence, where sufficient, was mostly moderate or high. CONCLUSION: Compared with VKAs, LMWHs and DOACs are more effective in treating VTE, but the former caused less bleeding. DOACs are more effective than LMWHs in preventing VTE recurrence but may carry a higher risk of major bleeding, pending additional information by ongoing trials.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Oligossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
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