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1.
Radiographics ; 40(6): 1574-1599, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001783

RESUMO

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The infection has been reported in most countries around the world. As of August 2020, there have been over 21 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 800 000 COVID-19-associated deaths. It has become apparent that although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, many other organ systems can also be involved. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of the disease, as well as its related complications, and proper utilization and interpretation of imaging examinations is crucial. With the growing global COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic imaging hallmarks, imaging features, multisystemic involvement, and evolution of imaging findings is essential for effective patient management and treatment. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the multisystemic imaging manifestations of COVID-19. The authors provide an inclusive system-by-system image-based review of this life-threatening and rapidly spreading infection. In part 1 of this article, the authors discuss general aspects of the disease, with an emphasis on virology, the pathophysiology of the virus, and clinical presentation of the disease. The key imaging features of the varied pathologic manifestations of this infection that involve the pulmonary and peripheral and central vascular systems are also described. Part 2 will focus on key imaging features of COVID-19 that involve the cardiac, neurologic, abdominal, dermatologic and ocular, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as pediatric and pregnancy-related manifestations of the virus. Vascular complications pertinent to each system will be also be discussed in part 2. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Inflamação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/etiologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
2.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 905-912, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921660

RESUMO

There is little data on management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) undergoing general surgery.We retrospectively assessed 98 surgeries in 85 nonvalvular AF patients aged 73 ± 8 (59 men) receiving DOACs. Cardiac, emergency, and minimally invasive surgeries were excluded.The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0 to 8. The DOACs being given were: dabigatran, 16; rivaroxaban, 25; apixaban, 28; and edoxaban, 16. While the DOACs were not suspended in 11 cases, they were interrupted for a median of 2.0 days before surgery and restarted at a median of 3.0 days after surgery. There were 9 complications (9.2%), 3 instances of thromboembolism and 6 bleeding. Thromboembolism occurred at a mean of 3.0 postoperative days, all of which occurred before resumption of DOACs, while bleeding events occurred at a mean of 4.0 postoperative days. Two of the 3 patients with thromboembolism went into cardiopulmonary arrest during the event, but were resuscitated. There were significantly more patients with congestive heart failure or combined antiplatelets in the patients with complications. The complication group had a significantly higher HAS-BLED score and lower preoperative hemoglobin level. There were no significant differences in the management of DOAC interruption between those with complications and without.The perioperative complication rate in nonvalvular AF patients undergoing elective surgery treating with DOACs was 9.2%. Patients with congestive heart failure, receiving combined therapy with antiplatelets, a higher HAS-BLED score, or lower preoperative hemoglobin level were at higher risk. Further studies evaluating the ideal perioperative DOAC protocol are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238387, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anticoagulation (AC) is a critical topic in perioperative and post-bleeding management. Nevertheless, there is a lack of data about the safe, judicious use of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation with regard to risk factors and the cause and modality of brain tissue damage as well as unfavorable outcomes such as postoperative hemorrhage (PH) and thromboembolic events (TE) in neurosurgical patients. We therefore present retrospective data on perioperative anticoagulation in meningioma surgery. METHODS: Data of 286 patients undergoing meningioma surgery between 2006 and 2018 were analyzed. We followed up on anticoagulation management, doses and time points of first application, laboratory values, and adverse events such as PH and TE. Pre-existing medication and hemostatic conditions were evaluated. The time course of patients was measured as overall survival, readmission within 30 days after surgery, as well as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression. RESULTS: We carried out AC with Fraxiparin and, starting in 2015, Tinzaparin in weight-adapted recommended prophylactic doses. Delayed (216 ± 228h) AC was associated with a significantly increased rate of TE (p = 0.026). Early (29 ± 21.9h) prophylactic AC, on the other hand, did not increase the risk of PH. We identified additional risk factors for PH, such as blood pressure maxima, steroid treatment, and increased white blood cell count. Patients' outcome was affected more adversely by TE than PH (+3 points in modified Rankin Scale in TE vs. +1 point in PH, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early prophylactic AC is not associated with an increased rate of PH. The risks of TE seem to outweigh those of PH. Early postoperative prophylactic AC in patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection should be considered.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
5.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2303-2313, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856141

RESUMO

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematologic disease characterized by a deregulated complement system, chronic Coombs-negative, intravascular hemolysis, and a variable clinical course with substantial risk to develop thromboembolic events. We analyzed diagnostic and prognostic parameters as well as clinical endpoints in 59 adult patients suffering from PNH in 5 hematology centers in Austria (observation period: 1978-2015). Median follow-up time was 5.6 years. The median clone size at diagnosis amounted to 55% and was higher in patients with classical PNH (81%) compared to patients with PNH associated with aplastic anemia (AA) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (50%). The clone size also correlated with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. In one patient, anemia improved spontaneously and disappeared with complete normalization of LDH after 16 years. Seventeen patients received therapy with eculizumab. The rate of thromboembolic events was higher in the pre-eculizumab era compared with eculizumab-treated patients but did not correlate with the presence of age-related clonal hematopoiesis or any other clinical or laboratory parameters. Peripheral blood colony-forming progenitor cell counts were lower in PNH patients compared with healthy controls. Only two patients with classical PNH developed MDS. Overall, 7/59 patients died after 0.5-32 years. Causes of death were acute pulmonary hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and septicemia. Overall survival (OS) was mainly influenced by age and was similar to OS measured in an age-matched healthy Austrian control cohort. Together, compared with previous times, the clinical course and OS in PNH are favorable, which may be due to better diagnosis, early recognition, and eculizumab therapy.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Áustria/epidemiologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Causas de Morte , Células Clonais/patologia , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Terapia Combinada , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematopoese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/complicações , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Tromboembolia/etiologia
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 238-245, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytic medications, such as tranexamic acid, have recently garnered increased attention. Despite its ability to mitigate intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion, there remains a paucity of research in breast reconstruction. The authors investigate whether intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces the risk of hematoma following implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study was performed to analyze all consecutive patients undergoing immediate two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction following mastectomy between 2015 and 2016. The incidence of postoperative hematomas and thromboembolic events among all patients was reviewed. The patients in the intervention group received 1000 mg of intravenous tranexamic acid before mastectomy incision and 1000 mg at the conclusion of the procedure. Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to study the impact of intravenous tranexamic acid after adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS: A total of 868 consecutive breast reconstructions (499 women) were reviewed. Overall, 116 patients (217 breasts) received intravenous tranexamic acid, whereas 383 patients (651 breasts) did not. Patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between the two the groups. Patients who received tranexamic acid were less likely to develop hematomas [n = 1 (0.46 percent)] than patients who did not [n = 19 (2.9 percent)] after controlling for age, hypertension, and type of reconstruction (prepectoral and subpectoral) (p = 0.018). Adverse effects of intravenous tranexamic acid, including thromboembolic phenomena were not observed. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age and hypertension independently increase risk for hematoma. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous tranexamic acid safely reduces risk of hematoma in implant-based breast reconstruction. Further prospective randomized studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/efeitos adversos , Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Hematoma/prevenção & controle , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 45(9): 100648, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703535

RESUMO

The exceptional outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has let the scientific community to work closely and quickly learnt things in a very short period of time. This has let us recognize that thromboembolic complications are responsible for morbidity and mortality among the COVID-19 infected patients. Available data have suggested a possible multifactorial basis of these complications, and while efforts are being made to treat this infection, preventive measures with the use of systemic anticoagulation were quickly adopted to deal with this issue. Despite obvious benefits as appeared with the use of systemic anticoagulation, most of the emerged data were retrospective, hence raise questions on the possible interplay of the confounders as well as long-term benefits and safety of systemic anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Tromboembolia/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Células Endoteliais , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
9.
Cells ; 9(7)2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629875

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has resulted in > 500,000 deaths worldwide, including > 125,000 deaths in the U.S. since its emergence in late December 2019 and June 2020. Neither curative anti-viral drugs nor a protective vaccine is currently available for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Recently, new clinical syndromes associated with coagulopathy and vasculopathy have emerged as a cause of sudden death and other serious clinical manifestations in younger patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, is a transmembrane protein expressed by lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes, and vascular endothelial cells, whose physiologic role is to induce the maturation of angiotensin I to generate angiotensin 1-7, a peptide hormone that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure. In this review, we provide the general context of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a focus on endothelial cells, describe the vasculopathy and coagulopathy syndromes in patients with SARS-CoV-2, and outline current understanding of the underlying mechanistic aspects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coagulação Sanguínea , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
11.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 1953-1965, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671455

RESUMO

In October 2019, a viral infectious disease appeared in the city of Wuhan in China. A new betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been recognized as the responsible pathogen in this infection. Although coronavirus disease is principally expressed as a pulmonary infection, critical SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequently complicated with coagulopathy, and thromboembolic events are recognizable in several patients. Dehydration, acute inflammatory condition, protracted immobilization during disease, existence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity or hypertension, previous coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease are frequent comorbidities in SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized subjects, which possibly augment thrombo-embolic risk. However, other causal factors can still be identified such as unrestricted angiotensin II action, the use of immunoglobulins, an increased production of adhesion molecules able to induce vascular inflammation and endothelial activation, complement stimulation, excessive production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and increased platelet count. Low-molecular-weight heparin should be chosen as early treatment because of its anti-inflammatory action and its ability to antagonize histones and so defend the endothelium. However, several therapeutic possibilities have also been proposed such as fibrinolytic treatment, drugs that target NETs, and complement inhibition. Nevertheless, although the violence of the pandemic may suggest the use of heroic treatments to reduce the frightening mortality that accompanies SARS-CoV-2 infection, we believe that experimental treatments should only be used within approved and controlled protocols, the only ones that can provide useful and specify information on the validity of the treatments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Tromboembolia/sangue , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595180

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is an emergent cardiovascular risk factor and a major cause of mortality worldwide. Thromboembolism is highly suspected as a leading cause of death in these patients through vascular inflammation caused by SARS COV2. Until now there is no real treatment of COVID-19 and many proposed drugs are under clinical trials. Considering the high incidence of thromboembolic events in critically ill patients with COVID-19, prevention of this disorder should be essential in order to reduce mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
13.
Maturitas ; 137: 57-62, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186443

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with a systemic inflammatory response with activation of coagulation in symptomatic patients. The possibility of coagulopathies in peri- and postmenopausal women taking estrogen therapies makes it necessary to consider antithrombotic strategies, such as the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) at specific prophylactic or treatment doses for each individual case, depending on the risk factors that each woman presents. For such reasons, a panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies has met to develop usage recommendations for managing menopausal women taking menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or combined hormonal contraception (CHC) during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Menopausa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Contracepção Hormonal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
14.
Maturitas ; 137: 57-62, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498938

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with a systemic inflammatory response with activation of coagulation in symptomatic patients. The possibility of coagulopathies in peri- and postmenopausal women taking estrogen therapies makes it necessary to consider antithrombotic strategies, such as the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) at specific prophylactic or treatment doses for each individual case, depending on the risk factors that each woman presents. For such reasons, a panel of experts from various Spanish scientific societies has met to develop usage recommendations for managing menopausal women taking menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or combined hormonal contraception (CHC) during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Menopausa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Contracepção Hormonal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
16.
Restor Neurol Neurosci ; 38(4): 343-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597823

RESUMO

Covid-19 is the acute illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 with initial clinical symptoms such as cough, fever, malaise, headache, and anosmia. After entry into cells, corona viruses (CoV) activate aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) by an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1)-independent mechanism, bypassing the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR pathway. The IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway is used by multiple viral, microbial and parasitic pathogens to activate AhRs and to establish infections. AhRs enhance their own activity through an IDO1-AhR-IDO1 positive feedback loop prolonging activation induced by pathogens. Direct activation of AhRs by CoV induces immediate and simultaneous up-regulation of diverse AhR-dependent downstream effectors, and this, in turn, results in a "Systemic AhR Activation Syndrome" (SAAS) consisting of inflammation, thromboembolism, and fibrosis, culminating in multiple organ injuries, and death. Activation of AhRs by CoV may lead to diverse sets of phenotypic disease pictures depending on time after infection, overall state of health, hormonal balance, age, gender, comorbidities, but also diet and environmental factors modulating AhRs. We hypothesize that elimination of factors known to up-regulate AhRs, or implementation of measures known to down-regulate AhRs, should decrease severity of infection. Although therapies selectively down-regulating both AhR and IDO1 are currently lacking, medications in clinical use such as dexamethasone may down-regulate both AhR and IDO1 genes, as calcitriol/vitamin D3 may down-regulate the AhR gene, and tocopherol/vitamin E may down-regulate the IDO1 gene. Supplementation of calcitriol should therefore be subjected to epidemiological studies and tested in prospective trials for prevention of CoV infections, as should tocopherol, whereas dexamethasone could be tried in interventional trials. Because lack of physical exercise activates AhRs via the IDO1-kynurenine-AhR signaling pathway increasing risk of infection, physical exercise should be encouraged during quarantines and stay-at-home orders during pandemic outbreaks. Understanding which factors affect gene expression of both AhR and IDO1 may help in designing therapies to prevent and treat humans suffering from Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Exercício Físico , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/biossíntese , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Inflamação/etiologia , Cinurenina/fisiologia , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/biossíntese , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tocoferóis/uso terapêutico
17.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 67(7): 391-399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591185

RESUMO

The infection by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease called COVID-19, mainly causes alterations in the respiratory system. In severely ill patients, the disease often evolves into an acute respiratory distress syndrome that can predispose patients to a state of hypercoagulability, with thrombosis at both venous and arterial levels. This predisposition presents a multifactorial physiopathology, related to hypoxia as well as to the severe inflammatory process linked to this pathology, including the additional thrombotic factors present in many of the patients. In view of the need to optimise the management of hypercoagulability, the working groups of the Scientific Societies of Anaesthesiology-Resuscitation and Pain Therapy (SEDAR) and of Intensive, Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC) have developed a consensus to establish guidelines for actions to be taken against alterations in haemostasis observed in severely ill patients with COVID-19. These recommendations include prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease in these patients, and in the peripartum, management of patients on long-term antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications in the course of the disease, and the interpretation of general alterations in haemostasis.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/etiologia
18.
Minerva Med ; 111(3): 203-212, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic therapy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unsettled. Short and longer-term thromboembolic and bleeding risk post TAVI remain high. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant drugs (NOAC) may be attractive after TAVI but the implications of prolonged NOAC in this setting require further research. The aim of this study was to assess the HAS-BLED bleeding risk in a contemporary TAVI population and explore its correlation with the effective bleeding complications with or without (N)OAC. METHODS: This study included 986 consecutive successful TAVI patients from 2 tertiary care facilities. Statistical analysis consisted of Cox regression. Bleedings were classified according to VARC-2 criteria. RESULTS: Mean age was 80.5 years, mean STS was 4.7 and 54% were males. A total of 483 patients (49.2%) had AF and 42.1% were on (N)OAC. The median HAS-BLED score was 2, 42.6% had a HAS-BLED≥3. Overall 216 patients (21.9%) experienced at least 1 bleeding, 166 (16.9%) occurred early after TAVI. HAS-BLED≥3 was an independent predictor of overall and pre-discharge bleeding (respectively HR 1.347 CI 1.029-1.763, P=0.03: HR 1.403 CI 1.032-1.905, P=0.05). The incidence of bleeding was similar in patient on (N)OAC vs. patients not on (N)OAC, both in the low and high HAS-BLED cohorts (P=0.93, P=0.42 respectively). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the high HAS-BLED cohort (37.5% vs. 24%, P=0.04) and HAS-BLED≥3 was an independent predictor of late mortality (HR 1.452 CI 1.028-2.053, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In our series, contemporary TAVI patients had an elevated HAS-BLED score. The HAS-BLED score correlated with early bleedings and mortality after TAVI. Use of (N)OAC was not associated with more bleedings after TAVI.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Regressão , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528621

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is an emergent cardiovascular risk factor and a major cause of mortality worldwide. Thromboembolism is highly suspected as a leading cause of death in these patients through vascular inflammation caused by SARS COV2. Until now there is no real treatment of COVID-19 and many proposed drugs are under clinical trials. Considering the high incidence of thromboembolic events in critically ill patients with COVID-19, prevention of this disorder should be essential in order to reduce mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of agreement between cardiologists regarding the management of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A two-round Delphi study was performed using an online survey. In round 1, panel members rated their level of agreement with the questionnaire items on a 9-point Likert scale. Item selection was based on acceptance by ≥66.6% of panellists and the agreement of the scientific committee. In round 2, the same panellists evaluated those items that did not meet consensus in round 1. RESULTS: A total of 238 experts participated in round 1; of these, 217 completed the round 2 survey. In round 1, 111 items from 4 dimensions (Thromboembolic and bleeding risk evaluation for treatment decision-making: 18 items; Choice of OAC: 39 items; OAC in specific cardiology situations: 12 items; Patient participation and education: 42 items) were evaluated. Consensus was reached for 92 items (83%). Over 80% of the experts agreed with the use of DOACs as the initial anticoagulant treatment when OAC is indicated. Panellists recommended the use of DOACs in patients at high risk of thromboembolic complications (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥3) (83%), haemorrhages (HAS-BLED ≥3) (89%) and poor quality of anticoagulation control (SAMe-TT2R2 >2) (76%), patients who fail to achieve an optimal therapeutic range after 3 months on VKA treatment (93%), and those who are to undergo cardioversion (80%). Panellists agreed that the efficacy and safety profile of each DOAC (98%), the availability of a specific reversal agent (72%) and patient's preference (85%) should be considered when prescribing a DOAC. A total of 97 items were ultimately accepted after round 2. CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi panel study provides expert-based recommendations that may offer guidance on clinical decision-making for the management of OAC in NVAF. The importance of patient education and involvement has been highlighted.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Médicos/psicologia , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/etiologia
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