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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAE4510, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To standardize the investigation and clinical management of women with laboratory and/or clinical abnormalities suggestive of thrombophilia, in order to optimize antithrombotic approach and indication of laboratory tests. METHODOLOGY: A discussion was carried out among 107 physicians (gynecologists/obstetricians, hematologists and vascular surgeons) present at a forum held at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. As a minimum criterion, 80% agreement was established in the voting to each recommendation of conduct in the final document. The cases in which there was agreement below 80% were discussed again, reaching a consensual agreement of conduct for the document writing. CONCLUSION: The standardization of an institutional consensus of suggestions of clinical approach contributes to a better management of the group to be evaluated and minimizes risks of intercurrent events. This was the first national consensus on the investigation of thrombophilia in women.


Assuntos
Trombofilia , Brasil , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16883, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441864

RESUMO

Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in women with hereditary thrombophilia have emerged as new indications for prophylactic use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) during pregnancy. Recent meta-analysis conducted to establish if LMWH may prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications point to important therapeutic effect but these findings are absolutely not universal. Furthermore, previous studies regarding LMWH prophylaxis for APO in women with inherited thrombophilia were performed in high risk patients with previous adverse health outcomes in medical, family and/or obstetric history. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LMWH prophylaxis on pregnancy outcomes in women with inherited thrombophilias regardless of the presence of previous adverse health outcomes in medical, family, and obstetric history.Prospective analytical cohort study included all referred women with inherited thrombophilia between 11 and 15 weeks of gestation and followed-up to delivery. Patients were allocated in group with LWMH prophylaxis (study group) and control group without LWMH prophylaxis. The groups were compared for laboratory parameters and Doppler flows of umbilical artery at 28 to 30th, 32nd to 34th and 36th to 38th gestational weeks (gw), and for obstetric and perinatal outcomes.The study group included 221 women and control group included 137 women. Mean resistance index of the umbilical artery Ri in 28 to 30, 32 to 34, and 36 to 38 gw were significantly higher in the control group compared to study group (0.71 ±â€Š0.02 vs 0.69 ±â€Š0.02; 0.67 ±â€Š0.03 vs 0.64 ±â€Š0.02; and 0.67 ±â€Š0.05 vs 0.54 ±â€Š0.08, respectively). Intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and miscarriages were statistically significantly more frequent in control group compared to the patients in study (P < .001). The frequencies of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and APO were significantly higher in the control group compared to the study group (P = .008 and P < .001, respectively). In a multivariate regression model with APO as a dependent variable, only Ri was detected as a significant protective factor for APO, after adjusting for age and LMWH prophylaxis (P < .001).We have demonstrated better perinatal outcomes in women with LMWH prophylaxis for APO compared to untreated women.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16585, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374026

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypercoagulability can lead to thromboembolic events that are a life-threatening complication of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Conventional anticoagulants are first-line treatment in the presence of demonstrated thrombosis in NS. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have provided useful alternatives for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic events. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male developed lower limbs deep vein thrombosis (DVT) during the early course of NS but presented poor response to oral therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. The decision was made to switch from rivaroxaban to heparin and subsequently bridged to warfarin. The patient presented significant clinical symptom improvement. DIAGNOSIS: NS with Lower limbs DVT. INTERVENTIONS: Rivaroxaban was discontinued and switch to heparin and subsequently bridged to warfarin. OUTCOMES: Venography result of both lower limb vein showed the venous wall was smooth without obvious stenosis or obstruction. Edema of the patient's lower limbs gradually improved and disappeared. LESSONS: The existing published data on the application of DOACs in NS are limited. DOACs have an immediate anticoagulant effect and have demonstrated safety and efficacy and required no routine monitoring, however, application of these agents in NS likely requires further investigation before widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/complicações , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16318, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305418

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is a major cause of inherited thrombophilia in Western populations; the mutation is extremely rare in Asia. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here we report a case of a 28-year old Korean woman admitted to our hospital with extensive pulmonary embolism. DIAGNOSIS: She was heterozygous for FVL mutation up on evaluation, and screening for asymptomatic family members also revealed heterozygous FVL mutation for her mother. INTERVENTIONS: Enoxaparin 1 mg/kg was initiated, followed by rivaroxaban 15 mg every 12 hours. OUTCOMES: The patient showed improvement in both subjective dyspnea and right ventricular dysfunction and was successfully discharged after five hospital days. LESSONS: FVL mutation screening may be considered in Asian patients with thrombophilia of uncertain etiology in the future.


Assuntos
Fator V/genética , Mutação , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Trombofilia/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , República da Coreia , Trombofilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1955: 275-286, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868535

RESUMO

The most severe clinical symptomatology of Chagas disease affects ~30% of those chronically infected with the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. The pathogenic mechanisms that lead to life-threatening heart and gut tissue disruptions occur "silently" for a longtime in a majority of cases. As a result, despite there are several serological and molecular methods available to diagnose the infection in its acute and chronic stages, diagnosis is often achieved only after the onset of clinical symptoms in the chronic phase of the disease. Furthermore, although there are two drugs to treat it, the assessment of their performance is impractical with current parasite-derived diagnostics, and therapeutic efficacy cannot be acknowledged in a timely manner.In this chapter we present two procedures to measure host-derived molecules as surrogates of therapeutic response against chronic T. cruzi infection. Their outputs relate to the generation and activity of thrombin, a major component of the blood coagulation cascade. This is due to the fact that a hypercoagulability state has been described to occur in chronic Chagas disease patients and revert after treatment with benznidazole.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/sangue , Trombina/análise , Trombofilia/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Hamostaseologie ; 39(1): 49-61, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703819

RESUMO

A thrombophilic disorder is a hereditary or acquired condition that increases the risk of thrombosis. The most common hereditary thrombophilias that predispose to venous thrombosis in the Caucasian population are the heterozygous forms of the factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation that are generally detected by direct DNA genotyping. Immunologic antigen assays and chromogenic or clot-based activity assays are used to identify deficiencies in the natural coagulation inhibitors antithrombin, protein C and protein S. Because pre-analytical errors and acquired causes of low antithrombin, protein C or protein S levels are considerably more common than hereditary deficiencies, all potential conditions that may lower activity levels of the natural coagulation inhibitors (e.g. concomitant liver disease, pregnancy, anticoagulant therapy) must be considered and excluded before the diagnosis of an inhibitor deficiency can be made. To avoid misclassification, the diagnosis should not be made based on a single abnormal test result. Thus, repetitive testing when the patient is not on anticoagulant therapy is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. Screening for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) comprises testing for lupus anticoagulants (LAs) and the presence of IgG or IgM antibodies directed against phospholipids and phospholipid-binding proteins such as ß-2-glycoprotein-I. A combination of clot-based assays has been recommended to demonstrate LA activity, whereas solid-phase immunoassays allow the detection of anti-cardiolipin and anti-ß-2-glycoprotein-I antibodies. The diagnosis of APS requires the persistence of antiphospholipid antibodies for at least 12 weeks together with thrombotic and/or obstetric features of APS.


Assuntos
Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Antitrombina III/complicações , Deficiência de Antitrombina III/diagnóstico , Fator V/genética , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/análise , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deficiência de Proteína C/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína C/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Proteína S/complicações , Deficiência de Proteína S/diagnóstico , Protrombina/genética , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombofilia/genética
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733248

RESUMO

Cushing's syndrome is known to present with a characteristic set of clinical manifestations and complications, well described in literature. However, hypercoagulability remains an under recognised entity in Cushing's syndrome. A 31-year-old woman from Southern India presented with history of fever, left upper quadrant pain and progressive breathing difficulty for 3 weeks. Clinical examination revealed discriminatory features of Cushing's syndrome. Laboratory investigations showed biochemical features of endogenous ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Imaging of the abdomen revealed splenic collection, left-sided empyema and extensive arterial thrombosis. Gadolinium enhanced dynamic MRI of the pituitary gland revealed no evidence of an adenoma while a Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography CT scan ruled out an ectopic Cushing's. A diagnosis of endogenous Cushing's syndrome causing a prothrombotic state with extensive arterial thrombosis was made. She was initiated on oral anticoagulation and oral ketoconazole for medical adrenal suppression. She subsequently underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and was well at follow-up.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Artéria Celíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Artéria Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/urina , Infarto/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto/etiologia , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/etiologia , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Esplênica/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Baço/etiologia , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia
8.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(1): 87-91, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Randomized trials showed no improvement in pregnancy outcomes with the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to prevent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPCs) among thrombophilic women. However, the effect of treatment on placental findings was not examined. We aimed to examine the occurrence of placental vascular lesions in thrombophilic women treated with LMWH dose adjusted according to anti-factor Xa compared with a fixed dose. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial designed to examine whether LMWH dose adjusted according to anti-factor Xa levels compared with a fixed dose would reduce the risk of PMPC. Eligible women were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either a fixed dose of 40 mg daily LMWH (fixed dose group) or adjusted dose according to anti-factor Xa levels (adjusted dose group). Placentas were examined by the same perinatal pathologist who was blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome for this analysis was the incidence of maternal placental vascular lesions. RESULTS: During the study period, 88 placentas were examined; 41 and 47 from the fixed and adjusted dose groups, respectively. Demographics, obstetrics and types of thrombophilias were similar between the groups. Maternal placental vascular lesions were observed in 23 (56.1%) and 21 (44.68%) placentas (p = 0.28) and foetal placental vascular lesions in 2 (4.88%) and 1 (2.13%) placentas (p = 0.59) in the fixed and adjusted groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adjusted dose of enoxaparin according to anti-factor Xa levels compared with a fixed dose did not affect placental vascular lesions in thrombophilic women.


Assuntos
Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Esquema de Medicação , Fator Xa/análise , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obstetrícia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pathology ; 51(3): 292-300, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665674

RESUMO

We and others have previously highlighted the potential problems with testing of lupus anticoagulants (LA) in patients on anticoagulant therapy, including most recently as related to the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Thus, current DOACs in use (e.g., dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, and apixaban and rivaroxaban, both direct Xa inhibitors), affect a wide variety of coagulation assays, including those used in LA investigation. The Russell viper venom time (RVVT) assay in particular, key to the investigation of LA, is highly sensitive to DOACs. LA is a marker of thrombophilia, and patients who have had a thrombosis may be placed on a DOAC. Thus, there is a high likelihood that LA testing will be requested on patients whilst they are on DOACs. In the current report, we have assessed data from our facility for the past two and a half years for all LA tests performed by RVVT testing, and have evaluated this data with respect to patient anticoagulant status. In total, there were 7170 test requests for RVVT associated testing during the period of data capture. Most LA-RVVT screen results (5008; ∼70%) were within normal limits, thereby excluding LA by RVVT method in most of the patient cohort. All DOACs led to a prolongation in both RVVT screen and confirm assays. However, rivaroxaban affected the screen more than the confirm, leading to higher RVVT ratios, whereas apixaban affected the confirm more than the screen, leading to lower RVVT ratios. LA testing in the presence of DOACs also led to lower intra-patient consistency in LA test results. We conclude that ex-vivo data appears to confirm the potential for false positive (with rivaroxaban) and potential for false negative (with apixaban) identification of LA in patients on DOAC treatment. We also make some recommendations in regards to such testing.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/análise , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Humanos , Tempo de Protrombina , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Enferm. nefrol ; 21(2): 188-191, abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174055

RESUMO

Introducción: El acceso vascular supone un pilar fundamental en el tratamiento dialítico de los pacientes renales. El empleo de catéteres se ha incrementado en los últimos años. Caso clínico: Varón de 49 años que inició tratamiento de hemodiálisis a sus 32 años. Presentó 7 accesos registrados (tiempo medio de uso: 64 días) hasta el primer trasplante y otros 15 accesos (tiempo medio de uso: 162 días) y 11 infecciones por el germen Staphylococcus Epidermidis, hasta recibir el segundo trasplante, que perdió a los 5 días por infarto renal isquémico masivo, volviendo a hemodiálisis con la colocación de un catéter venoso central tunelizado femoral izquierdo, que dura hasta la actualidad sin complicaciones destacables, gracias al diagnóstico posterior de la mutación heterocigótica del factor V de Leiden (que provoca un trastorno de hipercoagulabilidad), comenzando anticoagulación oral con acenocumarol de forma domiciliaria y heparina de bajo peso molecular intradiálisis desde ese momento. Discusión: Tras comenzar el sellado del catéter con Citrato + Heparina sódica (inicialmente incluía también Taurolidina pero se eliminó debido a intolerancia), no presentó más infecciones. Debido al diagnóstico de la mutación heterocigótica del factor V de Leiden, nos planteamos la posibilidad de que los fracasos de los accesos anteriores sean debidos al desconocimiento de esta mutación. Ante la situación demográfica de España se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de equipos multidisciplinares más amplios e incluir un control y seguimiento del acceso tunelizado para reducir sus pérdidas y evitar situaciones altamente invasivas


Introduction: The vascular access is a basic pillar in the dialytic treatment of renal patients. The use of catheters has increased in recent years. Clinical case: 49 year old male who started hemodialysis treatment at 32 years. He presented 7 registered access (average use time: 64 days) until the first transplant and other 15 accesses (average use time: 162 days) and 11 infections by Staphylococcus Epidermidis, until receive the second transplant. He lost the graft 5 days after by massive renal ischemic infarction, returning to hemodialysis with the placement of a central venous catheter tunneled in left femoral, that last to the present day without notable complications, mainly due to the subsequent diagnosis of heterozygous mutation in the factor V Leiden (that causes a hypercoagulability disorder), starting oral anticoagulation with acenocoumarol in his home and intradialytic heparin low molecular weight since that time. Discussion: After starting the sealed catheter with citrate + heparin sodium (initially it also includes Taurolidina, but it was removed due to intolerance), did not give more infections. Because of the diagnosis of heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation, we consider the possibility that the previous access failures are due to ignorance of this mutation. Given the demographic situation in Spain, we highlight the need to expand the multidisciplinary teams and include a protocol of control and monitoring of the tunneled access to reduce their losses and avoid a highly invasive


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rejeição de Enxerto/genética , Fator V/genética , Trombofilia/complicações , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Mutação/genética , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico
12.
World Neurosurg ; 113: e146-e152, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The choice of appropriate antiplatelet therapy before the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) placement is usually guided by platelet function testing such as light transmission aggregometry (LTA). In this study, we aimed to define the optimal threshold LTA value for clopidogrel responsiveness to predict the risk of postprocedural thromboembolic complications and to help guide appropriate antiplatelet regimen. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database at an academic neurosurgical center in the United States was retrospectively analyzed from 2014 to 2017 to identify patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with the PED. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed to identify thromboembolic complications in the context of platelet function testing performed by LTA. RESULTS: A total of 95 procedures were performed for PED placement to treat 110 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Thromboembolic complications were encountered in 4 (4.2%) of these patients. After stratifying the complication rate based on the maximal extent of platelet aggregation after administration of an exogenous platelet agonist, a marked increase in thromboembolic events was observed in patients with LTA values greater than 50%. When LTA was dichotomized based on this value, patients with an LTA value less than 50% had a thromboembolic complication rate of 1.3% (1/80), compared with 20% (3/15) for those with LTA values ≥50% (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed the greatest increase in the rate of thromboembolic complications with LTA values of ≥50%. This can serve as an appropriate cut-off value for determining the clopidogrel response in patients undergoing endovascular treatment with the PED.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clopidogrel , Bases de Dados Factuais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Stents , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/sangue , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 44(4): 315-326, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452444

RESUMO

Antithrombin deficiency is a strong risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the absolute risk of the first and recurrent VTE is unclear. The objective of this paper is to establish the absolute risks of the first and recurrent VTE and mortality in individuals with antithrombin deficiency. The databases Embase, Medline Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for case-control and cohort studies. Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), absolute risks, and probabilities of ORs being above thresholds. Thirty-five publications were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Based on 19 studies, OR estimates for the first VTE showed a strongly increased risk for antithrombin deficient individuals, OR 14.0; 95% credible interval (CrI), 5.5 to 29.0. Based on 10 studies, meta-analysis showed that the annual VTE risk was significantly higher in antithrombin-deficient than in non-antithrombin-deficient individuals: 1.2% (95% CrI, 0.8-1.7) versus 0.07% (95% CrI, 0.01-0.14). In prospective studies, the annual VTE risk in antithrombin deficient individuals was as high as 2.3%; 95% CrI, 0.2-6.5%. Data on antithrombin deficiency subtypes are very limited for reliable risk-differentiation. The OR for recurrent VTE based on 10 studies was 2.1; 95% CrI, 0.2 to 4.0. The annual recurrence risk without long-term anticoagulant therapy based on 4 studies was 8.8% (95% CrI, 4.6-14.1) for antithrombin-deficient and 4.3% (95% CrI, 1.5-7.9) for non-antithrombin-deficient VTE patients. The probability of the recurrence risk being higher in antithrombin-deficient patients was 95%. The authors conclude that antithrombin deficient individuals have a high annual VTE risk, and a high annual recurrence risk. Antithrombin deficient patients with VTE require long-term anticoagulant therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas , Trombofilia , Trombose Venosa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
14.
s.l; Argentina. Ministerio de Salud; 22 ene. 2018.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1006004

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El embarazo se caracteriza por ser un estado protrombótico, con aumento del potencial procoagulante, disminución de la actividad anticoagulante y de la actividad fibrinolítica. A esto se le suma la estasis venosa de miembros inferiores por compresión del útero sobre los grandes vasos venosos pelvianos, aumento de la capacitancia venosa, aumento de la resistencia a la insulina y del perfil lipídico protrombótico. Existe asociación entre la trombofilia y la ocurrencia de trombosis venosa profunda. Adicionalmente, las trombofilias tanto hereditarias como adquiridas se han asociado a resultados adversos en los embarazos, tales como abortos espontáneos, muerte fetal tardía, preeclampsia, restricción en el crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU) y desprendimento placentario. ESTRATEGIA DE BÚSQUEDA: Se realizó una búsqueda no sistemática de la evidencia para responder a los interrogantes clínicos. Los sitios de búsqueda incluyeron bases de datos electrónicas (PUBMED, Cochrane library, TripDatabase, Epistemonikos), Agencias de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias, organismos elaboradores de Guías de Práctica Clínica y sumários electrónicos de alta calidad. Se recuperó adicionalmente información relevante proveniente de las citas de los trabajos encontrados mediante la estrategia inicial. Se utilizaron como criterios de inclusión estudios de investigación secundarios (Guías de Práctica Clínica y Consensos de Sociedades Científicas, Revisiones Sistemáticas, Informes de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias) que analizaran información sobre métodos diagnósticos y/o tratamiento de las trombofilias; complicaciones obstétricas y maternas tanto de la patología como de su tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Se seleccionaron 10 estudios considerados pertinentes. CONCLUSIONES: Existe evidencia escasa sobre cuatro puntos relevantes: si la presencia de trombofilias hereditarias y/o adquiridas se asocia con resultados adversos en los embarazos, qué subgrupo de pacientes es el que se puede beneficiar con la realización de pruebas de diagnóstico, si el tratamiento anticoagulante que se indica a partir de este diagnóstico mejora los resultados en salud de los embarazos; y si el tratamiento anticoagulante es razonablemente seguro para su indicación en las mujeres que reciban el diagnóstico de trombofilias. Estas preguntas no quedan respondidas con suficiente confianza a partir de este informe ultrarrápido, en donde no fue posible realizar una búsqueda exhaustiva ni sistemática de evidencia. Por otro lado, la calidad de la evidencia no fue evaluada de manera formal debido a la necesidad de una respuesta en un lapso breve de tiempo. Sin embargo se puede afirmar que, por el diseño de los estudios incluidos, es para la mayoría de los casos, baja. El punto en el que más coincidencia se encuentra es que las pruebas diagnósticas deben ser limitadas a un grupo seleccionado de pacientes (historia personal de aborto recurrente, de eventos tromboembólicos, o historia familiar de primer grado), y no deben ser solicitadas de rutina a mujeres en edad fértil, ni a mujeres con un antecedente de aborto, ni a mujeres que tengan hasta dos intentos de fertilización asistida fallidos. Y aún en estos grupos seleccionados el tratamiento posterior con anticoagulación se encuentra cuestionado. En caso de trombofilias hereditarias, el tratamiento con heparina de bajo peso molecular no mostró mejorar la tasa de nacidos vivos en comparación com pacientes que no recibieron HBPM. En cambio en el caso de Sindrome antifosfolipídico los estudios sí mostraron mejores resultados en cuanto a tasa de nacidos vivos em mujeres que recibieron HBPM en comparación con las que no lo recibieron. Todos los estudios en los que se basa este efecto fueron de bajo número de participantes, por los que estos datos deben interpretarse con cautela. Sobre cuáles son los estudios que deberían solicitarse, no se observa concordancia entre los hallados en las recomendaciones nacionales e internacionales y los propuestos en el artículo 6 del proyecto de ley recibido. Se efectuó una búsqueda sobre cada uno de los métodos mencionados en el artículo 6. Para ninguno de ellos se encontró recomendación a favor de incluirlos. La mayoría de los trabajos incluidos coincide en recomendar como pruebas diagnósticas al factor V de Leiden y a la mutación del gen de la protrombina em caso de trombofilias hereditarias; y a los anticuerpos antifosfolipídicos en el caso de trombofilias adquiridas. Debido a la relevancia de este tema en relación a su impacto en el sistema de salud, a que existen estudios heterogéneos con resultados contradictorios, y a que la evidencia es de calidad incierta, se recomienda complementar esta revisión rápida con la elaboración de Recomendaciones basadas en evidencia, a través de um Informe de Evaluación de Tecnología Sanitaria y/o una Guía de Práctica Clínica, que incluyan la valoración de la calidad de la evidencia existente y sínteses cuantitativa de los datos hallados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Deficiência de Proteína S , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Antitrombina III , Deficiência de Proteína C , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Período Fértil
15.
Brasília; CONITEC; jan. 2018. graf, ilus, tab.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-905580

RESUMO

CONTEXTO: Gestantes com trombofilia com ou sem causas hereditárias associadas. TECNOLOGIA: Enoxaparina sódica. INDICAÇÃO: Gestantes e puérperas com trombofilia. PERGUNTA: A enoxaparina é mais eficaz, efetiva e segura em comparação ao ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) em mulheres grávidas com trombofilia? EVIDÊNCIAS CIENTÍFICAS: Foram incluídos uma revisão sistemática (RS), dois Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados (ECR) e duas coortes (ambas não concorrentes). A RS de De Jong et al., 2013 (alta qualidade metodológica) demonstrou que, nas gestantes com história de aborto, houve um número significativamente maior de nascidos vivos no grupo tratado com enoxaparina, quando comparado ao grupo do AAS. O ECR de Elmahashi et al., 2014 (moderada qualidade metodológica) relatou superioridade da enoxaparina associada ao AAS, quando comparado ao AAS isolado para os desfechos número de abortos e número de nascidos vivos. O ECR de Gris et al., 2004 (moderada qualidade metodológica) relatou que o uso da enoxaparina em gestantes resultou em um número maior de nascidos vivos quando comparado ao AAS, sendo a diferença estatisticamente significante. A coorte conduzida por Bar et al., 2000 (baixa qualidade metodológica) constatou que, quanto ao potencial teratogênico, não houveram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre enoxaparina e AAS. A coorte de Merviel et al., 2017 (baixa qualidade metodológica) mostrou superioridade estatisticamente significante da enoxaparina associada ao AAS para os desfechos número de nascidos vivos e taxa de aborto no 1° trimestre de gestação, quando comparado ao AAS isolado. AVALIAÇÃO ECONÔMICA: Foi conduzida avaliação econômica do tipo árvore de decisão, a perspectiva adotada foi a do SUS e o horizonte temporal utilizado foi o de uma gestação (40 semanas ­ 280 dias). O desfecho de efetividade considerado foi o sucesso da gestação, com o nascimento a termo ou pré-termo. Foram também considerados os eventos aborto e morte intrauterina. A análise de custo-efetividade mostrou que o uso da enoxaparina em comparação com AAS custaria R$3.466,42 a mais para o tratamento de cada gestante com trombofilia, sendo a razão de custo efetividade incremental de R$11.074,81 por nascido vivo. A estratégia AAS + Enoxaparina foi dominada, pois apresentou maior custo e menor efetividade que a Enoxaparina isoladamente. A análise de sensibilidade mostrou que a variável que mais altera o resultado final é o custo da enoxaparina. AVALIAÇÃO DE IMPACTO ORÇAMENTÁRIO: Realizou-se análise de impacto orçamentário em um horizonte temporal de 5 anos. Assumiu-se um market share inicial de 20% para a enoxaparina, com incrementos anuais no mesmo valor, chegando a 100% no quinto ano. A estimativa de impacto orçamentário decorrente da incorporação de enoxaparina pode variar entre R$ 7.839.022,67 a R$ 17.739.592,58 milhões de reais em 5 anos. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As evidências elencadas nesse relatório demonstram superioridade da enoxaparina em relação ao AAS para o maior número de nascidos vivos, e, consequentemente menor taxa de abortos, entre as gestantes trombofílicas. No que diz respeito aos eventos adversos, não se observa diferença entre as alternativas. Destaca-se que a bula da enoxaparina não possui indicação para o uso em mulheres gestantes e apresenta categoria de risco C na gravidez. O uso off-label da enoxaparina para profilaxia do TEV em gestantes, entretanto, já está consolidado na prática médica. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: O Relatório de Recomendação da CONITEC "Enoxaparina para gestantes com trombofilia" foi disponibilizado por meio da Consulta Pública nº 59/2017 entre os dias 25/10/2017 e 13/11/2017. Foram recebidas 83 contribuições, sendo 4 contribuições técnicocientíficas e 79 de experiência ou opinião de pacientes, familiares, amigos ou cuidadores de pacientes, profissionais de saúde ou pessoas interessadas no tema. Do total de contribuições, 96,4% (n = 80) concordaram totalmente, 2,4% (n = 2) concordaram parcialmente e 1,2% (n = 1) discordaram parcialmente da recomendação preliminar da CONITEC. Nenhuma sugestão ou oposição à incorporação da Enoxaparina foi relatada, a única contribuição parcialmente discordante referia-se a burocracia envolvida no acesso ao medicamento. DELIBERAÇÃO FINAL: Os membros da CONITEC presentes na 62ª reunião ordinária, no dia 07 de dezembro de 2017, deliberaram, por unanimidade, recomendar a incorporação da enoxaparina sódica 40 mg/0,4 mL para o tratamento de gestantes com trombofilia. Foi assinado o Registro de Deliberação nº 316/2017. DECISÃO: Incorporar a enoxaparina sódica 40 mg/ 0,4 mL para o tratamento de gestantes com trombofilia no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde ­ SUS, dada pela Portaria nº 10, publicada no DOU nº 18, do dia 25 de janeiro de 2018, seção 1, pág. 124.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Avaliação em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Sistema Único de Saúde
17.
Neurocirugia (Astur) ; 29(1): 18-24, 2018 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The protocol for optimal antiplatelet therapy to prevent thrombotic complications following brain aneurysm embolisation is not clear. Our objective is to describe the characteristics of patients presenting with thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications secondary to endovascular treatment. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive study was performed, which included all patients that required endovascular treatment for brain aneurysm at San Ignacio University Hospital from November 2007 to January 2016. Thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications over six months of follow-up were assessed, considering the premedication regimen with antiplatelet agents, location, size of the aneurysm and embolisation technique performed. RESULTS: 122 patients were evaluated, on whom 130 procedures were performed for endovascular treatment of brain aneurysms. Thrombotic complications were more frequent in patients who did not receive premedication (25%) compared to those who did receive an antiplatelet treatment regimen (standard dose 3.87% or loading dose 8.70%), and this difference was statistically significant (P=.043). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolic events are the most common complication of brain aneurysm embolisation. Both our study and the literature suggest that the use of dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel lowers the rate of symptomatic thromboembolic complications, regardless of the administration protocol.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pré-Medicação , Trombose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Roto/complicações , Aneurisma Roto/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Presse Med ; 47(1): 56-61, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273182

RESUMO

Medical management of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients is aimed at limb symptom relief and reducing systemic major adverse events risk. For the first purpose: exercise therapy is recommended in case of claudication; multidisciplinary evaluation for surgical options is mandatory in case of critical limb ischaemia. Reducing cardiac and stroke risk can be achieved through: statin prescription in most of the cases; antiplatelet agents in symptomatic PAD patients; cardio-vascular risk factors control.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Arteriosclerose Obliterante/tratamento farmacológico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Claudicação Intermitente/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia/cirurgia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia , Enxerto Vascular/métodos
19.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 31(10): 1267-1271, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine birth outcomes in women treated or untreated for thrombophilia during pregnancies affected or not by tobacco exposure. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of consecutive women from a single maternal fetal medicine clinic who delivered between January 2009 and December 2013. We compared birth outcomes by four groups of thrombophilia and smoking combinations and then by treated or untreated groups. RESULTS: Of the 8889 pregnant women in this study, 113 had thrombophilia and 97 received treatment. Thromboprophylaxis included: low molecular weight heparin, aspirin, unfractionated heparin, folic acid, and combinations of these. Smokers with thrombophilia had significantly higher rates of preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (all p ≤ .001). Conversely, this group had significantly lower rates of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count (HELLP syndrome) and placental abruption. Women with thrombophilia who received thromboprophylaxis had lower rates of adverse birth outcomes, reaching significance for preterm birth <32 weeks gestation (4.3% versus 21.1%, p = .026). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women who smoke and have thrombophilia may be more likely to experience adverse birth outcomes and receive more benefit from thromboprophylaxis than their nonsmoking counterparts.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombofilia/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Australas J Dermatol ; 59(2): e127-e132, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752544

RESUMO

We describe three patients who presented with a striking erythematous non-blanching annular eruption and features of lymphocytic thrombophilic arteritis (LTA), with a prominent lymphocytic vasculitis involving deep dermal vessels. Lymphocytic inflammation was also evident in the superficial vessels and one patient had small superficial ulcers over the ankle area resembling livedoid vasculopathy (LV). Multiple biopsies demonstrated a persistent absence of neutrophils in the infiltrate consistent with a lymphocytic process. In addition to highlighting the annular morphology as a novel presentation of LTA, these cases suggest a possible relationship between LV and LTA and support the notion that they are distinct from neutrophilic vasculitides such as cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa.


Assuntos
Arterite/complicações , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Trombofilia/complicações , Adulto , Arterite/tratamento farmacológico , Arterite/patologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/patologia
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