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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 21-30, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619095

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi carbonic anhydrase (TcCA) has recently emerged as an interesting target for the design of new compounds to treat Chagas disease. In this study we report the results of a structure-based virtual screening campaign to identify novel and selective TcCA inhibitors. The combination of properly validated computational methodologies such as comparative modelling, molecular dynamics and docking simulations allowed us to find high potency hits, with KI values in the nanomolar range. The compounds also showed trypanocidal effects against T. cruzi epimastigotes and trypomastigotes. All the candidates are selective for inhibiting TcCA over the human isoform CA II, which is encouraging in terms of possible therapeutic safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclamatos/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Ciclamatos/síntese química , Ciclamatos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia
2.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105218, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610148

RESUMO

Despite more than 100 years since it was firstly described Chagas disease, only two drugs are available to treat Chagas disease: Nifurtimox launched by Bayer in 1965 and benznidazole launched by Roche in 1971. Drug discovery initiatives have been looking for new compounds as an alternative to these old drugs. Although new platforms have been used with the latest technologies, a critical step on that process still relies on the in vivo model. Unfortunately, to date, available animal models have limited predictive value and there is no standardization. With the aim to better understand the role of benznidazole, the current standard of care of Chagas disease, we performed this review. We intend to analyze the influence of the experimental design of the most used animal model, the murine model, in the assessment of the efficacy endpoint.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Nifurtimox/farmacologia , Nifurtimox/uso terapêutico , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Camundongos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 956, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current available treatments (benznidazole and nifurtimox) for Chagas disease (CD) show limited efficacy in chronic phase and frequent undesirable effects. Ergosterol synthesis inhibitors (ESI) had been considered as promising drugs for CD treatment and despite its recent poor results in several clinical trials, different strategies have been proposed to optimize its role in this infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of chronic Chagas disease in patient diagnosed with HIV who received treatment for histoplasmosis with itraconazol during twelve months. Even though T. cruzi rt-PCR was persistently negative during treatment, when itraconazol was stopped she presented with a positive blood rt-PCR. CONCLUSION: Several studies using different ESI had been published for CD treatment. Either in vitro or in vivo assays demonstrated activity against T. cruzi of the different triazole derivatives so different clinical trials had been carried out to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Despite contradictory evidence in the animal model, longer treatments along with other treatment strategies previously proposed suggests that ESI failure rates in positive peripheral blood rt-PCR are higher than that obtained with the current treatments of choice.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Animais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900359, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544347

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, and the trypanocidal and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from four species of Annonaceae: Bocageopsis multiflora (Mart.) R.E.Fr., Duguetia quitarensis Benth., Fusaea longifolia (Aubl.) Saff., and Guatteria punctata (Aubl.) R.A.Howard. The chemical composition of the essential oils from the aerial parts yielded 23, 20, 21 and 23 constituents, respectively, which were identified by GC/MS. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated against the amastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results of trypanocidal activity showed that the essential oils of the four species were active at the tested concentrations, with G. punctata essential oil being the most active, with IC50 =0.029 µg/mL, and selectivity index (SI)=32, being 34 times more active than the reference drug benznidazole. All EOs showed strong antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.68-37.5 µg/mL) against strains of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007226, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536489

RESUMO

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected tropical disease that affects 5-6 million people in endemic areas of the Americas. Presently, chemotherapy relies on two compounds that were proposed as trypanocidal drugs four decades ago: nifurtimox and benznidazole. Both drugs are able to eliminate parasitemia and to avoid seroconversion in infected people when used in the acute phase; however, their use in the chronic phase (the time when the majority of cases are diagnosed) is limited due to their serious side effects. Memantine is a glutamate receptor antagonist in the central nervous system of mammals that has been used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Our group previously reported memantine as a trypanocidal drug that is able to induce apoptosis-like death in T. cruzi. In the present work, we further investigated the effects of memantine on the infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo (in BALB/c mice). Here, we showed that memantine is able to diminish NO and Ca2+ entry in both LPS-activated and non-activated cells. These results, together with the fact that memantine was also able to reduce the infection of macrophages, led us to propose that this drug is able to activate a pro-oxidant non-NO-dependent cell defense mechanism. Finally, infected mice that were treated with memantine had diminished parasitemia, cardiac parasitic load, and inflammatory infiltrates. In addition, the treated mice had an increased survival rate. Taken together, these results indicate memantine to be a candidate drug for the treatment of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Memantina/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Coração/parasitologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Memantina/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carga Parasitária , Parasitemia , Células RAW 264.7 , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Tripanossomicidas/administração & dosagem
7.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105168, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513763

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the causative agent for Chagas disease (CD). There is a critical lack of methods for prevention of infection or treatment of acute infection and chronic disease. Studies in experimental models have suggested that the protective immunity against T. cruzi infection requires the elicitation of Th1 cytokines, lytic antibodies and the concerted activities of macrophages, T helper cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In this review, we summarize the research efforts in vaccine development to date and the challenges faced in achieving an efficient prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against human CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007715, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Program for Chagas disease was implemented in Bolivia in 2006, and it greatly decreased the number of infections through vector control. Subsequently, a treatment regimen of benznidazole (BNZ) was started in seropositive school-age children living in certified vector control areas. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study and seven blood samples were taken during and after the treatment. Serology, conventional diagnostic PCR (cPCR) and quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed. Plasma Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines levels were also determined. Approximately 73 of 103 seropositive children complied with BNZ, with three interruptions due to side effects. To evaluate each individual's treatment efficacy, the cPCR and qPCR values during the final 6 months of the follow-up period were observed. Among 57 children who completed follow-up, 6 individuals (11%) showed both cPCR(+) and qPCR(+) (non reactive), 24 (42%) cPCR(-) but qPCR(+) (ambiguous) and 27 (47%) cPCR(-) and qPCR(-) (reactive). Within 14 Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, IL-17A showed significantly higher levels in seropositive children before the treatment compared to age-matched seronegative children and significantly decreased to the normal level one-year after. Moreover, throughout the follow-up study, IL-17A levels were positively co-related to parasite counts detected by qPCR. At the 12 months' time point, IL-17A levels of non-reactive subjects were significantly higher than either those of reactive or ambiguous subjects suggesting that IL-17A might be useful to determine the reactivity to BNZ treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of IL-17A might be a bio-marker for detecting persistent infection of T. cruzi and its chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-17/sangue , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bolívia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Nitroimidazóis/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Tripanossomicidas/sangue , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
9.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480402

RESUMO

The current chemotherapy of Chagas disease needs to be urgently improved. With this aim, a series of 16 hybrids of Cinchona alkaloids and bile acids were prepared by functionalization at position C-2 of the quinoline nucleus by a radical attack of a norcholane substituent via a Barton-Zard decarboxylation reaction. The antitrypanosomal activity of the hybrids was tested on different stages and strains of T. cruzi. In particular, eight out of 16 hybrids presented an IC50 ≤1 µg/mL against trypomastigotes of the CL Brener strain and/or a selectivity index higher than 10. These promising hybrids yielded similar results when tested on trypomastigotes from the RA strain of T. cruzi (discrete typing unit-DTU-VI). Surprisingly, trypomastigotes of the Y strain (DTU II) were more resistant to benznidazole and to most of the hybrids than those of the CL Brener and RA strains. However, the peracetylated and non-acetylated forms of the cinchonine/chenodeoxycholic bile acid conjugate 4f and 5f were the most trypanocidal hybrids against Y strain trypomastigotes, with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.65 µg/mL, respectively. More importantly, promising results were observed in invasion assays using the Y strain, where hybrids 5f and 4f induced a significant reduction in intracellular amastigotes and on the release of trypomastigotes from infected cells.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Cinchona/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Espaço Intracelular/parasitologia , Ratos , Células Vero
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107730, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494215

RESUMO

Phospholipids are the main component of membranes and are responsible for cell integrity. Alkylphospholipid analogues (APs) were first designed as antitumoral agents and were later tested against different cell types. Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease etiological agent, is sensitive to APs (edelfosine, miltefosine and ilmofosine) in vitro. We investigated the effect of synthetic ring substituted AP against epimastigotes, amastigotes and trypomastigotes. TCAN26, could inhibit the in vitro growth of epimastigotes and amastigotes with the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the nanomolar range. Trypomastigotes lysis was also induced with 24-h treatment and a LC50 of 2.3 µM. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy demonstrated that TCAN26 mainly affected the parasite's membranes leading to mitochondrial and Golgi cisternae swelling, membrane blebs, and autophagic figures in the different parasite developmental stages. While the Golgi of the parasites was significantly affected, the Golgi complex of the host cells remained normal suggesting a specific mechanism of action. In summary, our results suggest that TCAN 26 is a potent and selective inhibitor of T. cruzi growth probably due to disturbances of phospholipid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Adamantano/farmacologia , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Adamantano/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Citometria de Fluxo , Complexo de Golgi/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Dose Letal Mediana , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilcolina/química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultraestrutura
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107748, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442453

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas disease) presents a complex life cycle that involves adaptations in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. As a protozoan parasite of hematophagous insects and mammalian hosts, T. cruzi is exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). To investigate the functionality of T. cruzi tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (TcACP5), we cloned, superexpressed and purified the enzyme. Purified TcACP5 exhibited a Vmax and apparent Km for pNPP hydrolysis of 7.7 ±â€¯0.2 nmol pNP × µg-1 × h-1 and 169.3 ±â€¯22.6 µM, respectively. The pH dependence was characterized by sharp maximal activity at pH 5.0, and inhibition assays demonstrated its sensitivity to acid phosphatase inhibitors. Similar activities were obtained with saturating concentrations of P-Ser and P-Thr as substrates. The enzyme metabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in vitro, and parasites superexpressing this enzyme were more resistant to oxidative stress promoted by H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that TcACP5 plays a central role in phosphoryl transfer and redox reactions.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Imunofluorescência , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Confocal , Oxirredução , Especificidade por Substrato , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/química , Transfecção , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 182: 111610, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434040

RESUMO

Drug therapy for Chagas disease remains a major challenge as potential candidate drugs have failed clinical trials. Currently available drugs have limited efficacy and induce serious side effects. Thus, the discovery of new drugs is urgently needed in the fight against Chagas' disease. Here, we synthesized and evaluated the biological effect of pyrazole-imidazoline (1a-i) and pyrazole-tetrahydropyrimidine (2a-i) derivatives against relevant clinical forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The structure-activity relationship (SAR), drug-target search, physicochemical and ADMET properties of the major active compounds in vitro were also assessed in silico. Pyrazole derivatives showed no toxicity in Vero cells and also no cardiotoxicity. Phenotypic screening revealed two dichlorinated pyrazole-imidazoline derivatives (1c and 1d) with trypanocidal activity higher than that of benznidazole (Bz) against trypomastigotes; these were also the most potent compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Replacement of imidazoline with tetrahydropyrimidine in the pyrazole compounds completely abolished the trypanocidal activity of series 2(a-i) derivatives. The physicochemical and ADMET properties of the compounds predicted good permeability, good oral bioavailability, no toxicity and mutagenicity of 1c and 1d. Pyrazole nucleus had high frequency hits for cruzipain in drug-target search and structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis of pyrazole-imidazoline derivatives revealed enhanced activity when chlorine atom was inserted in meta-positions of the benzene ring. Additionally, we found evidence that both compounds (1c and 1d) have the potential to interact non-covalently with the active site of cruzipain and also inhibit the cysteine proteinase activity of T. cruzi. Collectively, the data presented here reveal pyrazole derivatives with promise for further optimization in the therapy of Chagas disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazolinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Imidazolinas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Pirazóis/química , Pirimidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Células Vero
13.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105120, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376368

RESUMO

Chagas disease has become a global health problem due to migration of infected people out of Latin America to non-endemic countries. For more than 40 years, only the nitroimidazole compounds Benznidazole and Nifurtimox, have been used for specific treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with disappointing results, specially due to the long duration of treatment and adverse events in the chronic phase. In the last years, ergosterol inhibitors have been also proposed for specific treatment. Different randomized clinical trials were performed for evaluating their treatment efficacy and safety. One of the greatest concerns in clinical trials is to provide an early surrogate biomarker of response to trypanocidal chemotherapy. Serological response is slow and the classical parasitological tests have poor sensitivity and are time-consuming. Nowadays, PCR is the most helpful tool for assessing treatment response in a short period of time. Different protocols of PCR have been developed, being quantitative real time PCR based on amplification of repetitive satellite or minicircle DNA sequences plus an internal amplification standard, the mostly employed strategies in clinical trials. Standardized protocols and the use of an external quality assessment ensure adequate technical procedures and reliable data. Clinical trials have shown a significant reduction in parasite loads, reaching undetectable DNA levels in bloodstream after specific treatment, however events of treatment failure have also been reported. Treatment failure could be due to inadequate penetrance of the drugs into the affected tissues, to the presence of primary or secondary drug resistance of the infecting strains as well as to the existence of dormant parasite variants reluctant to drug action. The early diagnosis of drug resistance would improve clinical management of Chagas disease patients, allowing dictating alternative therapies with a combination of existing drugs or new anti-T. cruzi agents. The aim of this review was to describe the usefulness of detecting T.cruzi DNA by means of real time PCR assays, as surrogate biomarker in clinical trials for evaluating new drugs for CD or new regimens of available drugs and the possibility to detect treatment failure.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/terapia , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Nifurtimox/farmacologia , Nifurtimox/uso terapêutico , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Carga Parasitária , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
15.
J Microbiol ; 57(10): 918-926, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463789

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. Molecules present in parasites and mammalian cells allow the recognition and parasite internalization. Metallic ions play an essential role in the establishment and maintenance of host-parasite interaction. However, little is known about how parasites handle with essential and nonessential metal quotas. This study aimed to investigate the influence of metal ions on the biological processes of T. cruzi infected cells. Infected cells were incubated with ZnCl2, CdCl2, and HgCl2 for 12 h and labeled with different specific dyes to investigate the cellular events related to intracellular parasite death and elimination. Infected host cells and parasite's mitochondria underwent functional and structural disorders, in addition to parasite's DNA condensation and pH decrease on host cells, which led to parasite death. Further investigations suggested that lysosomes were involved in pH decrease and the double membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum formed vacuoles surrounding damaged parasites, which indicate the occurrence of autophagy for parasite elimination. In conclusion, low concentrations of nonessential and essential metals cause a series of damage to Trypanosoma cruzi organelles, leading to its loss of viability, death, and elimination, with no removal of the host cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Cádmio/farmacologia , Cloretos/farmacologia , Compostos de Mercúrio/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/citologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacúolos/metabolismo
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007602, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365537

RESUMO

TGF-ß involvement in Chagas disease cardiomyopathy has been clearly demonstrated. The TGF-ß signaling pathway is activated in the cardiac tissue of chronic phase patients and is associated with an increase in extracellular matrix protein expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GW788388, a selective inhibitor of TßR1/ALK5, on cardiac function in an experimental model of chronic Chagas' heart disease. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (102 parasites from the Colombian strain) and treated orally with 3mg/kg GW788388 starting at 120 days post-infection (dpi), when 100% of the infected mice show cardiac damage, and following three distinct treatment schedules: i) single dose; ii) one dose per week; or iii) three doses per week during 30 days. The treatment with GW788388 improved several cardiac parameters: reduced the prolonged PR and QTc intervals, increased heart rate, and reversed sinus arrhythmia, and atrial and atrioventricular conduction disorders. At 180 dpi, 30 days after treatment interruption, the GW3x-treated group remained in a better cardiac functional condition. Further, GW788388 treatment reversed the loss of connexin-43 enriched intercellular plaques and reduced fibrosis of the cardiac tissue. Inhibition of the TGF-ß signaling pathway reduced TGF-ß/pSmad2/3, increased MMP-9 and Sca-1, reduced TIMP-1/TIMP-2/TIMP-4, and partially restored GATA-6 and Tbox-5 transcription, supporting cardiac recovery. Moreover, GW788388 administration did not modify cardiac parasite load during the infection but reduced the migration of CD3+ cells to the heart tissue. Altogether, our data suggested that the single dose schedule was not as effective as the others and treatment three times per week during 30 days seems to be the most effective strategy. The therapeutic effects of GW788388 are promising and suggest a new possibility to treat cardiac fibrosis in the chronic phase of Chagas' heart disease by TGF-ß inhibitors.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/parasitologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/patologia , Doença Crônica , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/parasitologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Carga Parasitária , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1373-1380, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339616

RESUMO

AIMS: Violacein (VIO), a bacterial pigment produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, was examined to evaluate the antichagasic activity and its action mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Violacein was tested against the epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi Y strain (benznidazole-resistant strain). VIO inhibited all T. cruzi developmental forms, including amastigotes, which is implicated in the burden of infection in the chronic phase of Chagas disease (CD). VIO induced cell death in T. cruzi through apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry analyses with specific molecular probes and morphological alterations, such as involvement of reactive oxygen species and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell shrinkage. CONCLUSION: The results suggest antichagasic activity of VIO against T. cruzi Y strain with apoptotic involvement. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The treatment of CD has limited efficacy and side effects that restrict patient tolerability and compliance. The VIO molecule could be used as a model for therapeutic alternatives for this disease.


Assuntos
Chromobacterium/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Resistência a Medicamentos , Humanos , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nitroimidazóis/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 863-915, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306817

RESUMO

Naphthoquinones are of key importance in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. In the last few years, various synthetic routes have been developed to prepare bioactive compounds derived or based on lapachones. In this sense, this review is mainly focused on the synthetic aspects and strategies used for the design of these compounds on the basis of their biological activities for the development of drugs against the neglected diseases leishmaniases and Chagas disease and also cancer. Three strategies used to develop bioactive quinones are discussed and categorized: (i) C-ring modification, (ii) redox centre modification and (iii) A-ring modification. Framed within these strategies for the development of naphthoquinoidal compounds against T. cruzi. Leishmania and cancer, reactions including copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click chemistry), palladium-catalysed cross couplings, C-H activation reactions, Ullmann couplings and heterocyclisations reported up to July 2019 will be discussed. The aim of derivatisation is the generation of novel molecules that can potentially inhibit cellular organelles/processes, generate reactive oxygen species and increase lipophilicity to enhance penetration through the plasma membrane. Modified lapachones have emerged as promising prototypes for the development of drugs against leishmaniases, Chagas disease and cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Quinonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Quinonas/síntese química , Quinonas/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 180: 191-203, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306906

RESUMO

Chagas disease is an illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The current chemotherapy is based on benznidazole, and, in some countries, Nifurtimox, which is effective in the acute phase of the disease, but its efficacy in the chronic phase remains controversial. It can also cause serious side effects that lead sufferers to abandon treatment. In the present work, is reported the synthesis and trypanocidal activity of new 2-(phenylthio)ethylidene thiosemicarbazones (4-15) and 1,3-thiazoles (16-26). The cyclization of thiosemicarbazones into 1,3-thiazoles presents an improvement in the cytotoxic profile for T. cruzi parasite, denoting selective compounds. Compound 18 was identified as the most promising of all compounds tested, showing an IC50 of 2.6 µM for the trypomastigote form and a non-cytotoxic effect on mouse spleen cells, reaching a selective index of 95.1. Among the 22 compounds tested, six compounds present a better trypanocidal activity, and five compounds have an equipotent activity compared to benznidazole. Flow cytometry and ultrastructural analysis were performed and indicate that compound 18 causes parasite cell death through apoptosis and acts via an autophagic pathway.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/síntese química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Tripanossomicidas/síntese química , Tripanossomicidas/química
20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 180: 213-223, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306908

RESUMO

Reactions of Ni(II) and Pd(II) precursors with S-benzyl-N-(ferrocenyl)methylenedithiocarbazate (HFedtc) led to the formation of heterobimetallic complexes of the type [MII(Fedtc)2] (M = Ni and Pd). The characterization of the compounds involved the determination of melting point, FTIR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and electrochemical experiments. Furthermore, the crystalline structures of HFedtc and [NiII(Fedtc)2] were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds were evaluated against the intracellular form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen Lac-Z strain) and the cytotoxicity assays were assessed using LLC-MK2 cells. The results showed that the coordination of HFedtc to Ni(II) or Pd(II) decreases the in vitro trypanocidal activity while the cytotoxicity against LLC-MK2 cells does not change significantly. [PdII(Fedtc)2] showed the greater potential between the two complexes studied, showing an SI value of 8.9. However, this value is not better than that of the free ligand with an SI of 40, a similar value to that of the standard drug benznidazole (SI = 48). Additionally, molecular docking simulations were performed with Trypanosoma cruzi Old Yellow Enzyme (TcOYE), which predicted that HFedtc binds to the protein, almost parallel to the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) prosthetic group, while the [NiII(Fedtc)2] complex was docked into the enzyme binding site in a significantly different manner. In order to confirm the hypothetical interaction, in vitro experiments of fluorescence quenching and enzymatic activity were performed which indicated that, although HFedtc was not processed by the enzyme, it was able to act as a competitive inhibitor, blocking the hydride transfer from the FMN prosthetic group of the enzyme to the menadione substrate.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Metalocenos/farmacologia , NADPH Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Níquel/farmacologia , Paládio/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrazinas/química , Macaca mulatta , Metalocenos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , NADPH Desidrogenase/química , NADPH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Níquel/química , Níquel/metabolismo , Paládio/química , Paládio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/metabolismo , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
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