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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 108, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As pregnancy is a physiological prothrombotic state, pregnant women may be at increased risk of developing coagulopathic and/or thromboembolic complications associated with COVID-19. METHODS: Two biomedical databases were searched between September 2019 and June 2020 for case reports and series of pregnant women with a diagnosis of COVID-19 based either on a positive swab or high clinical suspicion where no swab had been performed. Additional registry cases known to the authors were included. Steps were taken to minimise duplicate patients. Information on coagulopathy based on abnormal coagulation test results or clinical evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and on arterial or venous thrombosis, were extracted using a standard form. If available, detailed laboratory results and information on maternal outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand sixty-three women met the inclusion criteria, of which three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had arterial and/or venous thrombosis, seven (0.66, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.1) had DIC, and a further three (0.28, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.6) had coagulopathy without meeting the definition of DIC. Five hundred and thirty-seven women (56%) had been reported as having given birth and 426 (40%) as having an ongoing pregnancy. There were 17 (1.6, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.3) maternal deaths in which DIC was reported as a factor in two. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that coagulopathy and thromboembolism are both increased in pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Detection of the former may be useful in the identification of women at risk of deterioration.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , /virologia , Comorbidade , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/virologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Tromboembolia/virologia , Trombose Venosa/virologia
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927011, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33384403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in Wuhan, China, and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe respiratory symptoms are a hallmark of the disease, which may also include complications related to a hypercoagulable state and central nervous system involvement. These complications can occur during either the acute or the recovery phase. The cerebral involvement typically manifests as intracranial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, diffuse encephalopathy, or cerebral venous thrombosis. The hemorrhagic form of cerebral venous thrombosis can be a diagnostic challenge and is treated by anticoagulation therapy, despite the existence of an intracerebral hemorrhage. This report describes a case of superficial cerebral venous thrombosis and intracerebral hematoma in a 48-year-old man weeks after recovering from the acute phase of SARSCoV-2 infection. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old man with a past medical history of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction presented with left upper-limb numbness, weakness, and impaired positional sensorium. After initial stabilization, noncontrast computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed an intracerebral hemorrhage with underlying cerebral venous thrombosis. The patient was successfully treated with enoxaparin anticoagulation therapy, and symptoms improved over the following 12 days. CONCLUSIONS Central nervous system venous thrombosis is an atypical presentation of the hypercoagulable state primarily seen in younger patients, and it can occur in a delayed fashion after recovery from mild forms of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral/virologia , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hematoma/virologia , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Intracraniana/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/virologia
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372022

RESUMO

We present a previously healthy man in his 30s who presented with typical viral prodrome symptoms and worsening abdominal pain. He was found to have portal vein thrombosis, with extensive hypercoagulability workup performed. It was determined that the aetiology of thrombus was secondary to acute cytomegalovirus infection. The patient was started on anticoagulation therapy, with later clot resolution demonstrated on abdominal Doppler ultrasound and abdominal CT scan. Given the atypical presentation of this common virus, we performed a literature review of cytomegalovirus-associated portal vein thrombosis in healthy individuals; we found that most patients present with non-specific symptoms of fever and abdominal pain in the setting of a viral prodrome. This case and literature review suggest physicians must consider cytomegalovirus-associated portal vein thrombosis as a potential diagnosis when patients present with abdominal pain and viral symptoms. The literature highlights the need for a consensus on anticoagulation and antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Veia Porta , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(18)2020 12 15.
Artigo em No | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism as well as several reports of cerebral venous thrombosis in COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy man in his fifties was admitted due to sudden confusion and reduced consciousness. One month earlier the patient had symptoms with headache, fever, dry cough, vomiting and diarrhoea and reduced sense of taste and smell. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 and the symptoms were mainly resolved within three weeks. On admission the patient was disorientated with aphasia. Brain imaging revealed a haemorrhagic infarction in the left temporal lobe due to thrombosis of the left transverse sinus and low-molecular weight heparin was instituted. On follow-up four months later, there was clinical improvement with only slight problems with short term memory and concentration. INTERPRETATION: This case illustrates the risk of serious neurological complications due to cerebral venous thrombosis in COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , Trombose Intracraniana/virologia , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Am J Ther ; 27(6): e599-e610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasingly reported in seriously ill patients with COVID-19 infection. Incidence of VTE has been reported before and results varied widely in study cohorts. AREA OF UNCERTAINTY: Incidence of major VTE (segmental pulmonary embolism and above and proximal deep vein thrombosis) which is a contributor to mortality and morbidity is not known. Also, data is unclear on the optimal anticoagulation regimen to prevent VTE. DATA SOURCES: Multiple databases including PubMed were searched until May 12, 2020, to include studies reporting VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients. MOOSE guidelines were followed in selection, and 11 studies were included. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the VTE burden in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and potential benefits of therapeutic dosing of anticoagulation compared with prophylaxis dosing for VTE prevention. THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES: Many societies and experts recommend routine prophylactic anticoagulation with heparin for VTE prevention in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this meta-analysis, the pooled rate of major VTE was 12.5% in hospitalized patients and 17.2% in intensive care unit patients. When therapeutic anticoagulation dosing was compared with prophylactic anticoagulation, the pooled odds ratio of VTE was 0.33 (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.75; P = 0.008, I = 0%) suggesting statistical significance with therapeutic dosing of anticoagulation for primary prevention of VTE in all hospitalized patients. However, this should be interpreted with caution as the bleeding events and safety profile could not be ascertained because of lack of adequate information. We recommend applying this finding to hospitalized COVID 19 patients only after carefully weighing individual bleeding risks and benefits. CONCLUSION: Major VTE events, especially pulmonary embolism, seem to be high in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Therapeutic anticoagulation dosing seems to significantly benefit the odds of preventing any VTE when compared with prophylactic dosing in all hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/virologia
7.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1324-1333, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079850

RESUMO

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently experience a coagulopathy associated with a high incidence of thrombotic events leading to poor outcomes. Here, biomarkers of coagulation (such as D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelet count), inflammation (such as interleukin-6), and immunity (such as lymphocyte count) as well as clinical scoring systems (such as sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA], International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis disseminated intravascular coagulation [ISTH DIC], and sepsis-induced coagulopathy [SIC] score) can be helpful in predicting clinical course, need for hospital resources (such as intensive care unit [ICU] beds, intubation and ventilator therapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) and patient's outcome in patients with COVID-19. However, therapeutic options are actually limited to unspecific supportive therapy. Whether viscoelastic testing can provide additional value in predicting clinical course, need for hospital resources and patient's outcome or in guiding anticoagulation in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy is still incompletely understood and currently under investigation (eg, in the rotational thromboelastometry analysis and standard coagulation tests in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 [ROHOCO] study). This article summarizes what we know already about COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and-perhaps even more importantly-characterizes important knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Inflamação/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/mortalidade , Inflamação/virologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/virologia
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900740

RESUMO

COVID-19 disease is a viral illness that predominantly causes pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The endothelial injury and hypercoagulability secondary to the inflammatory response predisposes severely ill patients to venous thromboembolism. The exact mechanism of hypercoagulability is still under investigation, but it is known to be associated with poor prognosis. The most common thrombotic complication reported among these patients is pulmonary embolism. To our knowledge, gonadal vein thrombosis is an uncommon phenomenon that has not been reported in the setting of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. We report an unusual case of ovarian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 presenting with abdominal pain. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of COVID-19 with absent respiratory symptoms and presentation with venous thrombosis in an unusual location.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
9.
Eur J Haematol ; 105(6): 741-750, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal coagulation parameters have been reported in COVID-19-infected patients. Although the underlying mechanism of COVID-19 coagulopathy remains unknown, it has been suggested to be a form of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to analyze the coagulation parameters of patients with COVID-19, determine whether coagulation factors consumption occurs and identify potential prognostic biomarkers of the disease. PATIENTS/METHODS: Blood samples from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were collected. We performed basic coagulation tests and quantification of coagulation factors and physiological inhibitor proteins. Laboratory data were compared with clinical data and outcomes. RESULTS: The study involved 206 patients (63.6% male). D-dimer was particularly elevated (median 450 ng/mL; IQR 222.5-957.3). Free protein S levels were below the normal range (median 56.6%; IQR: 43.6-68.9), and factor VIII showed an increasing trend (median 173.4%; IQR: 144.1-214.9). However, all coagulation factors were within normal limits. We found no correlation between abnormal coagulation parameters and thrombosis, except for higher D-dimer (HR 1.99; 95% CI 1.3-3.1; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with coagulopathy that correlates with poor prognosis. However, we did not demonstrate a consumption of coagulation factors, as seen in DIC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas/patologia , Plaquetas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/mortalidade , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Proteína S/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Trombose Venosa/virologia
10.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 48(9): 522-526, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of bedside ultrasonography for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients infected with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with and without treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of deceased and surviving patients in whom ultrasonography detected or not a DVT, and in whom LMWH was or not prescribed. RESULTS: The incidence of DVT is higher in the deceased (33/35) than in the surviving (22/46) patients. LMWH was administered in a larger proportion of surviving (18/22) than of deceased (18/33) patients. D-dimer concentrations decreased in patients who received LMWH in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high incidence of DVT in patients who succumbed to COVID-19. Bedside ultrasonography can detect the presence of DVT as early as possible and help assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism, allowing early and reasonable use of LMWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 558-566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617807

RESUMO

COVID-19 is associated with a variety of clinical complications including coagulopathy, which frequently results in venous thromboembolism (VTE). Retrospective analyses reported a markedly increased rate of VTEs in COVID-19. However, most recent studies on coagulopathy in COVID-19 were only focused on critically ill patients, and without suitable control groups. We aimed to evaluate the rate of VTEs in an all-comers cohort with suspected COVID-19 during a 30-days follow-up period. We also studied the level of D-dimers and their association with the course of disease. In our prospective single-center study (DRKS00021206, 03/30/2020), we analyzed 190 patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted to the emergency department between March and April 2020. Forty-nine patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive (25.8%). The 141 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients served as control group. After completion of a 30-days follow-up, VTE was diagnosed in 3 patients of the SARS-CoV-2-positive group (6.1%, amongst these 2 ICU cases) versus 5 patients in the SARS-CoV-2-negative group (3.5%), however the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.427). 30-days mortality was similar in both groups (6.1% vs. 5%, p = 0.720). Disease severity correlated with the maximum level of D-dimers during follow-up in COVID-19. The rate of VTE was numerically higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive all-comers presenting with suspected COVID-19 as compared to well-matched controls suffering from similar symptoms. VTEs in the COVID-19 group predominantly occurred in ICU courses. The maximum level of D-dimers during follow-up was associated with disease severity in COVID-19, whereas the level of D-dimers at admission was not.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/virologia
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 844-846, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618261

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism in returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19. All returning travelers to Reunion Island with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and were included in the cohort. Thirty-five patients were returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 and had recently returned from one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak (mainly from France and Comoros archipelago). Five patients (14.3%) were found to have pulmonary embolism and two (5.9%) were incidentally found to have deep vein thrombosis on CTPA. Patients with pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis had higher D-dimer levels than those without pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.04). Returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 should be systematically screened for pulmonary embolism.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia , Betacoronavirus , Comores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , França , Humanos , Hipóxia/virologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Reunião , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem , Trombose Venosa/virologia
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104982, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689586

RESUMO

We report a case of ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) in a young patient with COVID-19 infection that was on therapeutic anticoagulation with apixaban for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 48-year-old man with obesity was hospitalized with a severe form of COVID-19 infection, complicated with acute respiratory failure, septic shock, dilated cardiomyopathy and fungemia. Despite treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin (initial D-Dimer 1.14 µg/ml FEU (normal < 0.05 µg/ml FEU), D-Dimer increased to above 20 µg/ml FEU and patient continued to spike high fevers. This prompted further investigations and upper and lower extremities DVTs were confirmed and managed with enoxaparin 1 mg/kg twice daily. D-dimer level decreased to 4.98 µg/ml FEU while on therapeutic anticoagulation. Three weeks later pending hospital discharge, the anticoagulation was switched to oral apixaban 10 mg twice daily. Patient developed acute severe right eye visual loss of no light perception and was diagnosed with incomplete OAO. D-Dimer was elevated at 2.13 µg/ml FEU. Stroke etiological work-up found no embolic sources, resolution of the dilated cardiomyopathy and negative antiphospholipid antibodies. Treatment was changed to enoxaparin and no thrombotic events were encountered to date. Ocular vascular complications have not yet been reported in COVID-19. Controversy exists on the best management algorithm for the hypercoagulable state associated to COVID-19 Either direct oral anticoagulants or low-molecular-weight-heparin are considered appropriate at discharge for patients with venous thromboembolism. The optimum regimen for ischemic stroke prevention and the significance of D-Dimer for anticoagulation monitoring in COVID-19 remain unclear.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Artéria Oftálmica , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Substituição de Medicamentos , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Oftálmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/virologia
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104989, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify clinical and radiographic features of venous infarct as a presenting feature of COVID-19 in the young. BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection causes hypercoagulability and inflammation leading to venous thrombotic events (VTE). Although elderly patients with comorbidities are at higher risk, COVID-19 may also cause VTE in a broader patient population without these risks. Neurologic complications and manifestations of COVID-19, including neuropathies, seizures, strokes and encephalopathy usually occur in severe established cases of COVID-19 infection who primarily present with respiratory distress. CASE DESCRIPTION: Case report of a 29-year-old woman, with no significant past medical history or comorbidities, presenting with new onset seizures. Further questioning revealed a one-week history of headaches, low-grade fever, mild cough and shortness of breath, diagnosed as COVID-19. Imaging revealed a left temporoparietal hemorrhagic venous infarction with left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis treated with full dose anticoagulation and antiepileptics. CONCLUSION: Although elderly patients with comorbidities are considered highest risk for COVID-19 neurologic complications, usually when systemic symptoms are severe, this case report emphasizes that young individuals are at risk for VTE with neurologic complications even when systemic symptoms are mild, likely induced by COVID-19 associated hypercoagulable state.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infarto Encefálico/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/virologia , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620936776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687449

RESUMO

COVID-19 has proven to be particularly challenging given the complex pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Early data have demonstrated how the host response to this novel coronavirus leads to the proliferation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, massive endothelial damage, and generalized vascular manifestations. While SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets the upper and lower respiratory tract, other organ systems are also affected. SARS-CoV-2 relies on 2 host cell receptors for successful attachment: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2. Clinicopathologic reports have demonstrated associations between severe COVID-19 and viral coagulopathy, resulting in pulmonary embolism; venous, arterial, and microvascular thrombosis; lung endothelial injury; and associated thrombotic complications leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Viral coagulopathy is not novel given similar observations with SARS classic, including the consumption of platelets, generation of thrombin, and increased fibrin degradation product exhibiting overt disseminated intravascular coagulation-like syndrome. The specific mechanism(s) behind the thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients has yet to be fully understood. Parenteral anticoagulants, such as heparin and low-molecular-weights heparins, are widely used in the management of COVID-19 patients. Beyond the primary (anticoagulant) effects of these agents, they may exhibit antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects. Direct oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are also useful in the management of these patients. Tissue plasminogen activator and other fibrinolytic modalities may also be helpful in the overall management. Catheter-directed thrombolysis can be used in patients developing pulmonary embolism. Further investigations are required to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/etiologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/virologia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Terapia Trombolítica/instrumentação , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombofilia/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/terapia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 604-607, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514763

RESUMO

Corona virus outbreak started in December 2019, and the disease has been defined by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency. Coronavirus is a source of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) due to complications such as over-coagulation, blood stasis, and endothelial damage. In this study, we report a 26-year-old pregnant woman with coronavirus who was hospitalized with a right ovarian vein thrombosis at Besat Hospital in Sanandaj. Risk classification for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) disease is of crucial importance for the forecast of coronavirus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Trombose Venosa/virologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
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