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2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112270, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589965

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Primates forage on a variety of plant parts to balance their dietary intake to meet requirements of energy, nutrition and maintenance, however the reason(s) leading them to ingest some plants which have no nutritional value and/or contain bioactive or even toxic secondary metabolites is recently gaining closer attention. The growing literature suggests that primates consume plants for medicinal purposes (self-medication) as well, particularly when infected with parasites and pathogens (bacteria, viruses, microbes). Interestingly, some of the plants they consume are also used by humans for similar purposes or may have potential uses for humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As part of a 16-month study of the parasite ecology of a sub-species of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on the island of Yakushima, we surveyed their feeding habits and collected a subset of plants and plant parts observed being ingested by macaques. The ethnomedicinal value of these plants was surveyed and methanolic extracts of 45 plant parts were tested in vitro against important parasites of humans, including four protozoan parasites Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, and the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Potential toxicity of the extracts was also assessed on mammalian cells. RESULTS: A wide range of ethnomedicinal uses in Asia for these plants is noted, with 37% associated with the treatment of parasites, pathogens and related symptoms. Additionally, the 45 extracts tested showed broad and significant activity against our test organisms. All extracts were active against T. b. rhodesiense. The majority (over 80%) inhibited the growth of P. falciparum and L. donovani. Half of the extracts also displayed antiprotozoal potential against T. cruzi while only several extracts were active against both larval and adult stages of S. mansoni. Cytotoxicity was generally low, although several extracts lacked specific toxicity to test parasites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Ilhas , Japão , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Testes de Toxicidade , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is a major public health problem that is endemic in Brazil and Latin America. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 171 patients (mean age, 45 years; female, 65%) with Chagas disease at Hospital Universitário de Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. METHODS: We implemented this cross-sectional study using a clinical epidemiological questionnaire, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and quantitative detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Among the patients, 26.3% had a full elementary education, and 13.2% were illiterate. Most (63.6%) were economically classified as class C, and 51.5% were born in Bahia state. A total of 62.0% participants reported previous contact with the triatomine bug. The clinical forms of the disease were indeterminate (69.51%), cardiac (15.24%), digestive (10.37%), and mixed (4.88%). The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was complete right bundle branch block in association with a divisional anterosuperior block. Only 14.6% of the patients complied with benznidazole medication for at least 60 days, and 164 of them were assessed by echocardiography. The parasite load was positive in 56% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease affected mostly women, with the indeterminate chronic form of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Parasitária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 506, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by triatomine insects. Clinical manifestations vary according to the phase of the disease. Cutaneous manifestations are usually observed in the acute phase (chagoma and Romaña's sign) or after reactivation of the chronic phase by immunosuppression; however, a disseminated infection in the acute phase without immunosuppression has not been reported for CD. Here, we report an unusual case of disseminated cutaneous infection during the acute phase of CD in a Mexican woman. METHODS: Evaluation of the patient included a complete clinical history, a physical exam, and an exhaustive evaluation by laboratory tests, including ELISA, Western blot and PCR. RESULTS: Skin biopsies of a 50-year-old female revealed intracellular parasites affecting the lower extremities with lymphangitic spread in both legs. The PCR tests evaluated biopsy samples obtained from the lesions and blood samples, which showed a positive diagnosis for T. cruzi. Partial sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal DNA correlated with the genetic variant DTU II; however, serological tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of CD with disseminated skin lesions that was detected by PCR and showed negative serological results. In Mexico, an endemic CD area, there are no records of this type of manifestation, which demonstrates the ability of the parasite to initiate and maintain infections in atypical tissues .


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Western Blotting , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/parasitologia , Perna (Membro)/patologia , Sistema Linfático/parasitologia , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
5.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105167, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513762

RESUMO

It is not currently known which individuals with chronic Chagas disease (ChD) will develop cardiopathy in a determined period and which will be maintained asymptomatic with normal routine laboratory tests all their lives. The parasite burden is a factor that could explain this different evolution. The objective of this study was to quantify Trypanosoma cruzi burden by real-time PCR in blood (qPCR-B) and dejections of triatomines fed by xenodiagnosis (qPCR-XD) in 90 individuals with chronic ChD untreated, classified according to XD results and the presence or absence of cardiopathy. All individuals came from hyperendemic areas of Chile and participated in the study under Informed Consent. The standard qPCR curves for qPCR-B and qPCR-XD were elaborated with a mixture of known concentrations of T. cruzi strains, performing DNA serial dilutions (1/10) with a dynamic range between 105 and 10-1 parasite equivalents/mL. The TaqManⓇ detection system was applied in a Stratagene Mx3000P thermocycler (Agilent Technologies, USA) with cruzi 1 and cruzi 2 satellite primers. 22.2% and 15.6% of cases with cardiopathy or without cardiopathy were XD positive. There was no significant difference between the groups. The positivity of qPCR-B and qPCR-XD in the positive XD group was 82.35% and 100%, respectively, while in the negative XD group was 55.26% and 42.10%, respectively. A superior qPCR value in chronic ChD patients with and without cardiopathy was determined for qPCR in cases with positive XD and positive qPCR-XD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses show better accuracy for detecting parasite burden (area under the curve, AUC) for qPCR-XD in comparison to qPCR-B. That is to say, major performance in DNA samples obtained of positive XD (gold standard for viable T. cruzi) detected and quantified by qPCR-XD. A high percentage of cases with XD and qPCR-XD positive (80-100%) have result concordant with qPCR-B. In absence of XD, future challenges are especially related to the low parasitic load of chronic ChD patients treated with trypanocidal drugs and post-therapy parasitological evaluations by qPCR-B. Finally, no statistically significant differences were found between presence or absence of cardiopathy and XD, qPCR-B or qPCR-XD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Carga Parasitária , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Xenodiagnóstico/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 424, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, is comprised of at least 6 genetic lineages (TcI-TcVI). Their geographical distribution, clinical associations and reservoir hosts are not fully elucidated, as genotyping is hampered due to the difficulty in isolating representative populations of organisms. Lineage-specific serological techniques may address these issues. METHODS: Trypanosoma cruzi lineage-specific serological assays were performed on human, canine, feline and armadillo sera from the Gran Chaco in northern Argentina, a region of ongoing transmission. Synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific epitopes of the trypomastigote small surface antigen (TSSA) were used in ELISA, and the TcII/V/VI shared epitope peptide (TSSApep-II/V/VI) was used in the Chagas Sero K-SeT rapid diagnostic test (RDT). RESULTS: Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT, using Protein G to detect human and canine IgG, was at least as sensitive as TSSApep-II/V/VI ELISA using specific secondary antibodies. For sera from humans TSSApep-II/V/VI seroprevalence by Chagas Sero K-SeT was 273/393 (69.5%), for dogs 48/73 (65.8%) and for armadillos 1/7 (14.3%); by ELISA for cats 5/19 (26.3%). The seroprevalence for humans was similar to that for Bolivian patients, amongst whom we previously observed an association of TSSApep-II/V/VI seropositivity with severity of cardiomyopathy. In humans, prevalence of TSSApep-II/V/VI recognition was associated with locality, and with increasing and decreasing age within the Qom and Creole populations, respectively. For dogs TSSApep-II/V/VI recognition was associated with being born before community-wide insecticide spraying (P = 0.05) and with Qom household (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We show here that Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT can replace ELISA for TSSApep-II/V/VI serology of humans and dogs; for humans there were statistically significant associations between a positive Chagas Sero K-SeT RDT and being resident in Area IV, and for dogs association with Qom household or with being born before the mass spraying campaign; we also show that with cats the TcII/V/VI epitope can be detected by ELISA. We assessed the lineage distribution in an unprecedented 83% of the human T. cruzi-seropositive population. These results form the basis for more detailed studies, enabling rapid in-the-field surveillance of the distribution and clustering of these lineages among humans and mammalian reservoirs of T. cruzi infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Tatus , Gatos , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007715, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Program for Chagas disease was implemented in Bolivia in 2006, and it greatly decreased the number of infections through vector control. Subsequently, a treatment regimen of benznidazole (BNZ) was started in seropositive school-age children living in certified vector control areas. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study and seven blood samples were taken during and after the treatment. Serology, conventional diagnostic PCR (cPCR) and quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed. Plasma Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines levels were also determined. Approximately 73 of 103 seropositive children complied with BNZ, with three interruptions due to side effects. To evaluate each individual's treatment efficacy, the cPCR and qPCR values during the final 6 months of the follow-up period were observed. Among 57 children who completed follow-up, 6 individuals (11%) showed both cPCR(+) and qPCR(+) (non reactive), 24 (42%) cPCR(-) but qPCR(+) (ambiguous) and 27 (47%) cPCR(-) and qPCR(-) (reactive). Within 14 Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, IL-17A showed significantly higher levels in seropositive children before the treatment compared to age-matched seronegative children and significantly decreased to the normal level one-year after. Moreover, throughout the follow-up study, IL-17A levels were positively co-related to parasite counts detected by qPCR. At the 12 months' time point, IL-17A levels of non-reactive subjects were significantly higher than either those of reactive or ambiguous subjects suggesting that IL-17A might be useful to determine the reactivity to BNZ treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of IL-17A might be a bio-marker for detecting persistent infection of T. cruzi and its chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-17/sangue , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bolívia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Nitroimidazóis/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Tripanossomicidas/sangue , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
8.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190146, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) affects 5.7-7.0 million individuals worldwide, and its prevalence reached 25.1% in the state of Bahia, Brazil. There is an association between the prevalence of CD, the socioeconomic status of the population, and the risk of re-emergence due to non-vectorial transmission, such as blood transfusion. This study determined the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection among blood donors in the state of Bahia, located in northeastern Brazil, and their epidemiological profile during a 10-year period. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study involving a database review. Data were collected from patients with non-negative results for T. cruzi infection during a 10-year period. RESULTS: A total of 3,084 (0.62%) samples were non-negative for T. cruzi infection in an initial serological screening, and 810 (0.16%) samples were non-negative in the second screening. The correlation between infection and age (30 years or older) and between infection and lower educational level (12 years or less) in the first and second screening was statistically significant. The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was higher in men in the first screening. In addition, 99.52% of the municipalities of Bahia had at least one case of CD. Livramento de Nossa Senhora and Salvador presented the highest disease prevalence and recurrence, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in these populations was lower than that found in other studies in Brazil but was comparatively higher in densely-populated areas. The demographic characteristics of our population agreed with previous studies.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105127, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Congenital Chagas Disease (CCD) has become a global health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential for the cure of the disease. Our aim was to evaluate techniques and samples used for the diagnosis of CCD in order to improve diagnostic strategies. METHODS: A total of 181 children born in Spain from Latin American Chagas-infected mothers were consecutively enrolled and studied by microhematocrit, PCR and serology tests at 0-2, 6 and 9-12 months of age and followed up when it was required. Samples of cord blood and peripheral blood were collected for T. cruzi detection by PCR. Parasite culture was performed in patients with a positive PCR. RESULTS: Of 181 children, 7 children (3.9%) were lost to follow-up. A total of 174 children completed follow-up, 12 were diagnosed with CCD (6.9%) and 162 (93.1%) as uninfected children (negative serology tests at the end of the follow-up). Traditional parasitological diagnosis by microhematocrit had a poor performance (sensitivity was 10%), while PCR in peripheral blood showed high sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%), allowing the early diagnosis of 9 infected children during the first 6-months-old. In the other 3 congenital cases, diagnosis was only possible at 12 months by serological and molecular techniques. However, PCR in cord blood showed low sensitivity (33.3%) and less specificity (96.4%) for the diagnosis. CONCLUSION: PCR in peripheral blood has proven to be the most adequate strategy for the diagnosis of CCD, allowing an early and reliable diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença de Chagas/congênito , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/parasitologia , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Hematócrito , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos , Espanha , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 742-746, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378166

RESUMO

To date, there is no clear standard to monitor drug treatment for canine Chagas disease. We used 2 real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays targeting Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and nuclear satellite DNA (nDNA) to detect T. cruzi in canine whole blood. Samples were collected randomly from 131 untreated dogs with unknown T. cruzi infection status in Texas. The kDNA-based rtPCR was slightly more sensitive (diagnostic sensitivity of kDNA = 49% vs. nDNA = 44%; p = 0.5732) but slightly less specific (diagnostic specificity of kDNA = 96% vs. nDNA = 97%; p > 0.9999) than the nDNA-based rtPCR. However, the differences in sensitivity and specificity between the nDNA- and kDNA-based rtPCR assays were not statistically significant. Using the nDNA- and kDNA-based qualitative rtPCR assays to monitor parasitemia from 137 itraconazole- and amiodarone-treated cases with nDNA- and kDNA-based PCR-positive baselines showed that the PCR positive rate decreased to 0% in 30 d. Using kDNA-based quantitative rtPCR to monitor normalized T. cruzi DNA copies in 4 representative dogs demonstrated that drug treatment could reduce parasite loads within 7-30 d. The kDNA-based qualitative rtPCR may be used for routine parasitemia screening of drug-treated Chagas-positive dogs, whereas nDNA-based qualitative rtPCR may be used for confirmation.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Animais , DNA de Cinetoplasto/sangue , DNA Satélite/sangue , Cães , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Texas
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007668, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of therapeutic response in chronic Chagas disease is a major challenge, due to prolonged persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies, lack of sensitivity of parasitological tests, and need for long-term follow-up to observe negative seroconversion of conventional serological tests (CS). The objective of this study was to evaluate F2/3-ELISA serology, a promising early biomarker of therapeutic response, and T.cruzi Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. cruzi Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), for neonatal diagnosis and evaluation of parasitemia after treatment. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, with three-year clinical, serological and parasitological follow-up of pediatric Chagas disease patients treated with benznidazole. Serology was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and F2/3-ELISA; Parasitemia by microhematocrit (MH) and PCR. RESULTS: A cohort of 107 pediatric patients treated with benznidazole was enrolled in the study. ELISA and IHA were initially reactive in 100% of patients, F2/3-ELISA serology was reactive in 80% (86/107) and 91% (97/107) had detectable parasitemia. Seventy-six (71%) patients completed at least 36 months of serological follow up after treatment. Although a similar decreasing linear trend was observed for all serological tests, F2/3-ELISA presented earlier, age dependent, negative seroconversion compared to CS. All patients reaching undetectable CS titers had previously seroreverted by F2/3-ELISA. All patients with persistently decreasing antibody titers had negative PCRs throughout the follow up period. No new cardiological lesions were observed during the 3 years follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: The data reported here, using CS, F2/3 ELISA and PCR provide support for the efficacy of benznidazole in congenital Chagas diseases. These results provide support for scaling up of screening, diagnosis and access to benznidazole treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov 0028/04 in the Research Council, Secretary of Health Buenos Aires city Goberment.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Formação de Anticorpos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007527, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291252

RESUMO

We studied infection by Trypanosomatidae in bats captured in two areas with different degradation levels in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state: Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA) and Estação Fiocruz Mata Atlântica (EFMA). Furthermore, we evaluated whether the diversity of trypanosomatids changes according to bat diversity and the different levels of preservation in the region. The results showed no influence of the level of preservation on bat species richness (15 and 14 species, respectively), with similar chiropterofauna and higher abundance of two common fruit-eating bat species in the tropics: Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus lituratus. Of the 181 bat specimens analyzed by LIT/Schneider hemoculture, we detected 24 infected individuals (13%), including one positive Sturnira lilium individual that was also positive by fresh blood examination. Molecular characterization using nested PCR targeting the 18 SSU rRNA-encoding gene fragment showed similar trypanosomatid infection rates in bats from the two areas: 15% in REGUA and 11% in EFMA (p = 0.46). Trypanosoma dionisii was the most frequently detected parasite (54%), followed by T. cruzi DTUs TcI and TcIV and Trypanosoma sp., in Neotropical phyllostomid bats (RNMO63 and RNMO56); mixed infections by T. dionisii/T. cruzi TcIII and T. dionisii/T. cruzi TcI were also observed. The T. cruzi DTUs TcI and TcIV are the genotypes currently involved in cases of acute Chagas disease in Brazil, and T. dionisii was recently found in the heart tissue of an infected child. Surprisingly, we also describe for the first time Crithidia mellificae, a putative monoxenous parasite from insects, infecting a vertebrate host in the Americas. Bats from the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro state harbor a great diversity of trypanosomatids, maintaining trypanosomatid diversity in this sylvatic environment.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Crithidia/genética , Crithidia/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Florestas , Genótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe, due to immigration. The aims of this study are to describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of Chagas infected pregnant women in Spain, to assess the vertical transmission (VT) rate and evaluate the usefulness of the PCR in the diagnosis of congenital infection in the first months of life. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study including Chagas seropositive pregnant women who were attended at three tertiary hospitals in Madrid, from January 2012 to September 2016. Infants were examined by PCR at birth and 1 month later and serologically studied at 9 months or later. Children were considered infected when the parasite was detected by PCR at any age or when serology remained positive without decline over the age of 9 months. RESULTS: We included 122 seropositive-infected pregnant women, 81% were from Bolivia and only 8.2% had been treated before. 125 newborns were studied and finally 109 were included (12.8% lost the follow-up before performing the last serology). The VT rate was 2.75% (95% CI: 0,57-8,8%). Infected infants had positive PCR at birth and 1 month later. All of them were treated successfully with benznidazole (PCR and serology became negative later on). All non-infected children presented negative PCR. The mean age at which uninfected patients had negative serology was 10.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: The VT rate is in keeping with literature and confirms the need to carry out a screening in pregnant women coming from endemic areas. PCR seems to be a useful tool to provide early diagnosis of congenital CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Adulto , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180505, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The microscopic examination of microhematocrit tubes (mHCT) has been proposed as the gold standard for acute and congenital Chagas disease diagnosis. We compared different mHCT methodologies detecting T. cruzi parasites in the blood. METHODS: The rotating method, water mount, and immersion oil methods were compared for their suitability, sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: The rotating method was easier, faster, and more sensitive than the others with 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The rotating method is feasible for laboratory technicians with standard training in microscopic techniques and is recommended for the diagnosis of acute Chagas disease in primary health care facilities.


Assuntos
Tubo Capilar , Centrifugação/métodos , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Hematócrito/métodos , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190063, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271624

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study reports the presence of triatomines in natural, peridomestic, and intradomicile environments in Itacoatiara municipality, state of Amazonas, a non-endemic region for Chagas disease. METHODS: Active search was performed inside tree trunks, and palm trees, residences, and peridomiciles localized near the forest area. RESULTS: Twenty adults and ten triatomines nymphs were collected, fifteen of which were from natural forests, thirteen from intradomiciles, and two from peridomicile areas. CONCLUSIONS: The new records of adults and nymphs of triatomines in the intra- and peridomiciles suggest the adoption of prophylactic measures for vector surveillance in the study area.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatominae/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Feminino , Florestas , Habitação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Densidade Demográfica , Triatominae/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
16.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105067, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255585

RESUMO

Vector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi occurs in several areas of Brazil, including the northeastern region, and domestic animals can serve as reservoirs of the parasite. The aim of this study was to monitor dogs as domestic reservoirs for infection by T. cruzi, and the main triatomine species involved in parasite transmission in rural areas of municipalities in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, in northeastern, Brazil. Blood samples from dogs (n = 40) and manual triatomine capture were performed in domiciliary and peridomiciliary environments in rural areas of the towns of Acari, Caraúbas and Marcelino Vieira, between 2013 and 2016. Subsequently, infection of dogs was determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgM and IgG isotypes and Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) reactions for detection of IgG. Triatomine infection was determined by PCR. Forty (16/40) percent of the dogs were seropositive for T. cruzi; 20.0% (8/40) of such reactivity indicated the acute phase, and 20.0% (8/40), the chronic phase. PCR was positive in 42.5% (17/40) of the dogs' blood samples. Specimens of Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Rhodnius nasutus and Panstrongylus lutzi were found to be infected; however only T. brasiliensis nymphs and adults were infected in both environments. Triatomines evaluation showed 82.5% (94/114) of PCR positivity. Taken together, our results confirm that dogs are domestic reservoirs of T. cruzi in northeastern Brazil and T. brasiliensis is the main triatomine species correlated with parasite transmission in domiciliary environments. There is a continuing need to control peridomiciliary populations of triatomines and to implement continuous surveillance strategies for reservoirs with the help from the community.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Cães/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Panstrongylus/parasitologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Ninfa/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190061, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340365

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The ecoepidemiological situation in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil is characterized by frequent invasion and colonization of domiciliary units (DUs) by several triatomine species, with high rates of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: We evaluated the possibility of vector transmission of T. cruzi based on records of the occurrence of domiciled triatomines collected by the Secretariat of State for Public Health from 2005 to 2015. During this period, 67.7% (113/167) of municipalities conducted at least one active search and 110 recorded the presence of insects in DUs. These activities were more frequent in municipalities considered to have a high and medium-level risk of T. cruzi transmission. RESULTS: Of 51,569 captured triatomines, the most common species were Triatoma brasiliensis (47.2%) and T. pseudomaculata (40.2%). Colonies of T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. petrocchiae, Panstrongylus lutzi, and Rhodnius nasutus were also recorded in the intradomicile and peridomicile. Natural infection by trypanosomatids was detected in 1,153 specimens; the highest rate was found in R. nasutus (3.5%), followed by T. brasiliensis (2.5%) and T. pseudomaculata (2.4%). There have been high levels of colonization over the years; however, not all infested DUs have been sprayed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of intradomicile and peridomicile colonization by P. lutzi. These results demonstrate the risk of new cases of infection by T. cruzi and reinforce the need for continuous entomological surveillance in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Entomologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Análise Espacial , Triatominae/classificação
18.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 752-755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342874

RESUMO

A 9-y-old, zoo-housed, male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) became progressively lethargic and inappetent over a 1-wk period. Physical examination was unremarkable. A complete blood count showed mild normocytic, normochromic, non-regenerative anemia with the presence of trypomastigote organisms, consistent with a Trypanosoma sp. The organism was confirmed later as Trypanosoma cruzi lineage TcI via PCR and genome sequencing. The panda was initially treated supportively; however, its clinical status within 24 h from presentation deteriorated, and euthanasia was elected. Autopsy showed severe systemic T. cruzi infection with the presence of amastigotes in the heart, brain, peripheral nerves, skeletal muscles, tongue, liver, and testes. We used genome sequencing and serology in identifying the agent.


Assuntos
Ailuridae , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Kansas , Masculino
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 322, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The role of dogs as sentinels has been proposed in multiple regions, as they are a domestic reservoir for T. cruzi. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in shelter dogs from southern Louisiana, and assess its magnitude and distribution. RESULTS: A total of 540 dogs were enrolled, from 20 animal shelters, and tested for T. cruzi infection by serological tests (rapid test, ELISA and western blot) and PCR. We documented a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection with at least 6.9% (95% CI: 5.0-9.3%) seropositive and 15.7% (95% CI: 12.9-19.1%) PCR-positive dogs. Serological tests showed limited agreement, and concordance between serology and PCR was higher when considering reactivity to single serological tests. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was distributed evenly among shelters. Infection was significantly correlated with age (R2 = 0.99), indicating an incidence of new cases of 2.27 ± 0.25% per year. CONCLUSION: Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a significant and widespread veterinary problem in shelter dogs in the region, although it is mostly unnoticed by health professionals. This highlights the need for greater awareness of T. cruzi infection among the veterinary community and dog owners.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
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