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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414129

RESUMO

COVID-19 has serious thrombotic complications in critically ill patients; however, thrombus is not a typical presenting symptom. This case report describes a patient with no respiratory symptoms who presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. The pain was attributed to renal thrombosis, but the patient was found to have no risk factors for thrombotic disease and subsequent hypercoagulable work-up was unremarkable. Pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 infection were detected incidentally on the abdominal CT scan and confirmed via PCR test. The patient was isolated and went on to develop mild respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection. This case suggests that unexplained thrombus in otherwise asymptomatic patients can be a direct result of COVID-19 infection, and serves as a call to action for emergency department clinicians to treat unexplained thrombotic events as evidence of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Artéria Renal , Trombose/etiologia , /epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
2.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 171-174, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455983

RESUMO

A 41-year-old woman with chest pain for 6 hours was admitted to our chest pain center, presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed acute total occlusion in the proximal left anterior descending artery due to late stent thrombosis. After thrombus aspiration and intracoronary administration of 0.5 mg tirofiban, repeated angiography showed that no obvious residual stenosis remained. The patient underwent drug-coated balloon angioplasty 69 days ago and was then administered dual antiplatelet treatment (aspirin and clopidogrel) uninterruptedly. Genetic testing found that both cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) (G681A) and glycoprotein Ia (GPIa) (C807T, G873A) were hybrid mutant types, demonstrating that the patient was possibly resistant to clopidogrel and aspirin simultaneously. Thus, clopidogrel was replaced by ticagrelor and no more cardiovascular adverse events occurred during the 2-year follow-up.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/etiologia , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/métodos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Reestenose Coronária/terapia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Integrina alfa2/genética , Mutação/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Stents/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombose/terapia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Tirofibana/administração & dosagem , Tirofibana/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 50: 107299, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080399

RESUMO

In the setting of HeartWare left ventricular assist device (HVAD, Medtronic) implantation, pre-pump blood flow obstruction has been described due to intraventricular thrombus formation occluding the inflow cannula. This phenomenon often evolves in suboptimal pump performance, and requires prompt management to prevent its progression. However, to date, effective strategies and tools for the diagnosis and management of this complication are poorly described. We report a case of HVAD inflow cannula obstruction that drove later in-pump thrombosis and, eventually, complete cannula occlusion, and discuss gap of knowledge and limitations of currently available diagnostic and therapeutic tools in this scenario. Furthermore, we reinforce the value of time-frequency analysis of the HVAD log files to early identify abnormal pump operation associated with inflow cannula obstruction despite unremarkable trends of pump parameters.


Assuntos
Obstrução do Cateter , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Falha de Prótese , Trombose/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Diagnóstico Precoce , Evolução Fatal , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6259-6273, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351119

RESUMO

Thrombosis has emerged as an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly among individuals with severe illness. However, the precise incidence of thrombotic events remains uncertain due to differences in study design, patient populations, outcome ascertainment, event definitions, and reporting. In an effort to overcome some of these challenges and promote standardized data collection and reporting in clinical studies, the American Society of Hematology Research Collaborative COVID-19 Non-Malignant Hematology Task Force, in collaboration with the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis COVID-19 Task Force, developed sets of data elements in the following domains: venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral arterial thrombosis, bleeding, laboratory investigations, and antithrombotic therapy. Data elements in each of these domains were developed with 3 levels of detail to facilitate their incorporation into studies evaluating a range of interventions and outcomes. Previously published data elements were included where possible. The use of standardized variables in a range of clinical studies can enhance the quality of data collection, create efficiency, enhance comparison of results across studies, and facilitate future pooling of data sets.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Trombose/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Navegador , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia
5.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the impact of COVID-19 on delivery and outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Furthermore, to compare clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with active COVID-19 against those without COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically analysed 348 STEMI cases presenting to the PPCI programme in London during the peak of the pandemic (1 March to 30 April 2020) and compared with 440 cases from the same period in 2019. Outcomes of interest included ambulance response times, timeliness of revascularisation, angiographic and procedural characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes RESULTS: There was a 21% reduction in STEMI admissions and longer ambulance response times (87 (62-118) min in 2020 vs 75 (57-95) min in 2019, p<0.001), but that this was not associated with a delays in achieving revascularisation once in hospital (48 (34-65) min in 2020 vs 48 (35-70) min in 2019, p=0.35) or increased mortality (10.9% (38) in 2020 vs 8.6% (38) in 2019, p=0.28). 46 patients with active COVID-19 were more thrombotic and more likely to have intensive care unit admissions (32.6% (15) vs 9.3% (28), OR 5.74 (95%CI 2.24 to 9.89), p<0.001). They also had increased length of stay (4 (3-9) days vs 3 (2-4) days, p<0.001) and a higher mortality (21.7% (10) vs 9.3% (28), OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.25 to 5.82), p=0.012) compared with patients having PPCI without COVID-19. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PPCI pathways can be maintained during unprecedented healthcare emergencies but confirms the high mortality of STEMI in the context of concomitant COVID-19 infection characterised by a heightened state of thrombogenicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Ambulâncias/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Trombose/mortalidade , Trombose/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(10): 112-114, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115582

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) characteristics and clinical spectrum are currently evolving with the collaboration of clinicians.Arterial thromboembolic events due to COVID-19 are extremely rare; and all reported cases so far were of ischemic strokes and pulmonary embolism. In this case report,we present a case of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) thrombosis in a patient of COVID-19 pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first case that demonstrates acute mesenteric ischemia in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. Key Words: COVID-19, Mesenteric ischemia, Thrombosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Artéria Mesentérica Superior , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/terapia
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3723-3726, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018810

RESUMO

Platelet and fibrin-rich blood clots can respond differently to red blood cell rich clots during ischemic stroke treatment, which includes thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Currently, there is no accurate way to identify the type of clot in advance of treatment. If the type of blood clot can be identified, the optimum clot removal process can be chosen and patient outcomes can be improved. In this paper we fabricate physiologically relevant blood clot analogues from human blood, that cover a range of red blood cell, fibrin, and platelet concentrations. We characterize the dielectric profile of these formed clots using an open-ended coaxial probe method across a wide frequency range. After the dielectric measurements are completed, histology on each blood clot is performed to determine the concentration of red blood cells present. In total, 32 unique blood clots were measured.With this completed analysis, we investigate the correlation between the dielectric properties across this frequency range and the red blood cell count of the formed blood clots. Furthermore, we develop a model to predict whether an unknown blood clot can be categorized as red blood cell rich or platelet and fibrin-rich based solely on the measured dielectric properties.Clinical Relevance-Using the dielectric profile of a clot we can predict whether a clot is platelet and fibrin-rich or red blood cell rich allowing clinicians to more easily determine treatment methods during an intervention for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Trombose , Plaquetas , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrina , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombose/terapia
8.
Anatol J Cardiol ; 24(4): 224-234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001051

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by 'Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2' (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan, a city of China, and spread to the entire planet in early 2020. The virus enters the respiratory tract cells and other tissues via ACE2 receptors. Approximately 20% of infected subjects develop severe or critical disease. A cytokine storm leads to over inflammation and thrombotic events. The most common clinical presentation in COVID-19 is pneumonia, typically characterized by bilateral, peripheral, and patchy infiltrations in the lungs. However multi-systemic involvement including peripheral thromboembolic skin lesions, central nervous, gastrointestinal, circulatory, and urinary systems are reported. The disease has a higher mortality compared to other viral agents causing pneumonia and unfortunately, no approved specific therapy, nor vaccine has yet been discovered. Several clinical trials are ongoing with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, favipiravir, and low molecular weight heparins. This comprehensive review aimed to summarize coagulation abnormalities reported in COVID-19, discuss the thrombosis, and inflammation-driven background of the disease, emphasize the impact of thrombotic and inflammatory processes on the progression and prognosis of COVID-19, and to provide evidence-based therapeutic guidance, especially from antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory perspectives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Inflamação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose/virologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtornos Hemostáticos/virologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação/fisiologia , Inflamação/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Trombose/terapia
9.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926915, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrated evidence of coagulation dysfunction in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Effective anticoagulation therapy may play a dominant role in the management of severe COVID-19 cases. CASE REPORT A 73-year-old man with a 6-day history of fever up to 38.5°C, dyspnea, cough, and fatigue was diagnosed with COVID-19. He had a past medical history significant for hypertension and coronary artery bypass grafting. Two days after hospital admission, the patient developed acute respiratory failure, requiring intubation, mechanical ventilation, and transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). He received treatment including antibiotics, hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab, vasopressors, prone positioning, and anticoagulation with enoxaparin at a prophylactic dose. After a 15-day ICU stay, the patient was hemodynamically stable but still hypoxemic; a transthoracic echocardiogram at that time, followed by a transesophageal echocardiogram for better evaluation, revealed the presence of a right atrium thrombus without signs of acute right ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Since the patient was hemodynamically stable, we decided to treat him with conventional anticoagulation under close monitoring for signs of hemodynamic deterioration; thus, the prophylactic dose of enoxaparin was replaced by therapeutic dosing, which was a key component of the patient's successful outcome. Over the next few days he showed significant clinical improvement. The follow-up transesophageal echocardiogram 3 weeks after effective therapeutic anticoagulation revealed no signs of right heart thrombus. CONCLUSIONS The presented COVID-19 case, one of the first reported cases with evidence of right heart thrombus by transesophageal echocardiography, highlights the central role of diagnostic imaging strategies and the importance of adequate anticoagulation therapy in the management of severe COVID-19 cases in the ICU.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Trombose/terapia , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Seguimentos , Grécia , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(11): 1831-1835, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the immediate flow response and incidence of steal syndrome after taper reduction of tapered dialysis grafts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a quality assurance database of all hemodialysis access interventions performed between 2005 and 2017. It identified 77 patients who underwent a taper reduction procedure, involving angioplasty of the arterial limb of the graft and the arterial anastomosis for graft thrombosis/poor flow. A subset of patients underwent 5-, 6-, or 7-mm balloon taper reduction angioplasty coupled with intravascular direct flow measurement (n = 15 with 16 dialysis grafts). A two-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and post-taper reduction flows. Mean duration of follow-up was 3.5 years (range, 0-12.5 years). RESULTS: Mean access survival after taper reduction was 20.2 months (range, 0.10-94.4 months). Pre- and post-taper reduction access flows (mean Qb ± standard deviation) were 574 ± 315 ml/min and 929 ± 352 ml/min, respectively (P < .0001). The mean ratio of post- to pre-taper reduction flows was 1.6 (range, 1.1-10.2). No patients developed steal syndrome within 6 months after taper reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Dialysis graft arterial anastomotic taper reduction did not result in the development of steal syndrome within 6 months. In the subset of patients who underwent flow measurements, taper reduction was associated with nearly a 2-fold improvement in access flow, which is a key predictor of access function.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/terapia , Diálise Renal , Trombose/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933911

RESUMO

A 50-year-old woman presented with history of intermittent angina for 2 days and signs of extensive anterior wall myocardial infarction. An urgent coronary angiogram showed a large proximally occluded left anterior descending (LAD) artery with no distal vessel opacification. After one attempt of thrombus aspiration, there was no improvement in Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow. The aspiration catheter was then parked in the distal vessel beyond the thrombotic lesion and 2 mg of intravenous nicorandil drug mixed with 10 mL of 50% dilute iodinated contrast media was infused slowly. A comparison was made to proximal vessel angiogram and the angioplasty procedure was then completed with a right size stent, restoring TIMI 3 flow in the LAD. This method minimises clot manipulations by avoiding repeated balloon predilatations or thrombus aspiration attempts and thus prevents the occurrence of no-reflow in lesions with large thrombus burden.


Assuntos
Angioplastia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Oclusão Coronária/terapia , Nicorandil/administração & dosagem , Trombose/terapia , Vasos Coronários , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 561, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal prophylactic and therapeutic management of thromboembolic disease in patients with COVID-19 remains a major challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to define the incidence of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19. In addition, we sought to characterise coagulation profiles using thromboelastography and explore possible biological differences between patients with and without thrombotic complications. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre retrospective observational study evaluating all the COVID-19 patients received in four intensive care units (ICUs) of four tertiary hospitals in the UK between March 15, 2020, and May 05, 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, thromboelastography profiles and clinical outcome data were evaluated between patients with and without thrombotic complications. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients were included. Their median (interquartile (IQR)) age was 57 (49-64) years and 124 (66.3%) patients were male. Eighty-one (43.3%) patients experienced one or more clinically relevant thrombotic complications, which were mainly pulmonary emboli (n = 42 (22.5%)). Arterial embolic complications were reported in 25 (13.3%) patients. ICU length of stay was longer in patients with thrombotic complications when compared with those without. Fifteen (8.0%) patients experienced haemorrhagic complications, of which nine (4.8%) were classified as major bleeding. Thromboelastography demonstrated a hypercoagulable profile in patients tested but lacked discriminatory value between those with and without thrombotic complications. Patients who experienced thrombotic complications had higher D-dimer, ferritin, troponin and white cell count levels at ICU admission compared with those that did not. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 experience high rates of venous and arterial thrombotic complications. The rates of bleeding may be higher than previously reported and re-iterate the need for randomised trials to better understand the risk-benefit ratio of different anticoagulation strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Hemorragia/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboelastografia , Trombose/terapia , Reino Unido
13.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 559, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938471

RESUMO

Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombotic complications which has led to an intense debate surrounding their anticoagulation management. In the absence of data from randomized controlled clinical trials, a number of consensus guidelines and recommendations have been published to facilitate clinical decision-making on this issue. However, substantive differences exist between these guidelines which can be difficult for clinicians. This review briefly summarizes the major societal guidelines and compares their similarities and differences. A common theme in all of the recommendations is to take an individualized approach to patient management and a call for prospective randomized clinical trials to address important anticoagulation issues in this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938758

RESUMO

Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners.Vitamin D activation requires magnesium. Hyperinsulinaemia promotes: magnesium depletion via increased renal excretion, reduced intracellular levels, lowers vitamin D status via sequestration into adipocytes and hydroxylation activation inhibition. Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity. Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions. Degree/level of restriction is determined by serial testing of blood glucose, insulin and ketones. Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered. By implementing refined carbohydrate restriction, three primary risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, that increase inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis risk are rapidly managed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Insulina/sangue , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Cetonas/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/uso terapêutico
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747597

RESUMO

We describe a patient with COVID-19 who developed simultaneous pulmonary, intracardiac and peripheral arterial thrombosis. A 58-year-old man, without major comorbidity, was admitted with a 14-day history of breathlessness. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was confirmed by laboratory testing. Initial imaging revealed COVID-19 pneumonia but no pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The patient subsequently developed respiratory failure and left foot ischaemia associated with a rising D-dimer. Repeat CTPA and lower limb CT angiography revealed simultaneous bilateral PTE, biventricular cardiac thrombi and bilateral lower limb arterial occlusions. This case highlights a broad range of vascular sequalae associated with COVID-19 and the fact that these can occur despite a combination of prophylactic and treatment dose anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Cardiopatias , Pandemias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Pneumonia Viral , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Deterioração Clínica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 245-249, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814926

RESUMO

One of the most significant negative prognostic factors in patients suffering from the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the development of coagulopathy, associated with abnormal laboratory findings, such as increased D-dimer, and venous thromboembolic complications, requiring thromboprophylactic strategies. The main clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients are revised here as compared to other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), emphasizing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Vírus da SARS , Trombose/virologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/terapia
19.
Blood ; 136(4): 489-500, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492712

RESUMO

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated D-dimer levels. Early reports describe high venous thromboembolism (VTE) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) rates, but data are limited. This multicenter retrospective study describes the rate and severity of hemostatic and thrombotic complications of 400 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients (144 critically ill) primarily receiving standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. Coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared between patients with and without coagulation-associated complications. Multivariable logistic models examined the utility of these markers in predicting coagulation-associated complications, critical illness, and death. The radiographically confirmed VTE rate was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-7.3), and the overall thrombotic complication rate was 9.5% (95% CI, 6.8-12.8). The overall and major bleeding rates were 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9-7.3) and 2.3% (95% CI, 1.0-4.2), respectively. In the critically ill, radiographically confirmed VTE and major bleeding rates were 7.6% (95% CI, 3.9-13.3) and 5.6% (95% CI, 2.4-10.7), respectively. Elevated D-dimer at initial presentation was predictive of coagulation-associated complications during hospitalization (D-dimer >2500 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio [OR] for thrombosis, 6.79 [95% CI, 2.39-19.30]; adjusted OR for bleeding, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.01-12.66]), critical illness, and death. Additional markers at initial presentation predictive of thrombosis during hospitalization included platelet count >450 × 109/L (adjusted OR, 3.56 [95% CI, 1.27-9.97]), C-reactive protein (CRP) >100 mg/L (adjusted OR, 2.71 [95% CI, 1.26-5.86]), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >40 mm/h (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.07-6.51]). ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, and procalcitonin were higher in patients with thrombotic complications than in those without. DIC, clinically relevant thrombocytopenia, and reduced fibrinogen were rare and were associated with significant bleeding manifestations. Given the observed bleeding rates, randomized trials are needed to determine any potential benefit of intensified anticoagulant prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Coagulação Sanguínea , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Hemorragia/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Trombose/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/terapia
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 123, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure complicated by pulmonary embolism is an extremely rare condition described in the literature. We report a case of very young patient with advanced heart failure against the background of dilated cardiomyopathy of unknown etiology with the presence of blood clots in both ventricles. CASE PRESENTATION: The course of treatment was complicated by acute pulmonary embolism. In emergency setting the patient was qualified for combine surgery pulmonary embolization and implantation of a continuous flow pump as a bridge for heart transplantation. The post-operative course is described in detail as well as reimplantation of the pump due to early thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Performed surgical procedures combined with alteration in anticoagulant drugs was sufficient to stabilize the clinical condition.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Embolectomia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombose/terapia , Adolescente , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/terapia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Implantação de Prótese , Artéria Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/complicações
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