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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 235: 105819, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873058

RESUMO

Despite of physiological and toxicological relevance, the potential of androgens to influence fish lipid metabolism remains poorly explored. Here, brown trout primary hepatocytes were exposed to six concentrations (1 nM to 100 µM) of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T), to assess changes in the mRNA levels of genes covering diverse lipid metabolic pathways. Acsl1, essential for fatty acid activation, was up-regulated by T and DHT, whereas the lipogenic enzymes FAS and ACC were up-regulated by the highest (100 µM) concentration of T and DHT, respectively. ApoA1, the major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), was down-regulated by both androgens. PPARγ, linked to adipogenesis and peroxisomal ß-oxidation, was down-regulated by T and DHT, while Acox1-3I, rate-limiting in peroxisomal ß-oxidation, was down-regulated by T. Fabp1, StAR and LPL were not altered. Our findings suggest that androgens may impact on lipid transport, adipogenesis and fatty acid ß-oxidation and promote lipogenesis in fish liver.


Assuntos
Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Androgênios/metabolismo , Androgênios/toxicidade , Animais , Di-Hidrotestosterona/toxicidade , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Testosterona/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105586, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882451

RESUMO

Estrogenic effects triggered by androgens have been previously shown in a few studies. Aromatization and direct binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) are the most proposed mechanisms. For example, previously, a modulation of vitellogenin A (VtgA) by testosterone (T), an aromatizable androgen, was reported in brown trout primary hepatocytes. The effect was reversed by an ER antagonist. In this study, using the same model the disruption caused by T and by the non-aromatizable androgen - dihydrotestosterone (DHT), was assessed in selected estrogenic targets. Hepatocytes were exposed (96 h) to six concentrations of each androgen. The estrogenic targets were VtgA, ERα, ERß1 and two zona pellucida genes, ZP2.5 and ZP3a.2. The aromatase CYP19a1 gene and the androgen receptor (AR) were also included. Modulation of estrogenic targets was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, using an HScore system. VtgA and ERα were up-regulated by DHT (1, 10, 100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). In contrast, ERß1 was down-regulated by DHT (10, 100 µM), and T (100 µM). ZP2.5 mRNA levels were increased by DHT and T (1, 10, 100 µM), while ZP3a.2 was up-regulated by DHT (100 µM) and T (10, 100 µM). Positive correlations were found between VtgA and ERα mRNA levels and ZPs and ERα, after exposure to both androgens. The mRNA levels of CYP19a1 were not changed, while AR expression tended to increase after micromolar DHT exposures. HScores for Vtg and ZPs corroborated the molecular findings. Both androgens triggered estrogen signaling through direct binding to ERs, most probably ERα.


Assuntos
Androgênios/toxicidade , Di-Hidrotestosterona/toxicidade , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Estrogênios/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(9): 1327-1346, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794028

RESUMO

Ecotoxicological research detailing trace metal contamination and seasonal variation in the tissues of northern fishes such as Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) has been poorly represented in the literature beyond examination of mercury. In an effort to address this, anadromous Arctic charr were collected from the Deception River watershed in the late summer and post-winter season, before quantifying seasonal and organotropic variations in dorsal muscle and liver concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc. Potential linkages with biological variables (fork length, age, and somatic condition) and indicators of feeding behavior (δ13C and δ15N) were also assessed. Trace metal organotropism favouring elevation in liver tissue concentrations was exhibited by cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc, while arsenic, chromium and lead exhibited no significant organotropic variation. Seasonal differences in concentrations were metal and tissue dependent, but generally increased in tissues collected from post-winter sampled Arctic charr. Significant correlations with biological and trophic descriptors were also determined to be element and tissue dependent. These parameters, in addition to season, were incorporated into multi-predictor variable models, where variations in trace metal concentration data were often best explained when season, somatic condition, and trophic descriptors were included. These variables were also of greatest relative importance across all considered trace metals and tissue types. These findings suggest that seasonally linked processes have the greatest influence on trace metal concentrations in anadromous Arctic charr. Future metal-related research on Arctic charr and other northern fish species should further consider these variables when evaluating elemental accumulation.


Assuntos
Metais/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Quebeque , Estações do Ano
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 218-223, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591851

RESUMO

The adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) on aquatic wildlife and human health represent a current issue of high public concern. Substantial knowledge of the level of estrogenic EDs in fish has accumulated from field surveys. For this purpose, a survey of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta trutta) was carried out to assess the incidence of EDs in the feral fish population living in the Liri river (Abruzzi, Italy). The results of this study show that this aquatic environment possesses an estrogenic potency that triggered the increase of vitellogenin levels in both female and male trouts. Fish exposed to different pesticides and urban waste in downstream river showed higher vitellogenin levels in comparison to the headwater site. Furthermore, some trouts coming from the downstream reported the presence of several pesticides and fungicides, some of these banned several years ago.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Rios/química , Truta/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(4): 893-903, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045959

RESUMO

Dried blood spots (DBS), created by applying and drying a whole blood sample onto filter paper, provide a simple and minimally invasive procedure for collecting, transporting, and storing blood. Because DBS are ideal for use in field and resource-limited settings, we aimed to develop a simple and accurate DBS-based approach for assessing mercury (Hg) exposure and dietary carbon sources for landlocked Arctic char, a sentinel fish species in the Arctic. We collected liquid whole blood (from the caudal vein), muscle, liver, and brains of Arctic char (n = 36) from 8 lakes spanning a Hg gradient in the Canadian High Arctic. We measured total Hg concentrations ([THg]) of field-prepared DBS and Arctic char tissues. Across a considerable range, [THg] of DBS (0.04-3.38 µg/g wet wt) were highly correlated with [THg] of all tissues (r2 range = 0.928-0.996). We also analyzed the compound-specific carbon isotope ratios (expressed as δ13 C values) of essential amino acids (EAAs) isolated from DBS, liquid whole blood, and muscle. The δ13 C values of 5 EAAs (δ13 CEAAs ; isoleucine [Ile], leucine [Leu], phenylalanine [Phe], valine [Val], and threonine [Thr]) from DBS were highly correlated with δ13 CEAAs of liquid whole blood (r2 range = 0.693-0.895) and muscle (r2 range = 0.642-0.881). The patterns of δ13 CEAAs of landlocked Arctic char were remarkably consistent across sample types and indicate that EAAs are most likely of algal origin. Because a small volume of blood (~50 µL) dried on filter paper can be used to determine Hg exposure levels of various tissues and to fingerprint carbon sources, DBS sampling may decrease the burdens of research and may be developed as a nonlethal sampling technique. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:893-903. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mercúrio/sangue , Truta/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Lagos/química , Truta/metabolismo
7.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 428-440, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977244

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the gene structure, chemical characterizations, chromosome locations, evolutionary relationship, and expression profile of hsp90 genes with online database. In addition, the expression levels of hsp90s were also investigated under heat stress by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. A total of eight hsp90 genes were identified from the rainbow trout genome. They were all distributed on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, and 13. The molecular weight ranged from 78.93 to 91.39 kDa, and the isoelectric point ranged from 4.84 to 4.96. The eight hsp90 genes were clustered into six subfamilies (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Genetic structure and conserved domain analysis revealed that all eight hsp90 genes had only one exon, and motif 1-motif 10 was shared by most genes. According to RNA-seq analysis of rainbow trout liver and head kidney, a total of seven out of eight genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress, and qRT-PCR was carried out on these seven genes; the expression levels of these genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress. The significantly regulated expressions of hsp90 genes under heat stress indicated that hsp90 genes are involved in heat stress response in rainbow trout. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on the role of hsp90 in the heat stress tolerance of rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Truta/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Truta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23600-23608, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685632

RESUMO

To understand the impact reduced mercury (Hg) loading and invasive species have had on methylmercury bioaccumulation in predator fish of Lake Michigan, we reconstructed bioaccumulation trends from a fish archive (1978 to 2012). By measuring fish Hg stable isotope ratios, we related temporal changes in Hg concentrations to varying Hg sources. Additionally, dietary tracers were necessary to identify food web influences. Through combined Hg, C, and N stable isotopic analyses, we were able to differentiate between a shift in Hg sources to fish and periods when energetic transitions (from dreissenid mussels) led to the assimilation of contrasting Hg pools (2000 to present). In the late 1980s, lake trout δ202Hg increased (0.4‰) from regulatory reductions in regional Hg emissions. After 2000, C and N isotopes ratios revealed altered food web pathways, resulting in a benthic energetic shift and changes to Hg bioaccumulation. Continued increases in δ202Hg indicate fish are responding to several United States mercury emission mitigation strategies that were initiated circa 1990 and continued through the 2011 promulgation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule. Unlike archives of sediments, this fish archive tracks Hg sources susceptible to bioaccumulation in Great Lakes fisheries. Analysis reveals that trends in fish Hg concentrations can be substantially affected by shifts in trophic structure and dietary preferences initiated by invasive species in the Great Lakes. This does not diminish the benefits of declining emissions over this period, as fish Hg concentrations would have been higher without these actions.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Anfípodes/química , Animais , Dieta , Dreissena/química , Política Ambiental , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos , Isótopos de Mercúrio/análise , Michigan , Comportamento Predatório , Fatores de Tempo , Truta/fisiologia
9.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 22)2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704904

RESUMO

Fish exposed to fluctuating oxygen concentrations often alter their metabolism and/or behaviour to survive. Hypoxia tolerance is typically associated with the ability to reduce energy demand by supressing metabolic processes such as protein synthesis. Arctic char is amongst the most sensitive salmonid to hypoxia, and typically engage in avoidance behaviour when faced with lack of oxygen. We hypothesized that a sensitive species will still have the ability (albeit reduced) to regulate molecular mechanisms during hypoxia. We investigated the tissue-specific response of protein metabolism during hypoxia. Little is known about protein degradation pathways during hypoxia in fish and we predict that protein degradation pathways are differentially regulated and play a role in the hypoxia response. We also studied the regulation of oxygen-responsive cellular signalling pathways [hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), unfolded protein response (UPR) and mTOR pathways] since most of what we know comes from studies on cancerous mammalian cell lines. Arctic char were exposed to cumulative graded hypoxia trials for 3 h at four air saturation levels (100%, 50%, 30% and 15%). The rate of protein synthesis was measured using a flooding dose technique, whereas protein degradation and signalling pathways were assessed by measuring transcripts and phosphorylation of target proteins. Protein synthesis decreased in all tissues measured (liver, muscle, gill, digestive system) except for the heart. Salmonid hearts have preferential access to oxygen through a well-developed coronary artery, therefore the heart is likely to be the last tissue to become hypoxic. Autophagy markers were upregulated in the liver, whereas protein degradation markers were downregulated in the heart during hypoxia. Further work is needed to determine the effects of a decrease in protein degradation on a hypoxic salmonid heart. Our study showed that protein metabolism in Arctic char is altered in a tissue-specific fashion during graded hypoxia, which is in accordance with the responses of the three major hypoxia-sensitive pathways (HIF, UPR and mTOR). The activation pattern of these pathways and the cellular processes that are under their control varies greatly among tissues, sometimes even going in the opposite direction. This study provides new insights on the effects of hypoxia on protein metabolism. Adjustment of these cellular processes is likely to contribute to shifting the fish phenotype into a more hypoxia-tolerant one, if more than one hypoxia event were to occur. Our results warrant studying these adjustments in fish exposed to long-term and diel cycling hypoxia.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491026

RESUMO

In this study we attempted to determine the effect of various feeding methods (bottom and surface feeding) used in the hatchery, on the survival and growth rates of hatchery-reared sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta L.) in the wild. Rearing was performed in two variants: a bottom-fed group (BFG) and a surface-fed group (SFG). At the end of the rearing time, we observed that BFG fish gathered at the bottom of tank, as opposed to SFG fish, which swam in the whole water column. After 4 weeks of rearing, the fish were released into two similar streams. After about 2 months the fish were captured and the foodbase of the streams were examined. 30 fish from each group have been randomly selected for stomach contents analysis. In the shallow stream the growth rates were better for the BFG fish than the SFG and also a significantly higher number of typical benthic taxa was found in stomachs of the BFG fish than the SFG fish. In the deeper stream more food was found in the stomachs of the SFG fish than in the BFG fish. The analyzed results showed that factors such as stream depth, current velocity, and turbulence can also affect the rearing success of juvenile salmonids in hatchery streams. Bottom feeding fish during rearing has a positive impact only on the fish in shallow watercourses, where there is no turbulence, and the food is not carried by the current drift or washed out from the bottom into the drift.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Alimentar , Pesqueiros , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Truta/metabolismo , Truta/fisiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13846, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554849

RESUMO

In this study, juvenile Manchurian trout, Brachymystax lenok (initial weight: 6.43 ± 0.02 g, mean ± SE) were received for nine weeks with five types of diets prepared by gradually replacing the proportion of fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) from 0% (LO0) to 25% (LO25), 50% (LO50), 75% (LO75), and 100% (LO100). The eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) composition decreased with increasing inclusion level of LO (P < 0.05). With increasing LO inclusion level, triglyceride (TAG) content of serum increased significantly, however, there was a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (P < 0.05). LO substitution of FO up-regulated the gene expression level of lipid metabolism-related genes Fatty Acid Desaturases 6 (FAD6), Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase (ACCα), Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1), and Sterol O- Acyl Transferase 2 (SOAT2), and down-regulated the gene expression level of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARα) (P < 0.05). The SOD activities of both serum and liver in LO100 were significantly lower than in LO25 (P < 0.05). The CAT activity of the liver in LO100 was significantly lower than in LO0 and LO25 (P < 0.05). This study indicates that the Manchurian trout may have the ability to synthesize LC-PUFAs from ALA, and an appropriate LO in substitution of FO (<75%) could improve both the lipid metabolism and the oxidation resistance.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/administração & dosagem , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Truta/genética , Truta/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109513, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421535

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop (i) a technique for identifying metabolites of organic contaminants by using an in vitro system of trout S9 and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-based identification method and (ii) to apply this technique to identify the interactive potential of carbamazepine on the formation rate of other metabolites. The pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and propranolol and the pesticides azoxystrobin, diazinon, and fipronil were selected as test contaminants. As a result, a total of ten metabolites were identified for the five parent substances, six of which were confirmed using reference standards. Metabolic reactions included hydroxylation, epoxidation, S-oxidation, and dealkylation. The metabolic transformation rate ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 pmol/mg protein/min/µmol substrate. In the binary exposure experiment with increasing carbamazepine concentration, the formation rates of diazinon and fipronil metabolites (MDI2 and MFP2, respectively) increased, while formation of metabolites of propranolol and azoxystrobin (MPR1, MPR2, MPR3, and MAZ1) slowed down. Meanwhile, S9 pre-exposed to carbamazepine produced diazoxon, a toxic metabolite of diazinon, and pyrimidinol, a less toxic metabolite, more rapidly. These results suggest that carbamazepine, a perennial environmental pollutant, might modulate the toxicity of other substances such as diazinon but further in vivo studies are needed.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida , Técnicas In Vitro , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Propranolol/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422162

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DMN) exposure causes severe damage to the gill and liver tissues of aquatic organisms, as well as neurotoxic effects and metabolic disorders. The goal of the present study was to assess the impacts of DMN toxicity on blood biochemistry, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, behavior disorder, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, histopathology and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Acute concentrations (1.0 and 2.0µg/L) of DMN caused behavioral disorder such as rapid swimming, loss of balance, aggressiveness and increasing in the surface activity and inactivity in brown trout. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and a significant decrease in CAT, AChE, blood albumin, and blood total protein content were observed. Histopathologically, both doses of DMN have caused steatosis, necrosis, and degeneration in hepatocytes and hyperemia in the liver. Also, they led to inflammation, adhesion and fusion depending on severe hyperplasia in secondary lamellae, hyperemia and lamellar edema in gill tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) levels at 2.0 µg/L dose of DMN in liver tissues were more severe according to 1.0 µg/L dose of DMN. Finally, different concentrations of DMN led to changes of the histopathology, 8OHdG, the CAT levels, plasma AChE activity, and the serum metabolites, as well as behavioral disorder in brown trout.


Assuntos
Brânquias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Animais , Catalase/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo
14.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 134-141, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331511

RESUMO

The rainbow trout is a cold-water fish cultured in China. Heat stress has a serious impact on the summer survival and the yield of rainbow trout. A better understanding of the regulatory response of rainbow trout to heat stress will help in determining the relationship between heat stress signaling pathways and adaption mechanisms and help contribute to breeding new high-temperature tolerant strains of rainbow trout. In this study, the 48-h median lethal temperature (48h-LT50) of rainbow trout was determined as 22.5°C. We developed control (16°C) and heat-treated (22.5°C) groups and extracted RNA from the head kidney tissues for high-throughput sequencing to study the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles. Twelve up-regulated and five down-regulated miRNAs were identified between the control and heat-treated groups. A total of 22 target genes were predicted for 6 of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including 31 negative miRNA-mRNA interactions. Important regulatory pathways under heat stress are related to the metabolism and immune responses of the rainbow trout. Our findings provide preliminary data for investigating the high-temperature molecular mechanism of the rainbow trout and can help producers to reduce the economic losses caused by high temperature weather.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Rim/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Truta/genética
15.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1816-1834, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347638

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a diverse group of fluorinated organic chemicals that have been used in industrial and consumer applications since the 1950s. PFAS are resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are ubiquitous in the environment, including in water, sediment, and biota in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This critical review evaluates the spatial and temporal variability of commonly studied perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in the Great Lakes by synthesizing data collected in water, surface sediment, sediment cores, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs. The lowest PFAS concentrations in all matrices are detected in Lake Superior, which is located in the most pristine region of the Great Lakes Basin. In contrast, higher concentrations are observed in Lakes Erie and Ontario, which are more impacted by industrial activity and wastewater discharge. The distribution of individual PFAS compounds also varies across the lakes in response to changes in PFAS sources, with higher proportions of PFSAs in the eastern lakes. Sediment and biota are enriched in long chain PFSAs and PFCAs relative to concentrations in the water column, as expected based on predicted partitioning behavior. Sediment cores and bioarchives consistently demonstrate that PFAS concentrations increased in the Great Lakes from the initial time points until the early 2000s. The available data indicate that PFOS and PFOA concentrations decline after this period in the upper Great Lakes, but are stable in Lake Ontario. However, these trends depend on the lake, the individual compound, and the organism considered.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Charadriiformes/metabolismo , Great Lakes Region , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Truta/metabolismo
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 529-535, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254818

RESUMO

Few ecotoxicological studies exist on the accumulation and effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in fish, particularly on Arctic species. In southwest Greenland, there are currently several advanced exploration REE mining projects. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of REEs in native fish species. Juvenile arctic chars, Salvelinus alpinus, were pulse-exposed to cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La) and yttrium (Y) using an in-situ flow-through system over a period of 15 days. Results showed that the arctic char accumulated most REEs in the gills > liver > muscle. We also demonstrated the ability of the arctic char to rapidly excrete the REEs throughout the experiment, where levels of post exposure accumulation also declined throughout the period. These results demonstrate the importance of further studies on accumulation of REE in the arctic char native to the site of future mining operations. Long-term exposure will most likely result in accumulation of REEs in arctic char, and the effects and accumulation patterns of this should be explored further.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Groenlândia
17.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 32, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046823

RESUMO

Lactococcus garvieae is a significant pathogen in aquaculture with a potential zoonotic risk. To begin to characterize the late immune response of trout to lactococcosis, we selected infected individuals showing clinical signs of lactococcosis. At the time lactococcosis clinical signs appeared, infection by L. garvieae induced a robust inflammatory response in the spleen of rainbow trout, which correlated with abundant granulomatous lesions. The response in kidney goes in parallel with that of spleen, and most of the gene regulations are similar in both organs. A correlation existed between the early inflammatory granulomas in spleen (containing macrophages with internalized L. garvieae) and up-regulated gene sets, which defined the presence of macrophages and neutrophils. This is the first analysis of the immune transcriptome of rainbow trout following L. garvieae infection during the initiation of adaptive immune mechanisms and shows a transcriptome induction of antibody response by both IgM (+) and IgT (+) spleen B cells to respond to systemic infection. These results increase our understanding of lactococcosis and pave the way for future research to improve control measures of lactococcosis on fish farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Granuloma/veterinária , Rim/metabolismo , Lactococcus , Baço/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Truta/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Granuloma/metabolismo , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Rim/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Baço/patologia , Esplenopatias/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/microbiologia , Esplenopatias/patologia , Transcriptoma , Truta/metabolismo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 801-812, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085496

RESUMO

Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/química , Nunavut , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215583, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125340

RESUMO

Disease outbreaks are limiting factors for an ethical and economically sustainable aquaculture industry. The first point of contact between a pathogen and a host occurs in the mucus, which covers the epithelial surfaces of the skin, gills and gastrointestinal tract. Increased knowledge on host-pathogen interactions at these primary barriers may contribute to development of disease prevention strategies. The mucus layer is built of highly glycosylated mucins, and mucin glycosylation differs between these epithelial sites. We have previously shown that A. salmonicida binds to Atlantic salmon mucins. Here we demonstrate binding of four additional bacteria, A. hydrophila, V. harveyi, M. viscosa and Y. ruckeri, to mucins from Atlantic salmon and Arctic char. No specific binding could be observed for V. salmonicida to any of the mucin groups. Mucin binding avidity was highest for A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida, followed by V. harveyi, M. viscosa and Y. ruckeri in decreasing order. Four of the pathogens showed highest binding to either gills or intestinal mucins, whereas none of the pathogens had preference for binding to skin mucins. Fluid velocity enhanced binding of intestinal mucins to A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida at 1.5 and 2 cm/s, whereas a velocity of 2 cm/s for skin mucins increased binding of A. salmonicida and decreased binding of A. hydrophila. Binding avidity, specificity and the effect of fluid velocity on binding thus differ between salmonid pathogens and with mucin origin. The results are in line with a model where the short skin mucin glycans contribute to contact with pathogens whereas pathogen binding to mucins with complex glycans aid the removal of pathogens from internal epithelial surfaces.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Salmo salar/microbiologia , Truta/microbiologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolismo , Aliivibrio salmonicida/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Moritella/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Truta/metabolismo , Vibrio/metabolismo , Yersinia ruckeri/metabolismo
20.
J Fish Biol ; 95(2): 638-641, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095737

RESUMO

The effects of structural enrichment in the hatchery rearing environment of brown trout Salmo trutta was linked to post-release performance. Enrichment resulted in reduced swimming activity scored in an open field test and reduced movement in a natural river after release. Also, enrichment increased resting metabolic rates, which correlated positively with overwinter growth.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Pesqueiros , Truta/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Respiração , Rios , Suécia , Natação , Temperatura , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Truta/metabolismo
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