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1.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 437-443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116554

RESUMO

Background: Incidence and outcomes of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the elderly are still not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and identify the risk factors of VTE recurrence in this population. Methods: A prospective cohort study of a one-year follow-up of 277 patients aged ≥65 years with primary VTE was performed at King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data, risk factors, and the consequences of VTE (recurrence, bleeding, and mortality) were recorded. Results: Of the 277 VTE patients, 39 (14%) were diagnosed with recurrent VTE over a median follow-up period of 12 months. The cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE was 12.75 per hundred patient-year (95% CI, 8.24-17.36). In multivariate Cox regression, malignancy (hazard ratio [HR], 2.87, 95% CI, 1.32-6.24, p=0.008) and surgery (HR 2.78, 95% CI, 1.36-5.67, p=0.005) were identified as independent risk factors for recurrent VTE. Metformin had a significant independent protection effect (HR, 0.16, 95% CI, 0.08-0.33, p<0.001). During follow-up, two patients in the recurrent VTE group and five patients in the group with no recurrent VTE, all of whom were minor bleeding cases, reported no major bleeding. Seven (18%) patients in the recurrent VTE group and nine (4%) patients in the group with no recurrent VTE died (p<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study show that elderly patients with initial VTE have a recurrent rate (14%), with a cumulative incidence rate of 12.75 per hundred patient-year. Malignancy and surgery were the most important clinical risk factors to impact significantly the development of recurrent VTE in our elderly population. Metformin may have a protective effect against recurrent VTE in the elderly population, and a larger study is needed to validate our findings.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012169, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis (or both), and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The prevalence of APS is estimated at 40 to 50 cases per 100,000 people. The most common sites of thrombosis are cerebral arteries and deep veins of the lower limbs. People with a definite APS diagnosis have an increased lifetime risk of recurrent thrombotic events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant agents, or both, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis, particularly ischemic stroke, in people with APS. SEARCH METHODS: We last searched the MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, and ongoing trials registers on 22 November 2019. We checked reference lists of included studies, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. We also contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any anticoagulant or AP agent, or both, in the secondary prevention of thrombosis in people with APS, according to the criteria valid when the study took place. We did not include studies specifically addressing women with obstetrical APS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently worked on each step of the review, following Cochrane methods. We summarized the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight studies including 811 participants that compared different AP or anticoagulant agents. NOAC (non-VKA oral anticoagulant: rivaroxaban 15 or 20 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (vitamin K antagonist: warfarin at moderate International Normalized Ratio [INR] - 2.5) or adjusted [INR 2.0-3.0] dose): In three studies there were no differences in any thromboembolic event (including death) and major bleeding (moderate-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of stroke (risk ratio [RR] 14.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87 to 106.8; moderate-certainty evidence). One of the studies reported a small benefit of rivaroxaban in terms of quality of life at 180 days measured as health state on Visual Analogue Scale (mean difference [MD] 7 mm, 95% CI 2.01 to 11.99; low-certainty evidence), but not measured as health utility on a scale from 0 to 1 (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.10; low-certainty evidence). High-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 3.1 to 4.0 [mean 3.3] or 3.5 [mean 3.2]) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 [mean 2.3] or 2.5 [mean 2.5]): In two studies there were no differences in the rates of thrombotic events and major bleeding (RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.79 to 6.23, low-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of minor bleeding in one study during a mean of 3.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.2) of follow-up (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.07 to 6.07). In both trials there was evidence of a higher risk of any bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% CI 1.12 to 3.68; low-certainty evidence) in the high-dose VKA group, and for this outcome (any bleeding) the incidence is not different, only the time to event is showing an effect. Standard-dose VKA plus a single AP agent (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 plus aspirin 100 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0): One high-risk-of-bias study showed an increased risk of any thromboembolic event with combined treatment (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.43; low-certainty evidence) and reported on major bleeding with five cases in the combined treatment group and one case in the standard-dose VKA treatment group, resulting in RR 7.42 (95% CI 0.91 to 60.7; low-certainty evidence) and no differences for secondary outcomes (very low- to low-certainty evidence). Single/dual AP agent and standard-dose VKA (pooled results): Two high-risk-of-bias studies compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin or unspecified VKA at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 or 2.0 to 2.5) with a single AP agent (aspirin 100 mg/d), but did not provide any conclusive evidence regarding the effects of those drugs in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence). One of the above-mentioned studies was a three-armed study that compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 2.5) with dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) and dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) versus a single AP treatment (aspirin 100 mg/d). This study reported on stroke (very low-certainty evidence) but did not report on any thromboembolic events, major bleeding, or any secondary outcomes. We identified two ongoing studies and three studies are awaiting classification. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence identified indicates that NOACs compared with standard-dose VKAs may increase the risk of stroke and do not appear to alter the risk of other outcomes (moderate-certainty evidence). Using high-dose VKA versus standard-dose VKA did not alter the risk of any thromboembolic event or major bleeding but may increase the risk of any form of bleeding (low-certainty evidence). Standard-dose VKA combined with an AP agent compared with standard-dose VKA alone may increase the risk of any thromboembolic event and does not appear to alter the risk of major bleeding or other outcomes (low-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the benefit or harm of using standard-dose VKA plus AP agents versus single or dual AP therapy, or dual versus single AP therapy, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2764-2775, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can infect patients in any age group including those with no comorbid conditions. Understanding the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of these patients is important toward developing successful treatment strategies. Approach and Results: In a retrospective study design, consecutive patients without baseline comorbidities hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Patients were subdivided into ≤55 and >55 years of age. Predictors of in-hospital mortality or mechanical ventilation were analyzed in this patient population, as well as subgroups. Stable parameters in overall and subgroup models were used to construct a cluster model for phenotyping of patients. Of 1207 COVID-19-positive patients, 157 met the study criteria (80≤55 and 77>55 years of age). Most reliable predictors of outcomes overall and in subgroups were age, initial and follow-up d-dimer, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels. Their predictive cutoff values were used to construct a cluster model that produced 3 main clusters. Cluster 1 was a low-risk cluster and was characterized by younger patients who had low thrombotic and inflammatory features. Cluster 2 was intermediate risk that also consisted of younger population that had moderate level of thrombosis, higher inflammatory cells, and inflammatory markers. Cluster 3 was a high-risk cluster that had the most aggressive thrombotic and inflammatory feature. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy patient population, COVID-19 remains significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. While age remains the most important predictor of in-hospital outcomes, thromboinflammatory interactions are also associated with worse clinical outcomes regardless of age in healthy patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Admissão do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tromboembolia/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Nível de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/terapia
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105164, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of lung cancer and acute ischemic stroke remains high in recent years, both of which occur mostly in people over 60 years old. In the present study, we aimed to further clarify the pathogenesis of lung cancer-associated acute ischemic stroke (LCA-AIS) by comparing and analyzing clinical characteristics of stroke patients with or without lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 51 patients with lung cancer were selected as the case group (LCSG), and 78 patients without cancer history were adopted as the control group (SG). The data collected in this study included sex, age, traditional cerebrovascular disease risk factors (TCDRFs), blood test index, imaging findings, etiological typing, and prognosis evaluation. SPSS21.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Normally distributed data were analyzed by t-test, and count data were analyzed by chi-square test or exact probability method. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: In the case group, the levels of plasma D-dimer, fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and NIHSS, as well as the mRS score and mortality of patients, were higher, while the levels of RBC, Hb and Hcy were lower compared with the control group. Imaging findings showed that multivessel involvement was more common in the case group, and the infarcts were more likely to be multiple and involved in both the anterior and posterior circulations. The TOAST classification of LCSG was dominated by stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE) and stroke of other determined etiology (SOE). Statistical analysis showed that the patients were more likely to suffer from acute ischemic stroke within 1 year after the diagnosis of lung cancer (41 cases, 80.39%). CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability and acute multiple brain infarcts were more common in patients with LCA-AIS, and hypoproteinemia and hyponatremia were more likely to occur in these patients, leading to worse prognosis. Patients were most likely to have a stroke within 1 year after the diagnosis of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Trombofilia/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico , Infarto Encefálico/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Hipoproteinemia/diagnóstico , Hipoproteinemia/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Clin Radiol ; 75(11): 804-810, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829885

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease that has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, mainly causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. In addition to the widely described respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 may cause life-treating complications directly or indirectly related to this infection. Among these, thrombotic complications have emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly in patients in intensive care units. Thrombotic complications due to COVID-19 are likely to occur due to a pro-coagulant pattern encountered in some of these patients or to a progressive endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome causing microvascular disease. In the present authors' experience, from five different hospitals in Italy and the UK, imaging has proved its utility in identifying these COVID-19-related thrombotic complications, with translational clinical relevance. The aim of this review is to illustrate thromboembolic complications directly or indirectly related to COVID-19 disease. Specifically, this review will show complications related to thromboembolism due to a pro-coagulant pattern from those likely related to an endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1815-1826, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic disease is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). There is limited evidence on the association of in-hospital anticoagulation (AC) with outcomes and postmortem findings. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine association of AC with in-hospital outcomes and describe thromboembolic findings on autopsies. METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined the association of AC with mortality, intubation, and major bleeding. Subanalyses were also conducted on the association of therapeutic versus prophylactic AC initiated ≤48 h from admission. Thromboembolic disease was contextualized by premortem AC among consecutive autopsies. RESULTS: Among 4,389 patients, median age was 65 years with 44% women. Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08). Overall, 89 patients (2%) had major bleeding adjudicated by clinician review, with 27 of 900 (3.0%) on therapeutic, 33 of 1,959 (1.7%) on prophylactic, and 29 of 1,530 (1.9%) on no AC. Of 26 autopsies, 11 (42%) had thromboembolic disease not clinically suspected and 3 of 11 (27%) were on therapeutic AC. CONCLUSIONS: AC was associated with lower mortality and intubation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Compared with prophylactic AC, therapeutic AC was associated with lower mortality, although not statistically significant. Autopsies revealed frequent thromboembolic disease. These data may inform trials to determine optimal AC regimens.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Tromboembolia , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/classificação , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/virologia
7.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(8): 1647-1652, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nursing home (NH) residents are a vulnerable population, susceptible to respiratory disease outbreaks such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Poor outcome in COVID-19 is at least partly attributed to hypercoagulability, resulting in a high incidence of thromboembolic complications. It is unknown whether commonly used antithrombotic therapies may protect the vulnerable NH population with COVID-19 against mortality. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of oral antithrombotic therapy (OAT) was associated with a lower mortality in NH residents with COVID-19. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Fourteen NH facilities from the NH organization Envida, Maastricht, the Netherlands PARTICIPANTS: A total of 101 NH residents with COVID-19 were enrolled. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The association between age, sex, comorbidity, OAT, and mortality was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 47.5% in NH residents from 14 NH facilities. Age, comorbidity, and medication use were comparable among NH residents who survived and who died. OAT was associated with a lower mortality in NH residents with COVID-19 in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-1.95). However, additional adjustments for sex, age, and comorbidity attenuated this difference. Mortality in males was higher compared with female residents (OR = 3.96; 95% CI = 1.62-9.65). Male residents who died were younger compared with female residents (82.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 6.3) vs 89.1 (SD = 6.8) years; P < .001). CONCLUSION: NH residents in the 14 facilities we studied were severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a mortality of 47.5%. Male NH residents with COVID-19 had worse outcomes than females. We did not find evidence for any protection against mortality by OAT, necessitating further research into strategies to mitigate poor outcome of COVID-19 in vulnerable NH populations. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1647-1652, 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/virologia
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(2): 281-286, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394236

RESUMO

Critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia suffered both high thrombotic and bleeding risk. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on coagulation and fibrinolysis is not well known. We conducted a retrospective study of critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) a cause of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and we evaluated coagulation function using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) on day of admission (T0) and 5 (T5) and 10 (T10) days after admission to ICU. Coagulation standard parameters were also evaluated. Forty patients were enrolled into the study. The ICU and the hospital mortality were 10% and 12.5%, respectively. On ICU admission, prothrombin time was slightly reduced and it increased significantly at T10 (T0 = 65.1 ± 9.8 vs T10 = 85.7 ± 1.5, p = 0.002), while activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values were higher at T0 than T10 (32.2 ± 2.9 vs 27.2 ± 2.1, p = 0.017 and 895.1 ± 110 vs 332.5 ± 50, p = 0.002, respectively); moreover, whole blood thromboelastometry profiles were consistent with hypercoagulability characterized by an acceleration of the propagation phase of blood clot formation [i.e., CFT below the lower limit in INTEM 16/40 patients (40%) and EXTEM 20/40 patients (50%)] and significant higher clot strength [MCF above the upper limit in INTEM 20/40 patients (50%), in EXTEM 28/40 patients (70%) and in FIBTEM 29/40 patients (72.5%)]; however, this hypercoagulable state persists in the first five days, but it decreases ten day after, without returning to normal values. No sign of secondary hyperfibrinolysis or sepsis induced coagulopathy (SIC) were found during the study period. In six patients (15%) a deep vein thrombosis and in 2 patients (5%) a thromboembolic event, were found; 12 patients (30%) had a catheter-related thrombosis. ROTEM analysis confirms that patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia had a hypercoagulation state that persisted over time.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tromboelastografia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/virologia , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/mortalidade , Trombofilia/virologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104899, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periprocedural administration of dual antiplatelet therapy has been recommended in patients treated by carotid artery stenting. However, some patients with concurrent disease have been prescribed anticoagulants. We compared the post-operative incidence of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events in two patient groups treated by different regimens of multi-antithrombotic agents. METHODS: As our 31 patients had a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, they had received anticoagulants; they were also treated with aspirin and clopidogrel before carotid artery stenting. The prior anticoagulant therapy was continued in 17 patients and they received vitamin K antagonist plus dual antiplatelet therapy after the procedure (group 1). Other 14 patients underwent direct oral anticoagulant plus aspirin or clopidogrel (group 2). Post-procedural hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Carotid artery stenting was angiographically successful in all patients. Complications were encountered in two group 1 patients. Post-operative image revealed a silent subarachnoid hemorrhage in one. The other presented with superior mesenteric artery occlusion 6 months after the procedure. No hemorrhagic or thromboembolic events occurred in group 2. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the administration of a direct oral anticoagulant plus an antiplatelet agent reduced the risk for periprocedural hemorrhagic and embolic events in patients with concurrent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent carotid artery stenting.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Med Vasc ; 45(2): 67-71, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265017

RESUMO

GOAL OF THE STUDY: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events (TEE) during outbreaks, increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to specify the prevalence of TEE in IBD patients and to determine their epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics. MATERIEL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study collecting all patients with IBD, who had a thromboembolic complication confirmed by imagery, between January 2012 and December 2018. RESULTS: One hundred patients with IBD were diagnosed during the study period. A TEE occurred in 6 patients (5.9%). These patients had an average age of 41 years, divided into 4 women and 2 men. Five patients had Crohn's disease and one patient had ulcerative colitis. The IBD was active in all patients. Five patients were already hospitalized and under preventive heparin therapy. Patients had deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs in 3 cases, associated with pulmonary embolism in 1 case, cerebral venous thrombosis in 2 cases and pulmonary embolism isolated in 1 case. Thrombophilia investigations were negative in all patients. Evolution under medical treatment was favorable in 4 patients and fatal in 2 patients. CONCLUSION: In our study, the prevalence of TEE in patients with IBD was 5.9%. Thrombosis occurred during the active phase of IBD in all cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/mortalidade , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/mortalidade , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Feminino , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Prevalência , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): e008349, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The REDUAL PCI trial (Evaluation of Dual Therapy With Dabigatran vs Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With AF That Undergo a PCI With Stenting) demonstrated that, in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, bleeding risk was lower with dabigatran plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor (dual therapy) than warfarin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor and aspirin (triple therapy). Dual therapy was noninferior for risk of thromboembolic events. Whether these results apply equally to patients at higher risk of ischemic events due to lesion complexity or clinical risk factors is unclear. METHODS: The primary end point was time to first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. The composite efficacy end point was death, thromboembolic event, or unplanned revascularization. Our prespecified subgroup analysis categorized patients by presence of procedural complexity and/or clinical complexity factors at baseline. A modified dual antiplatelet therapy score categorized patients according to degree of clinical risk. RESULTS: Of 2725 patients, 43.1% had clinical complexity factors alone, 9.9% procedural factors alone, 10.0% both, and 37.0% neither. Risk of the primary bleeding end point was lower in both dabigatran dual therapy groups than warfarin triple therapy groups, regardless of procedural and/or clinical lesion complexity (interaction P values: 0.90 and 0.37, respectively). Importantly, a similar risk of the efficacy end point was observed between dabigatran dual and warfarin triple therapy, regardless of the presence of clinical or procedural complexity factors (interaction P values: 0.67 and 0.54, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively). Similar benefit was seen for each dose of dabigatran dual therapy for bleeding events regardless of dual antiplatelet therapy score (interaction P values: 0.53 and 0.54, respectively), with similar risk of thromboembolic events (interaction P values: 0.20 and 0.08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced bleeding risk compared with warfarin triple therapy, with a similar risk of thromboembolic outcomes, irrespective of procedural and/or clinical complexity and modified dual antiplatelet therapy score. Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/; Unique identifier: NCT02164864.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(6): 104624, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are technical challenges to complete occlusion of small (<5 mm) ruptured intracranial aneurysms (SRAs) using endovascular treatment (EVT). This study analyzed factors influencing immediate angiographic results in SRAs after EVT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Intraoperative angiograms and medical records of 290 patients, who underwent EVT for SRAs at 2 stroke centers in China between January 2009 and October 2016, were retrospectively reviewed and evaluated. RESULTS: Immediate complete occlusion was achieved in 213 (73.4%) aneurysms. Aneurysms with a smaller aspect ratio, those less than 3 mm in size, irregular shape, small basal outpouching, multiple aneurysms, poorer Hunt and Hess grade, and location of communication arteries demonstrated higher rates of incomplete occlusion, although the differences were not statistically significant. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SRAs with parent artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and lobulation demonstrated a higher incidence of incomplete occlusion. Intra-procedural rupture occurred in 13 (6.1%) patients in the complete occlusion group, and 3 (3.9%) in the incomplete occlusion group (P = .467). Thromboembolic complications occurred in 3 (1.0%) patients, and 4 (1.9%) underwent decompressive craniotomy after EVT, all of whom were in the complete occlusion group. Nine (4.2%) patients in the complete occlusion group and 2 (2.6%) in the incomplete occlusion group (P = .733) experienced intraprocedural vasospasm, with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates of 15.0% and 2.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal parent artery stenosis greater than or equal to 50% and lobulation were independent predictors of incomplete occlusion in patients with SRAs. Higher rates of intraprocedural rupture, thromboembolic complications, intraprocedural vasospasm, and mortality were found in the complete occlusion group; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Complete occlusion of SRAs may be achieved without additional mortality and perioperative complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Angiografia Cerebral , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma Roto/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Roto/mortalidade , Aneurisma Roto/fisiopatologia , Pequim , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Embolização Terapêutica/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/mortalidade , Aneurisma Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/mortalidade , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 67: 532-541.e3, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with considerable risk for thromboembolism; however, arterial thromboembolism is rare and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Their management requires careful coordination between multiple providers, and as a consequence, much of the published literature is limited to case reports published across specialties. METHODS: We examined our recent institutional experience with aortoiliac, mesenteric, and peripheral arterial thromboembolisms in patients with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. To supplement our experience, a comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1966 to 2019. Patient demographics, flare/thromboembolism management, and outcomes were abstracted from the selected articles and our case series. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with IBD, who developed an arterial thromboembolism, were identified (49 from published literature and 3 from our institution). More than 82% of patients presented during an active IBD flare. Surgical intervention was attempted in 77% of patients, which included open thromboembolectomy, catheter-directed thrombolysis, or bowel resection. Thromboembolism resolution was achieved in 76% of patients with comparable outcomes with either catheter-directed thrombolysis or open thrombectomy (83.3% vs. 68.2%). Nearly one-third of patients underwent small bowel resection or colectomy. In 2 patients, thromboembolism resolution was achieved only after total abdominal colectomy for severe pancolitis. Multiple thromboembolectomies were associated with higher risk for amputation. Overall mortality was 11.5% but was greatest for occlusive aortoiliac and mesenteric thromboembolism (14.3% and 57%, respectively). All survivors of occlusive superior mesenteric artery thromboembolism suffered short gut syndrome requiring small bowel transplant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD, who develop an arterial thromboembolism, can expect overall poor outcomes. Catheter-directed thrombolysis achieved comparable outcomes with open thromboembolectomy without undue bleeding risk. Total abdominal colectomy for moderate-to-severe pancolitis is an emerging strategy in the management of refractory arterial thromboembolism. Successful surgical management may include open thromboembolectomy, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and bowel resection when indicated.


Assuntos
Colectomia , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Embolectomia , Isquemia Mesentérica/terapia , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/terapia , Trombectomia , Tromboembolia/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Adulto , Amputação , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/mortalidade , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/mortalidade , Embolectomia/efeitos adversos , Embolectomia/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro , Isquemia Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Mesentérica/etiologia , Isquemia Mesentérica/mortalidade , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/etiologia , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Circ J ; 84(2): 283-293, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Asia, little information is available about contemporary real-world treatment patterns for venous thromboembolism (VTE).Methods and Results:Consecutive patients (n=11,414) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database with initial VTE and taking oral anticoagulants between May 1, 2014 and June 30, 2016 were included. The temporal trends of using oral anticoagulants and pharmacomechanical therapy during the study period were evaluated. The efficacy and safety of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) vs. warfarin were compared. Propensity score analysis (NOACs n=3,647 vs. warfarin n=3,647) was used to balance covariates between groups, and Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment were used to estimate the risks of clinical outcomes. The use of NOACs increased from 0.3% to 60.2% for VTE treatment during the study period. Pharmacomechanical therapy was used in 9.60%, 8.22%, and 5.63% from 2014 through 2016. NOACs were associated with a 16% risk reduction (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.93) in all-cause mortality and a 21% risk reduction (aHR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.96) in recurrent VTE vs. warfarin. Overall, NOACs were associated with a lower risk of major bleeding compared with warfarin (aHR 0.804, 95% CI 0.648-0.998). CONCLUSIONS: In real-world practice, NOACs have become the major anticoagulant used for Asians with VTE. Although NOACs had a lower risk of recurrent VTE and major bleeding compared with warfarin in Taiwan, we still need a large-scale randomized controlled trial to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Trombólise Mecânica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
15.
N Engl J Med ; 382(2): 120-129, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban can prevent thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1644 patients without an established indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR to receive rivaroxaban at a dose of 10 mg daily (with aspirin at a dose of 75 to 100 mg daily for the first 3 months) (rivaroxaban group) or aspirin at a dose of 75 to 100 mg daily (with clopidogrel at a dose of 75 mg daily for the first 3 months) (antiplatelet group). The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of death or thromboembolic events. The primary safety outcome was major, disabling, or life-threatening bleeding. The trial was terminated prematurely by the data and safety monitoring board because of safety concerns. RESULTS: After a median of 17 months, death or a first thromboembolic event (intention-to-treat analysis) had occurred in 105 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 78 patients in the antiplatelet group (incidence rates, 9.8 and 7.2 per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio with rivaroxaban, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.81; P = 0.04). Major, disabling, or life-threatening bleeding (intention-to-treat analysis) had occurred in 46 and 31 patients, respectively (4.3 and 2.8 per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.37; P = 0.08). A total of 64 deaths occurred in the rivaroxaban group and 38 in the antiplatelet group (5.8 and 3.4 per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.53). CONCLUSIONS: In patients without an established indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR, a treatment strategy including rivaroxaban at a dose of 10 mg daily was associated with a higher risk of death or thromboembolic complications and a higher risk of bleeding than an antiplatelet-based strategy. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; GALILEO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02556203.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia/mortalidade
16.
N Engl J Med ; 382(2): 130-139, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical leaflet thickening and reduced leaflet motion of bioprosthetic aortic valves have been documented by four-dimensional computed tomography (CT). Whether anticoagulation can reduce these phenomena after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is not known. METHODS: In a substudy of a large randomized trial, we randomly assigned patients who had undergone successful TAVR and who did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation to a rivaroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy (rivaroxaban [10 mg] plus aspirin [75 to 100 mg] once daily) or an antiplatelet-based strategy (clopidogrel [75 mg] plus aspirin [75 to 100 mg] once daily). Patients underwent evaluation by four-dimensional CT at a mean (±SD) of 90±15 days after randomization. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with at least one prosthetic valve leaflet with grade 3 or higher motion reduction (i.e., involving >50% of the leaflet). Leaflet thickening was also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients were enrolled. At least one prosthetic valve leaflet with grade 3 or higher motion reduction was found in 2 of 97 patients (2.1%) who had scans that could be evaluated in the rivaroxaban group, as compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) in the antiplatelet group (difference, -8.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16.5 to -1.9; P = 0.01). Thickening of at least one leaflet was observed in 12 of 97 patients (12.4%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 33 of 102 (32.4%) in the antiplatelet group (difference, -20.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -30.9 to -8.5). In the main trial, the risk of death or thromboembolic events and the risk of life-threatening, disabling, or major bleeding were higher with rivaroxaban (hazard ratios of 1.35 and 1.50, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a substudy of a trial involving patients without an indication for long-term anticoagulation who had undergone successful TAVR, a rivaroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy was more effective than an antiplatelet-based strategy in preventing subclinical leaflet-motion abnormalities. However, in the main trial, the rivaroxaban-based strategy was associated with a higher risk of death or thromboembolic complications and a higher risk of bleeding than the antiplatelet-based strategy. (Funded by Bayer; GALILEO-4D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02833948.).


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Clopidogrel/farmacologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/efeitos dos fármacos , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade
17.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573669

RESUMO

MM-ARG, the Swedish maternal maternity mortality group within SFOG (Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) has, since 2008, surveyed and analysed maternal deaths in Sweden with the aim to find and give feedback on lessons learned to the medical professions.  MM-ARG consists of obstetricians, midwives and anesthetists and the strength of the working model is that the profession itself takes responsibility for the scrutiny.  A summary of 67 known maternal deaths from 2007‒2017 is presented. Direct causes of death are dominated by hypertensive disease/preeclampsia, followed by thromboembolic disease, sepsis and obstetric bleeding. Indirect death, where a known or unknown underlying disease is exacerbated by pregnancy, is dominated by cardiovascular disease. This review shows that the diagnostics and clinical management could be improved. Besides obstetrics/gynecology, maternal mortality affects other specialties and thus holds important lessons to many.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
18.
Transfus Med ; 29(4): 268-274, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) in approved and off-label indications. BACKGROUND: PCCs are approved for the urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Data concerning the efficacy, safety and dosing for off-label indications are limited, but they are included in massive bleeding protocols. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cases treated with four-factor PCCs (4F-PCCs) between January 2009 and 2016. Efficacy end-points include: (i) VKA reversal efficacy assessed by international normalised ratio (INR) normalisation (<1·5) and (ii) clinical efficacy as bleeding cessation and/or decreased number of transfused blood components and 24-h mortality in bleeding coagulopathy. The safety end-point is the incidence of thromboembolic events. RESULTS: A total of 328 patients were included (51·8% male, median age 78 years old). Indications were as follows: VKA reversal (66·6%), bleeding coagulopathy (30·5%) and direct anticoagulant (DOAC) reversal due to bleeding (2·5%). VKA reversal was effective in 97·1% of patients, and 76·5% demonstrated complete reversal (INR < 1·5); only 34·3% patients needed hemoderivatives. Prior to emergency procedures, PCCs achieved global responses in 83% of patients, with no bleeding complication during intervention. DOAC reversal was effective in 88·9% of patients. Bleeding cessation was associated with the dose administered (P = 0·002). In coagulopathy bleeding, haemorrhage cessation, established by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostais (ISTH) definition, occurred in 56·7% of massive bleeding events and in 42·5% of other coagulopathies; 24-h mortality was 30%, mainly related to active bleeding. Ten thrombotic episodes were observed (3·1%). CONCLUSION: 4F-PCC was effective as adjuvant treatment with an acceptable safety profile, not only for the emergent reversal of VKAs but also for refractory coagulopathy associated with major bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Hemorragia , Uso Off-Label , Segurança , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia/mortalidade
20.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 43(5): 281-289, jun.-jul. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183240

RESUMO

Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones hematológicas y las necesidades transfusionales en niños tratados con oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO). Diseño: Estudio retrospectivo. Ámbito: Unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Niños menores de 18 años tratados con ECMO entre septiembre de 2006 y noviembre de 2015. Intervenciones: Ninguna. Variables de interés: Características clínicas, de la ECMO, anticoagulación, parámetros hematológicos y de coagulación, transfusiones y evolución clínica. Resultados: Se estudiaron 100 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 11 meses. Presentaron sangrado 76; el mediastino fue la localización más frecuente; 39 precisaron revisión quirúrgica. En los primeros 3 días de ECMO, el 97% de los pacientes precisaron transfusión de hematíes (34,4 ml/kg al día), el 94% plaquetas (21,1ml/kg al día) y el 90% plasma (26,6ml/kg al día). Los pacientes posquirúrgicos, con imposibilidad de salida de la circulación extracorpórea, los que presentaron sangrado al inicio de la ECMO, los que precisaron revisión quirúrgica y los que tuvieron canulación transtorácica requirieron mayor volumen de transfusiones. Se produjeron tromboembolias en 14 pacientes y hemólisis en 33. La mortalidad de los niños que presentaron sangrado al inicio de ECMO (57,6%) fue significativamente mayor que la del resto (37,5%) (p = 0,048). Conclusiones: Los niños tratados con ECMO presentan una elevada incidencia de sangrado y precisan un gran volumen de transfusiones. El postoperatorio de cirugía, el sangrado al inicio de la ECMO, la necesidad de revisión quirúrgica, la imposibilidad de salida de la circulación extracorpórea y la canulación transtorácica se asocian a un mayor volumen de transfusiones. Los niños que sangraron al inicio de la ECMO presentaron mayor mortalidad


Objectives: To analyze the hematological complications and need for transfusions in children receiving extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Design: A retrospective study was carried out. Setting: A pediatric intensive care unit. Patients: Children under 18 years of age subjected to ECLS between September 2006 and November 2015. Interventions: None. Variables of interest: Patient and ECLS characteristics, anticoagulation, hematological and coagulation parameters, transfusions and clinical course. Results: A total of 100 patients (94 with heart disease) with a median age of 11 months were studied. Seventy-six patients presented bleeding. The most frequent bleeding point was the mediastinum and 39 patients required revision surgery. In the first 3days, 97% of the patients required blood transfusion (34.4ml/kg per day), 94% platelets (21.1ml/kg per day) and 90% plasma (26.6ml/kg per day). Patients who were in the postoperative period, those who were bleeding at the start of ECLS, those requiring revision surgery, those who could not suspend extracorporeal circulation, and those subjected to transthoracic cannulation required a greater volume of transfusions than the rest of the patients. Thromboembolism occurred in 14 patients and hemolysis in 33 patients. Mortality among the children who were bleeding at the start of ECLS (57.6%) was significantly higher than in the rest of the patients (37.5%) (P=.048). Conclusions: Children subjected to ECLS present high blood product needs. The main factors related to transfusions were the postoperative period, bleeding at the start of ECLS, revision surgery, transthoracic cannulation, and the impossibility of suspending extracorporeal circulation. Children with bleeding suffered greater mortality than the rest of the patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Substitutos Sanguíneos/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Hemorragia/complicações , Anticoagulantes , Modelos Logísticos , Hemólise , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/etiologia
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