Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.378
Filtrar
1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 428-440, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977244

RESUMO

In this study, we analyzed the gene structure, chemical characterizations, chromosome locations, evolutionary relationship, and expression profile of hsp90 genes with online database. In addition, the expression levels of hsp90s were also investigated under heat stress by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR. A total of eight hsp90 genes were identified from the rainbow trout genome. They were all distributed on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, and 13. The molecular weight ranged from 78.93 to 91.39 kDa, and the isoelectric point ranged from 4.84 to 4.96. The eight hsp90 genes were clustered into six subfamilies (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Genetic structure and conserved domain analysis revealed that all eight hsp90 genes had only one exon, and motif 1-motif 10 was shared by most genes. According to RNA-seq analysis of rainbow trout liver and head kidney, a total of seven out of eight genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress, and qRT-PCR was carried out on these seven genes; the expression levels of these genes were significantly upregulated under heat stress. The significantly regulated expressions of hsp90 genes under heat stress indicated that hsp90 genes are involved in heat stress response in rainbow trout. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on the role of hsp90 in the heat stress tolerance of rainbow trout.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Truta/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Truta/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23600-23608, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685632

RESUMO

To understand the impact reduced mercury (Hg) loading and invasive species have had on methylmercury bioaccumulation in predator fish of Lake Michigan, we reconstructed bioaccumulation trends from a fish archive (1978 to 2012). By measuring fish Hg stable isotope ratios, we related temporal changes in Hg concentrations to varying Hg sources. Additionally, dietary tracers were necessary to identify food web influences. Through combined Hg, C, and N stable isotopic analyses, we were able to differentiate between a shift in Hg sources to fish and periods when energetic transitions (from dreissenid mussels) led to the assimilation of contrasting Hg pools (2000 to present). In the late 1980s, lake trout δ202Hg increased (0.4‰) from regulatory reductions in regional Hg emissions. After 2000, C and N isotopes ratios revealed altered food web pathways, resulting in a benthic energetic shift and changes to Hg bioaccumulation. Continued increases in δ202Hg indicate fish are responding to several United States mercury emission mitigation strategies that were initiated circa 1990 and continued through the 2011 promulgation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule. Unlike archives of sediments, this fish archive tracks Hg sources susceptible to bioaccumulation in Great Lakes fisheries. Analysis reveals that trends in fish Hg concentrations can be substantially affected by shifts in trophic structure and dietary preferences initiated by invasive species in the Great Lakes. This does not diminish the benefits of declining emissions over this period, as fish Hg concentrations would have been higher without these actions.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/legislação & jurisprudência , Anfípodes/química , Animais , Dieta , Dreissena/química , Política Ambiental , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos , Isótopos de Mercúrio/análise , Michigan , Comportamento Predatório , Fatores de Tempo , Truta/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491026

RESUMO

In this study we attempted to determine the effect of various feeding methods (bottom and surface feeding) used in the hatchery, on the survival and growth rates of hatchery-reared sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta L.) in the wild. Rearing was performed in two variants: a bottom-fed group (BFG) and a surface-fed group (SFG). At the end of the rearing time, we observed that BFG fish gathered at the bottom of tank, as opposed to SFG fish, which swam in the whole water column. After 4 weeks of rearing, the fish were released into two similar streams. After about 2 months the fish were captured and the foodbase of the streams were examined. 30 fish from each group have been randomly selected for stomach contents analysis. In the shallow stream the growth rates were better for the BFG fish than the SFG and also a significantly higher number of typical benthic taxa was found in stomachs of the BFG fish than the SFG fish. In the deeper stream more food was found in the stomachs of the SFG fish than in the BFG fish. The analyzed results showed that factors such as stream depth, current velocity, and turbulence can also affect the rearing success of juvenile salmonids in hatchery streams. Bottom feeding fish during rearing has a positive impact only on the fish in shallow watercourses, where there is no turbulence, and the food is not carried by the current drift or washed out from the bottom into the drift.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Alimentar , Pesqueiros , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Truta/metabolismo , Truta/fisiologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109513, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421535

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to develop (i) a technique for identifying metabolites of organic contaminants by using an in vitro system of trout S9 and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-based identification method and (ii) to apply this technique to identify the interactive potential of carbamazepine on the formation rate of other metabolites. The pharmaceuticals carbamazepine and propranolol and the pesticides azoxystrobin, diazinon, and fipronil were selected as test contaminants. As a result, a total of ten metabolites were identified for the five parent substances, six of which were confirmed using reference standards. Metabolic reactions included hydroxylation, epoxidation, S-oxidation, and dealkylation. The metabolic transformation rate ranged from 0.2 to 3.5 pmol/mg protein/min/µmol substrate. In the binary exposure experiment with increasing carbamazepine concentration, the formation rates of diazinon and fipronil metabolites (MDI2 and MFP2, respectively) increased, while formation of metabolites of propranolol and azoxystrobin (MPR1, MPR2, MPR3, and MAZ1) slowed down. Meanwhile, S9 pre-exposed to carbamazepine produced diazoxon, a toxic metabolite of diazinon, and pyrimidinol, a less toxic metabolite, more rapidly. These results suggest that carbamazepine, a perennial environmental pollutant, might modulate the toxicity of other substances such as diazinon but further in vivo studies are needed.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida , Técnicas In Vitro , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Propranolol/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422162

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DMN) exposure causes severe damage to the gill and liver tissues of aquatic organisms, as well as neurotoxic effects and metabolic disorders. The goal of the present study was to assess the impacts of DMN toxicity on blood biochemistry, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, behavior disorder, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, histopathology and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Acute concentrations (1.0 and 2.0µg/L) of DMN caused behavioral disorder such as rapid swimming, loss of balance, aggressiveness and increasing in the surface activity and inactivity in brown trout. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and a significant decrease in CAT, AChE, blood albumin, and blood total protein content were observed. Histopathologically, both doses of DMN have caused steatosis, necrosis, and degeneration in hepatocytes and hyperemia in the liver. Also, they led to inflammation, adhesion and fusion depending on severe hyperplasia in secondary lamellae, hyperemia and lamellar edema in gill tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) levels at 2.0 µg/L dose of DMN in liver tissues were more severe according to 1.0 µg/L dose of DMN. Finally, different concentrations of DMN led to changes of the histopathology, 8OHdG, the CAT levels, plasma AChE activity, and the serum metabolites, as well as behavioral disorder in brown trout.


Assuntos
Brânquias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Animais , Catalase/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo
6.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 134-141, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331511

RESUMO

The rainbow trout is a cold-water fish cultured in China. Heat stress has a serious impact on the summer survival and the yield of rainbow trout. A better understanding of the regulatory response of rainbow trout to heat stress will help in determining the relationship between heat stress signaling pathways and adaption mechanisms and help contribute to breeding new high-temperature tolerant strains of rainbow trout. In this study, the 48-h median lethal temperature (48h-LT50) of rainbow trout was determined as 22.5°C. We developed control (16°C) and heat-treated (22.5°C) groups and extracted RNA from the head kidney tissues for high-throughput sequencing to study the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles. Twelve up-regulated and five down-regulated miRNAs were identified between the control and heat-treated groups. A total of 22 target genes were predicted for 6 of the differentially expressed miRNAs, including 31 negative miRNA-mRNA interactions. Important regulatory pathways under heat stress are related to the metabolism and immune responses of the rainbow trout. Our findings provide preliminary data for investigating the high-temperature molecular mechanism of the rainbow trout and can help producers to reduce the economic losses caused by high temperature weather.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Rim/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Truta/genética
7.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1816-1834, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347638

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a diverse group of fluorinated organic chemicals that have been used in industrial and consumer applications since the 1950s. PFAS are resistant to chemical and biological degradation and are ubiquitous in the environment, including in water, sediment, and biota in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This critical review evaluates the spatial and temporal variability of commonly studied perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in the Great Lakes by synthesizing data collected in water, surface sediment, sediment cores, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs. The lowest PFAS concentrations in all matrices are detected in Lake Superior, which is located in the most pristine region of the Great Lakes Basin. In contrast, higher concentrations are observed in Lakes Erie and Ontario, which are more impacted by industrial activity and wastewater discharge. The distribution of individual PFAS compounds also varies across the lakes in response to changes in PFAS sources, with higher proportions of PFSAs in the eastern lakes. Sediment and biota are enriched in long chain PFSAs and PFCAs relative to concentrations in the water column, as expected based on predicted partitioning behavior. Sediment cores and bioarchives consistently demonstrate that PFAS concentrations increased in the Great Lakes from the initial time points until the early 2000s. The available data indicate that PFOS and PFOA concentrations decline after this period in the upper Great Lakes, but are stable in Lake Ontario. However, these trends depend on the lake, the individual compound, and the organism considered.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Charadriiformes/metabolismo , Great Lakes Region , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Truta/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 529-535, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254818

RESUMO

Few ecotoxicological studies exist on the accumulation and effects of rare earth elements (REEs) in fish, particularly on Arctic species. In southwest Greenland, there are currently several advanced exploration REE mining projects. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of REEs in native fish species. Juvenile arctic chars, Salvelinus alpinus, were pulse-exposed to cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La) and yttrium (Y) using an in-situ flow-through system over a period of 15 days. Results showed that the arctic char accumulated most REEs in the gills > liver > muscle. We also demonstrated the ability of the arctic char to rapidly excrete the REEs throughout the experiment, where levels of post exposure accumulation also declined throughout the period. These results demonstrate the importance of further studies on accumulation of REE in the arctic char native to the site of future mining operations. Long-term exposure will most likely result in accumulation of REEs in arctic char, and the effects and accumulation patterns of this should be explored further.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Groenlândia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215583, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125340

RESUMO

Disease outbreaks are limiting factors for an ethical and economically sustainable aquaculture industry. The first point of contact between a pathogen and a host occurs in the mucus, which covers the epithelial surfaces of the skin, gills and gastrointestinal tract. Increased knowledge on host-pathogen interactions at these primary barriers may contribute to development of disease prevention strategies. The mucus layer is built of highly glycosylated mucins, and mucin glycosylation differs between these epithelial sites. We have previously shown that A. salmonicida binds to Atlantic salmon mucins. Here we demonstrate binding of four additional bacteria, A. hydrophila, V. harveyi, M. viscosa and Y. ruckeri, to mucins from Atlantic salmon and Arctic char. No specific binding could be observed for V. salmonicida to any of the mucin groups. Mucin binding avidity was highest for A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida, followed by V. harveyi, M. viscosa and Y. ruckeri in decreasing order. Four of the pathogens showed highest binding to either gills or intestinal mucins, whereas none of the pathogens had preference for binding to skin mucins. Fluid velocity enhanced binding of intestinal mucins to A. hydrophila and A. salmonicida at 1.5 and 2 cm/s, whereas a velocity of 2 cm/s for skin mucins increased binding of A. salmonicida and decreased binding of A. hydrophila. Binding avidity, specificity and the effect of fluid velocity on binding thus differ between salmonid pathogens and with mucin origin. The results are in line with a model where the short skin mucin glycans contribute to contact with pathogens whereas pathogen binding to mucins with complex glycans aid the removal of pathogens from internal epithelial surfaces.


Assuntos
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Salmo salar/microbiologia , Truta/microbiologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/metabolismo , Aliivibrio salmonicida/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Moritella/metabolismo , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Truta/metabolismo , Vibrio/metabolismo , Yersinia ruckeri/metabolismo
10.
J Fish Biol ; 95(2): 638-641, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095737

RESUMO

The effects of structural enrichment in the hatchery rearing environment of brown trout Salmo trutta was linked to post-release performance. Enrichment resulted in reduced swimming activity scored in an open field test and reduced movement in a natural river after release. Also, enrichment increased resting metabolic rates, which correlated positively with overwinter growth.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Pesqueiros , Truta/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Respiração , Rios , Suécia , Natação , Temperatura , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Truta/metabolismo
11.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 32, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046823

RESUMO

Lactococcus garvieae is a significant pathogen in aquaculture with a potential zoonotic risk. To begin to characterize the late immune response of trout to lactococcosis, we selected infected individuals showing clinical signs of lactococcosis. At the time lactococcosis clinical signs appeared, infection by L. garvieae induced a robust inflammatory response in the spleen of rainbow trout, which correlated with abundant granulomatous lesions. The response in kidney goes in parallel with that of spleen, and most of the gene regulations are similar in both organs. A correlation existed between the early inflammatory granulomas in spleen (containing macrophages with internalized L. garvieae) and up-regulated gene sets, which defined the presence of macrophages and neutrophils. This is the first analysis of the immune transcriptome of rainbow trout following L. garvieae infection during the initiation of adaptive immune mechanisms and shows a transcriptome induction of antibody response by both IgM (+) and IgT (+) spleen B cells to respond to systemic infection. These results increase our understanding of lactococcosis and pave the way for future research to improve control measures of lactococcosis on fish farms.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Granuloma/veterinária , Rim/metabolismo , Lactococcus , Baço/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Truta/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Granuloma/metabolismo , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Rim/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Baço/patologia , Esplenopatias/metabolismo , Esplenopatias/microbiologia , Esplenopatias/patologia , Transcriptoma , Truta/metabolismo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 801-812, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085496

RESUMO

Climate warming and mercury (Hg) are concurrently influencing Arctic ecosystems, altering their functioning and threatening food security. Non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in small lakes were used to biomonitor these two anthropogenic stressors, because this iconic Arctic species is a long-lived top predator in relatively simple food webs, and yet population characteristics vary greatly, reflecting differences between lake systems. Mercury concentrations in six landlocked Arctic char populations on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut have been monitored as early as 1989, providing a novel dataset to examine differences in muscle [Hg] among char populations, temporal trends, and the relationship between climate patterns and Arctic char [Hg]. We found significant lake-to-lake differences in length-adjusted Arctic char muscle [Hg], which varied by up to 9-fold. Arctic char muscle [Hg] was significantly correlated to dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations in water; neither watershed area or vegetation cover explained differences. Three lakes exhibited significant temporal declines in length-adjusted [Hg] in Arctic char; the other three lakes had no significant trends. Though precipitation, temperature, wind speed, and sea ice duration were tested, no single climate variable was significantly correlated to length-adjusted [Hg] across populations. However, Arctic char Hg in Resolute Lake exhibited a significant correlation with sea ice duration, which is likely closely linked to lake ice duration, and which may impact Hg processing in lakes. Additionally, Arctic char [Hg] in Amituk Lake was significantly correlated to snow fall, which may be linked to Hg deposition. The lack of consistent temporal trends in neighboring char populations indicates that currently, within lake processes are the strongest drivers of [Hg] in char in the study lakes and potentially in other Arctic lakes, and that the influence of climate change will likely vary from lake to lake.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Mercúrio/química , Nunavut , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(6): 1198-1210, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901092

RESUMO

The trophic magnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected nonlegacy halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) was determined in the food web of Lake Ontario (ON, Canada). In all, 28 Br3 -Br8 -PBDEs and 24 HOCs (10 of which had not been targeted previously) were analyzed. Average concentrations of Σ28 PBDEs in fish ranged between 79.7 ± 54.2 ng/g lipid weight in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and 815 ± 695 ng/g lipid weight in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). For invertebrates, concentrations were between 13.4 ng/g lipid weight (net plankton; >110 µm) and 41.9 ng/g lipid weight in Diaporeia (Diaporeia hoyi). Detection frequency (DF) for HOCs was highest for anti-Dechlorane Plus (anti-DDC-CO), 1,3-diiodobenzene (1,3-DiiB), tribromo-methoxy-methylbenzene (ME-TBP), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), pentabromocyclododecene (PBCYD), α+ß-tetrabromocylcooctane (TBCO), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE), and pentabromotoluene (PBT; DF for all = 100% in lake trout). Tetrabromoxylene (TBX), dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE), and syn-DDC-CO were also frequently detected in trout (DF = 70-78%), whereas 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) was detected only in plankton. Several HOCs were reported in aquatic biota in the Great Lakes (USA/Canada) for the first time in the present study, including PBCYD, 1,3DiiB, BATE, TBP-DBPE, PBT, α + ß-TBCO, and ME-TBP. The Br4-6 -BDEs (-47, -85, -99, -100, -153, and -154) all had prey-weighted biomagnification factors (BMFPW ) values >6, whereas BMFPW values for Br7-8 -BDEs were <1. The highest BMFPW values of non-PBDEs were for TBP-DBPE (10.6 ± 1.34) and ME-TBP (4.88 ± 0.60), whereas TBP-AE had a BMFPW value of <1. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) trophic magnification factors (TMFs), both positive and negative, were found for Br4-8- BDEs (BDE 196 = 0.4; BDE 154 = 9.5) and for bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE; 0.53), PBCYD (1.8), 1,3-DiiB (0.33), and pentabromobenzene (PBB; 0.25). Food chain length was found to have a significant influence on the TMF values. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1198-1210. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/análise , Lagos/química , Animais , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Geografia , Ontário , Plâncton/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(6): 1245-1255, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901097

RESUMO

Lake ecosystems are threatened by an array of stressors. An understanding of how food webs and bioaccumulation dynamics respond to these challenges requires the quantification of energy flow. We present a combined, multitracer approach using both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and stable isotopes to trace energy flow, and to quantify how lake trout feeding strategies have adapted to changes in food web structure in 3 basins of Lake Huron (ON, Canada). This combined tracer approach allows the quantification of dietary proportions (using stable isotopes), which are then integrated using a novel PCB tracer approach that employs knowledge of PCB bioaccumulation pathways, to estimate consumption and quantify energy flow between age cohorts of individual fish across Lake Huron. We observed basin-specific differences in ultimate energy sources for lake trout, with Georgian Bay lake trout deriving almost 70% of their energy from benthic resources compared with 16 and 33% for Main Basin and North Channel lake trout, respectively. These differences in resource utilization are further magnified when they are contrasted with age. The dependency on pelagic energy sources in the Main Basin and North Channel suggests that these populations will be the most negatively affected by the ongoing trophic collapse in Lake Huron. Our study demonstrates the utility of a multitracer approach to quantify the consequences of food web adaptations to changes in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1245-1255. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , Canadá , Cadeia Alimentar , Geografia , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 1079-1090, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743905

RESUMO

In order to assess the extent of existing anthropogenic influence on biota of the vulnerable karst ecosystem of the Krka River, multi-biomarker approach was applied in the intestinal tissue of brown trout Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758. Biomarkers of the general stress (total cytosolic proteins), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant capacity (catalase activity, total glutathione) and of an exposure and effect of contaminants, especially metals (metallothionein) and organophosphorous pesticides and metals (acetylcholine esterase activity) were compared in the intestine of fish from the reference site (river source) and downstream of the technological and municipal wastewater impacted site (town of Knin) in two seasons, October 2015 and May 2016. Biological response was additionally evaluated by metal/metalloid concentrations in intestinal cytosol. Site-specific differences were observed as significantly higher As, Ca, Co, Cu, Se and Sr concentrations in intestinal cytosol of fish from the contaminated compared to the reference site. Significant seasonal differences existed for Ni, Cd, Mo, Cs and Na, with higher levels in autumn, following the trend of most of the dissolved metal levels in the river water. Impact of improperly treated wastewaters was also confirmed by significantly increased levels of glutathione, total proteins and Foulton condition indices, with 1.5, 1.13 and 1.12 times higher average values in fish from that site compared to the river source, respectively. The other biomarkers showed similar trend and pointed to specific biological changes regarding oxidative stress or metal exposure in fish from the anthropogenically impacted site, especially in autumn, but without significant differences. Thus, the anthropogenic impact still seems to be only moderate, although cytosolic metals and most of the biomarkers in fish intestine were confirmed as initial indicators of pollution impact, which pointed to the need of continuous monitoring of the Krka River in order to protect this natural karst world phenomenon.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rios/química , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Croácia , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 147, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651595

RESUMO

Salmonid resources currently foster socioeconomic prosperity in several nations, yet their importance to many ancient circumpolar societies is poorly understood due to insufficient fish bone preservation at archaeological sites. As a result, there are serious gaps in our knowledge concerning the antiquity of northern salmonid fisheries and their impacts on shaping biodiversity, hunter-gatherer adaptations, and human-ecological networks. The interdisciplinary study presented here demonstrates that calcium-magnesium phosphate minerals formed in burned salmonid bones can preserve at ancient northern sites, thus informing on the early utilization of these resources despite the absence of morphologically classifiable bones. The minerals whitlockite and beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were identified in rare morphologically classifiable Atlantic salmonid bones from three Mid-Holocene sites in Finland. Large amounts of beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were also experimentally formed by burning modern Atlantic salmonid and brown trout bones. Our results demonstrate the value of these minerals as proxies for ancient northern salmonid fishing. Specifically, the whitlockite mineral was discovered in hearth sediments from the 5,600 year old Yli-Ii Kierikinkangas site on the Iijoki River in northern Finland. Our fine sieving and mineralogical analyses of these sediments, along with zooarchaeological identification of recovered bone fragments, have confirmed for the first time that the people living at this village did incorporate salmonids into their economies, thus providing new evidence for early estuary/riverine fisheries in northern Finland.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Pesqueiros/história , Minerais/metabolismo , Salmonidae/metabolismo , Animais , Finlândia , História Antiga , Rios , Truta/metabolismo
17.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(4): 831-840, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667082

RESUMO

Because dietary consumption of fish is often a major vector of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), much effort is directed toward a quantitative understanding of fish bioaccumulation using mechanistic models. However, many such models fail to explicitly consider how uptake and loss rate constants relate to fish physiology. We calculated the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of hypothetical POPs, with octanol-water partition coefficients ranging from 104.5 to 108.5 , in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) with a food-web bioaccumulation model that uses bioenergetics to ensure that physiological parameters applied to a species are internally consistent. We modeled fish in 6 Canadian lakes (Great Slave Lake, Lake Ontario, Source Lake, Happy Isle Lake, Lake Opeongo, and Lake Memphremagog) to identify the factors that cause the BAFs of differently sized lake trout to vary between and within lakes. When comparing differently sized lake trout within a lake, larger fish tend to have the highest BAF because they allocate less energy toward growth than smaller fish and have higher activity levels. When comparing fish from different lakes, the model finds that diet composition and prey energy density become important in determining the BAF, in addition to activity and the amount of total energy allocated to growth. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:831-840. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Lagos/química , Modelos Biológicos , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Ontário , Truta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 649: 949-959, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179823

RESUMO

We demonstrate how mechanistic modeling can be used to predict whether and how biological responses to chemicals at (sub)organismal levels in model species (i.e., what we typically measure) translate into impacts on ecosystem service delivery (i.e., what we care about). We consider a hypothetical case study of two species of trout, brown trout (Salmo trutta; BT) and greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii stomias; GCT). These hypothetical populations live in a high-altitude river system and are exposed to human-derived estrogen (17α­ethinyl estradiol, EE2), which is the bioactive estrogen in many contraceptives. We use the individual-based model inSTREAM to explore how seasonally varying concentrations of EE2 could influence male spawning and sperm quality. Resulting impacts on trout recruitment and the consequences of such for anglers and for the continued viability of populations of GCT (the state fish of Colorado) are explored. inSTREAM incorporates seasonally varying river flow and temperature, fishing pressure, the influence of EE2 on species-specific demography, and inter-specific competition. The model facilitates quantitative exploration of the relative importance of endocrine disruption and inter-species competition on trout population dynamics. Simulations predicted constant EE2 loading to have more impacts on GCT than BT. However, increasing removal of BT by anglers can enhance the persistence of GCT and offset some of the negative effects of EE2. We demonstrate how models that quantitatively link impacts of chemicals and other stressors on individual survival, growth, and reproduction to consequences for populations and ecosystem service delivery, can be coupled with ecosystem service valuation. The approach facilitates interpretation of toxicity data in an ecological context and gives beneficiaries of ecosystem services a more explicit role in management decisions. Although challenges remain, this type of approach may be particularly helpful for site-specific risk assessments and those in which tradeoffs and synergies among ecosystem services need to be considered.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental , Etinilestradiol/efeitos adversos , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Oncorhynchus/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(1): 145-154, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109448

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules in favor of the former and it represents one of the main driving forces of aging. To counteract the harmful effects of oxidative stress, organisms evolved a complex antioxidant system. According to the free radical theory of aging, while the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases with age, the antioxidant defenses decline. Although this relationship has been investigated in diverse vertebrate taxa, the information in fish is scant and inconsistent, particularly for wild populations. Thus, the aim of the present study was the investigation of age- and sex-related changes of the antioxidant enzymes activity in free-living individuals of the brown trout (Salmo trutta). We measured the activity of the main enzymes involved in antioxidant protection, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as lipid peroxidation, in the gills and the liver dissected from brown trout (1+- to 5+-year-old). A significant age-dependent variation in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was noted, with the exception of CAT. GPx activity followed a significant increasing trend with age in both the organs, while SOD decreased in the liver. Increased GST activity was found in the gills only. Lipid peroxidation levels significantly decreased with age in both the organs. SOD and CAT showed sex-dependent differences in the liver of brown trout, with males showing lower enzymatic activity than females. Our data contribute to improve the knowledge on the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, aging, and sex in fish.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oxidantes , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 489(1): 178-180, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130586

RESUMO

The effect of food additive including antioxidant dihydroquercetin and polysaccharide arabinogalactan on the activity of metabolic enzymes in muscles and liver of artificially grown rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss affected by bacterial infection was investigated. The results of the study indicated an increase in the resistance of trout to the action of bacterial infection with the enrichment of the diet with the studied bioactive components, apparently mediated, among other factors, by the activation of metabolic pathways of synthesis of energy and reducing equivalents.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Truta/metabolismo , Animais , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Truta/microbiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA