Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.073
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429951

RESUMO

African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is transmitted by the tsetse fly which carries pathogenic trypanosomes in its saliva, thus causing debilitating infection to livestock health. As the disease advances, a multistage progression process is observed based on the progressive clinical signs displayed in the host's body. Investigation of genes expressed with regular monotonic patterns (known as Monotonically Expressed Genes (MEGs)) and of their master regulators can provide important clue for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the AAT disease. For this purpose, we analysed MEGs for three tissues (liver, spleen and lymph node) of two cattle breeds, namely trypanosusceptible Boran and trypanotolerant N'Dama. Our analysis revealed cattle breed-specific master regulators which are highly related to distinguish the genetic programs in both cattle breeds. Especially the master regulators MYC and DBP found in this study, seem to influence the immune responses strongly, thereby susceptibility and trypanotolerance of Boran and N'Dama respectively. Furthermore, our pathway analysis also bolsters the crucial roles of these master regulators. Taken together, our findings provide novel insights into breed-specific master regulators which orchestrate the regulatory cascades influencing the level of trypanotolerance in cattle breeds and thus could be promising drug targets for future therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/genética , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase Africana/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/parasitologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/patogenicidade
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244803, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382847

RESUMO

Protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma infect a broad diversity of vertebrates and several species cause significant illness in humans. However, understanding of the phylogenetic diversity, host associations, and infection dynamics of Trypanosoma species in naturally infected animals is incomplete. This study investigated the presence of Trypanosoma spp. in wild rodents and lagomorphs in northern New Mexico, United States, as well as phylogenetic relationships among these parasites. A total of 458 samples from 13 rodent and one lagomorph species collected between November 2002 and July 2004 were tested by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA). Trypanosoma DNA was detected in 25.1% of all samples, with the highest rates of 50% in Sylvilagus audubonii, 33.1% in Neotoma micropus, and 32% in Peromyscus leucopus. Phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma sequences revealed five haplotypes within the subgenus Herpetosoma (T. lewisi clade). Focused analysis on the large number of samples from N. micropus showed that Trypanosoma infection varied by age class and that the same Trypanosoma haplotype could be detected in recaptured individuals over multiple months. This is the first report of Trypanosoma infections in Dipodomys ordii and Otospermophilus variegatus, and the first detection of a haplotype phylogenetically related to T. nabiasi in North America in S. audubonii. This study lends important new insight into the diversity of Trypanosoma species, their geographic ranges and host associations, and the dynamics of infection in natural populations.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae/parasitologia , Lagomorpha/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , New Mexico , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240062, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031471

RESUMO

The eukaryotic blood parasite genus Trypanosoma includes several important pathogens of humans and livestock, but has been understudied in wildlife broadly. The trypanosomes that infect birds are in particular need of increased attention, as these parasites are abundant and globally distributed, yet few studies have addressed their evolutionary origins and diversity using modern molecular and analytical approaches. Of specific interest are the deep evolutionary relationships of the avian trypanosomes relative to the trypanosome species that are pathogenic in humans, as well as their species level diversity in regions where they have been understudied such as North America. Here, we address these unresolved areas of study using phylogenomic data for two species of avian trypanosomes that were isolated as "bycatch" from host transcriptome assemblies, as well as a large 18S DNA barcode sequence dataset that includes 143 novel avian Trypanosoma 18S sequences from North America. Using a phylogenomic approach, we find that the avian trypanosomes are nested within a clade of primarily mammalian trypanosomes that includes the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, and are paraphyletic with respect to the ruminant trypanosome Trypanosoma theileri. DNA barcode sequences showed that T. avium and an unidentified small, non-striated trypanosome that was morphologically similar to T. everetti are each represented by highly abundant and divergent 18S haplotypes in North America. Community-level sampling revealed that additional species-level Trypanosoma lineages exist in this region. We compared the newly sequenced DNA barcodes from North America to a global database, and found that avian Trypanosoma 18S haplotypes generally exhibited a marked lack of host specificity with at least one T. avium haplotype having an intercontinental distribution. This highly abundant T. avium haplotype appears to have a remarkably high dispersal ability and cosmopolitan capacity to evade avian host immune defenses, which warrant further study.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Transcriptoma , Trypanosoma/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Aves/parasitologia , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Haplótipos , Humanos , América do Norte , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , RNA Ribossômico 18S/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 407-413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128867

RESUMO

Morphnus guianensis is a species belonging to the Accipitridae family classified as almost threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Trypanosomes are flagellated protozoa that carry out their life cycle in the circulatory system of vertebrate hosts and within the digestive tract of invertebrate hosts. This study recorded Trypanosoma sp. parasitizing M. guianensis in the Brazilian Amazon, providing data related to the morphology and morphometry of the trypomastigote forms of peripheral blood of this bird. The mean values of the measured morphological regions were used to compare morphometric similarity with morphotypes described for Trypanosoma sp. through the Bray-Curtis method and, after statistical analysis, the dendrogram was generated from the morphological similarities with a similarity greater than 95% with T. paddae described for different hosts in different geographical regions.


Assuntos
Águias , Trypanosoma , Trypanosomatina , Animais , Brasil , Filogenia , Trypanosoma/genética
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 165-174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592455

RESUMO

Neither physiological nor pathological changes following treatments explained why trypanosomes in the same group of experimentally treated animals correlated in virulence. Also, they behaved like each other but not similar to other groups despite the same T. evansi injected strain. The current study aims to discuss whether molecular changes might occur to Trypanosoma evansi isolates followed treatments are responsible for that difference or not. Ten preserved isolates from T. evansi after previous treatments besides the original strain of T. evansi that injected before treatments were used in the present study. These isolates were intraperitoneally inoculated in 11 groups of male Wister Albino rats with equal doses. Parasitological findings and the molecular changes accompanied were discussed along with the experiment based on PCR-TR3/TR4 specific-primers. The study also achieved alignments, gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis for submitted and reference strains belong to T. evansi, T. brucei, T. b. brucei, and T. b. gambiense deposited in GenBank. The present results assessed molecularly the effectiveness and highly antitrypanosomal activity of human plasmas O+ and A+ on T. evansi than others, and how their strains drifted from its original sequence to the nearest form of T. brucei. At the same time, T. evansi in other plant extract groups multiplied progressively like cancer cells and became more virulent and close to reference strains of T. evansi. Our data further indicated that T. evansi after treatment was a paraphyletic group. It also corroborated the antitrypanosomal activityspecificity and the molecular changes occurring were correlated to the type of treatment.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários , Trypanosoma , Tripanossomíase , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade , Tripanossomíase/sangue , Tripanossomíase/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 148, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine trypanosomiasis is a severe and prevalent disease that has the greatest impact globally upon working equids due to its distribution across lower income countries. Morbidity and mortality rates are high; disease management strategies in endemic regions are ineffective and cost prohibitive. Individual variation in disease phenotype in other species suggests host factors could reveal novel treatment and control targets but has not been investigated in equids. METHODS: A prospective clinical evaluation of equines presenting for a free veterinary examination was performed in hyperendemic villages in The Gambia. Age, body condition score and body weight were estimated by validated methods, and haematocrit and total protein concentration measured. Animals fulfilling 2 out of 5 clinical inclusion criteria (anaemia, poor body condition, pyrexia, history of abortion, oedema) for a diagnosis of trypanosomiasis received trypanocidal treatment with follow-up at 1 and 2 weeks. Blood samples underwent PCR analysis with specific Trypanosoma spp. primers and results were compared to the subject's clinical and clinicopathological features. A mixed effects generalised linear model was generated to evaluate the association of infection status with degree of pyrexia and anaemia. RESULTS: Morbidity was high within examined (n = 641) and selected (n = 247) study populations. PCR status was not associated with a defined disease phenotype; there was intra- and inter-species variability. Donkeys were more frequently Trypanosoma spp.-positive (P < 0.001) and febrile (P < 0.001) than horses, but infected horses were more anaemic (P < 0.001), and in poorer body condition (P < 0.001) than donkeys. Sex was correlated to disease phenotype: males were more anaemic (P = 0.03) and febrile (P < 0.001). Haemoparasite co-infections were more common than a single infection. CONCLUSIONS: There was evidence of diversity in trypanosomiasis clinical signs plus variable disease phenotypes within equid subpopulations that warrant further investigation. The complex co-infection profile of field cases requires greater consideration to optimise disease management.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Fenótipo , Tripanossomíase/fisiopatologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Febre , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Hematócrito , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0008044, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi is known as "surra" and is a widespread neglected tropical disease affecting wild and domestic animals mainly in South America, the Middle East, North Africa and Asia. An essential necessity for T. evansi infection control is the availability of reliable and sensitive diagnostic tools. While DNA-based PCR detection techniques meet these criteria, most of them require well-trained and experienced users as well as a laboratory environment allowing correct protocol execution. As an alternative, we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) test for Type A T. evansi. The technology uses an isothermal nucleic acid amplification approach that is simple, fast, cost-effective and is suitable for use in minimally equipped laboratories and even field settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: An RPA assay targeting the T. evansi RoTat1.2 VSG gene was designed for the DNA-based detection of T. evansi. Comparing post-amplification visualization by agarose gel electrophoresis and a lateral flow (LF) format reveals that the latter displays a higher sensitivity. The RPA-LF assay is specific for RoTat1.2-expressing strains of T. evansi as it does not detect the genomic DNA of other trypanosomatids. Finally, experimental mouse infection trials demonstrate that the T. evansi specific RPA-LF can be employed as a test-of-cure tool. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared to other DNA-based parasite detection methods (such as PCR and LAMP), the T. evansi RPA-LF (TevRPA-LF) described in this paper is an interesting alternative because of its simple read-out (user-friendly), short execution time (15 minutes), experimental sensitivity of 100 fg purified genomic T. evansi DNA, and ability to be carried out at a moderate, constant temperature (39°C). Therefore, the TevRPA-LF is an interesting tool for the detection of active T. evansi infections.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Recombinases/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma/genética
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 805-813, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006230

RESUMO

Addressing the problems linked to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiases requires considerable data on tsetse distribution and trypanosome infections. Although efforts to map tsetse and trypanosome infections have been undertaken at continental level, published data are still rare in wildlife reserves of West and Central Africa. To fill this gap, data on tsetse distribution and trypanosome infections were generated in the wildlife reserve of Santchou. For this study, each tsetse caught was identified and its DNA extracted. Different trypanosome species were identified by PCR. Entomological and parasitological data were transported onto a satellite image in order to visualize their distributions. From 195 Glossina palpalis palpalis that were caught, 33.8% (66/195) carried trypanosome infections with 89.4% (59/66) of single infections and 10.6% (7/66) mixed infections. From the 66 flies with trypanosome infections, 54.5% (36/66), 27.3% (18/66) and 18.2% (12/66) were respectively due to Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma vivax. The global infection rates were 18.5% (36/195) for Trypanosoma congolense (forest and savannah), 9.2% (18/195) for Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and 6.1% (12/195) for Trypanosoma vivax. The maps generated show the distribution of tsetse and trypanosome infections. This study showed an active transmission of trypanosomes in the wildlife reserve of Santchou. The maps enabled to identify areas with high transmission risk and where control operations must be implemented in order to eliminate tsetse and the diseases that they transmit.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/genética , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e016319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049143

RESUMO

Leishmania infantum is a trypanosomatid that causes parasitic dermatopathy in dogs. Trypanosoma caninum is another trypanosomatid, which infects the skin of dogs, although cutaneous abnormalities are absent. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of T. caninum infection and its associated cutaneous and histological changes and compare it with the occurrence of L. infantum infection in dogs. The study included 150 dogs, of which T. caninum infection was identified in 3 (2%) and L. infantum infection in 15 (10%) of them, with no association (p>0.05) of these infections with the breed, gender, age, or cutaneous abnormalities. The cutaneous abnormalities were based on 1 (4.8%) and 12 (57.1%) dogs infected by T. caninum and L. infantum, respectively. The dermatohistopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with T. caninum included mild perivascular lymphohistioplasmacytic infiltrates in the clinically asymptomatic ones, while in those with dermatological abnormalities, acanthosis, epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, melanomacrophages, and co-infection with Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. were observed. InL. infantum infected, the histopathological findings included chronic granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates and structures compatible with amastigotes. Despite the low frequency of T. caninum infection, our findings suggest that this trypanosomatid, unlike L. infantum, does not cause any macroscopic skin abnormalities.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase/patologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007983, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106219

RESUMO

The development of chemotherapies against eukaryotic pathogens is especially challenging because of both the evolutionary conservation of drug targets between host and parasite, and the evolution of strain-dependent drug resistance. There is a strong need for new nontoxic drugs with broad-spectrum activity against trypanosome parasites such as Leishmania and Trypanosoma. A relatively untested approach is to target macromolecular interactions in parasites rather than small molecular interactions, under the hypothesis that the features specifying macromolecular interactions diverge more rapidly through coevolution. We computed tRNA Class-Informative Features in humans and independently in eight distinct clades of trypanosomes, identifying parasite-specific informative features, including base pairs and base mis-pairs, that are broadly conserved over approximately 250 million years of trypanosome evolution. Validating these observations, we demonstrated biochemically that tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) interactions are a promising target for anti-trypanosomal drug discovery. From a marine natural products extract library, we identified several fractions with inhibitory activity toward Leishmania major alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) but no activity against the human homolog. These marine natural products extracts showed cross-reactivity towards Trypanosoma cruzi AlaRS indicating the broad-spectrum potential of our network predictions. We also identified Leishmania major threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) inhibitors from the same library. We discuss why chemotherapies targeting multiple aaRSs should be less prone to the evolution of resistance than monotherapeutic or synergistic combination chemotherapies targeting only one aaRS.


Assuntos
Alanina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Leishmania/enzimologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/antagonistas & inibidores , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alanina-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Antiprotozoários/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Treonina-tRNA Ligase/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/enzimologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963925

RESUMO

Immune response to infections has been shown to be mediated by genetic diversity in pattern recognition receptors, leading to disease tolerance or susceptibility. We elucidated naturally occurring variations within the bovine CD14 gene promoter in trypanosome-tolerant (N'Dama) and susceptible (White Fulani) cattle, with genomic and computational approaches. Blood samples were collected from White Fulani and N'Dama cattle, genomic DNA extracted and the entire promoter region of the CD14 gene amplified by PCR. We sequenced this region and performed in silico computation to identify SNP variants, transcription factor binding sites, as well as micro RNAs in the region. CD14 promoter sequences were compared with the reference bovine genome from the Ensembl database to identify various SNPs. Furthermore, we validated three selected N'Dama specific SNPs using custom Taqman SNP genotyping assay for genetic diversity. In all, we identified a total of 54 and 41 SNPs at the CD14 promoter for N'Dama and White Fulani respectively, including 13 unique SNPs present in N'Dama only. The significantly higher SNP density at the CD14 gene promoter region in N'Dama may be responsible for disease tolerance, possibly an evolutionary adaptation. Our genotype analysis of the three loci selected for validation show that mutant alleles (A/A, C/C, and A/A) were adaptation profiles within disease tolerant N'Dama. A similar observation was made for our haplotype analysis revealing that haplotypes H1 (ACA) and H2 (ACG) were significant combinations within the population. The SNP effect prediction revealed 101 and 89 new transcription factor binding sites in N'Dama and White Fulani, respectively. We conclude that disease tolerant N'Dama possessing higher SNP density at the CD14 gene promoter and the preponderance of mutant alleles potentially confirms the significance of this promoter in immune response, which is lacking in susceptible White Fulani. We, therefore, recommend further in vitro and in vivo study of this observation in infected animals, as the next step for understanding genetic diversity relating to varying disease phenotypes in both breeds.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Nigéria , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/genética , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/patogenicidade
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 21, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma evansi is the causative agent of surra, a disease that occurs in many animal species. The disease is responsible for substantial losses in global production and can be fatal if not diagnosed early. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. evansi in livestock, equids and dromedary camels in Palestine. METHODS: Blood samples were collected during 2015-2017 from domesticated animals (n = 259 animals; 77% females and 23% males) including camels (n = 87), horses (n = 46), donkeys (n = 28), mules (n = 2), sheep (n = 49) and goats (n = 48) from eight districts: Ariha (Jericho), Nablus, Bethlehem, Deir Al Balah, Jenin, Rafah, Tubas, and Khan Yunis. Parasite prevalence was determined using PCR and blood smear microscopy. PCR-positive samples were further phylogenetically analyzed using DNA sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. RESULTS: The overall infection prevalence was 18% (46/259). The positivity rates according to PCR and microscopy examination were 17% (45/259) and 2.7% (7/259), respectively. The infection rates were as follows: camels, 26/61 (30%); horses, 8/46 (17%); donkeys, 3/28 (11%); mules, 1/2 (50%); sheep, 2/42 (4%); and goats, 6/42 (13%). Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene showed that 24 positive T. evansi samples from Palestine formed a monophyletic cluster with seven T. evansi sequences from Africa, Asia and South America, and three T. brucei sequences from Africa retrieved from GenBank. The spatial analysis showed three statistically significant foci of T. evansi infection in Jenin, Tubas (P = 0.02) and Ariha (Jericho) (P = 0.04). No statistically significant foci were detected in the Gaza Strip. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of high levels of infection with T. evansi as a causative agent of surra in Palestine. Our study emphasizes the need for a stringent surveillance system and risk assessment studies as prerequisites for control measures. Further investigations focusing on vectors and evaluation of risk factors are needed.


Assuntos
Equidae/parasitologia , Gado/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Animais , Sangue/parasitologia , Camelus/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos/parasitologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 165-173, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomiasis (Surra) caused by Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is known to be one of the important haemoprotozoan parasites that causes great economical loss on animal production due to mortality and loss of condition. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. evansi infection among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed on 1045 blood samples collected from 43 farms. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors associated with T. evansi prevalence. The RoTat 1.2 set of primers was used to amplify products of 205 base pair. RESULTS: The overall prevalence was found to be 17.9% (187/1045; 95% CI = 15.66-20.31). Trypanosoma evansi was detected among cattle in all the States of Peninsular Malaysia. Breeds of cattle and closeness to waste area, where the risk factors significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the PCR positivity of T. evansi among cattle in Peninsular Malaysia. CONCLUSION: This appears to be the first time a comprehensive survey on the prevalence and risk factors of T. evansi infection in cattle using molecular tools is been carried out in the entire states of Peninsular Malaysia. The findings from this study will provide baseline information on the molecular prevalence of the haemoflagellate and its associated risk factors among cattle for an improved beef and dairy production in Peninsular Malaysia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Malásia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia
14.
Biologicals ; 63: 81-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708375

RESUMO

A multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of four major haemoparasites in crossbred cattle was established using parasite specific genomic DNA and four sets of primer pairs targeting AMA-1, Tams1, MSP5 and VSG genes of Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, Anaplasma marginale and Trypanosoma evansi generating precise amplicons of 448, 156, 382 and 110 bp, respectively. An internal amplification control, 202 bp bovine ß-casein gene fragment, was simultaneously amplified with four target genes to avoid false-negative results. The sensitivity of mPCR was 3.44 × 102, 5.9 × 103, 2.88 × 102 and 3.3 × 103 copies for B. bigemina, T. annulata, A. marginale and T. evansi, respectively. mPCR of cattle clinical samples (n = 516), suspected for haemoparasites, revealed single haemoparasitic infection in 279 (54.06%) cases, whereas mixed infection was recorded in 54 (10.46%) samples. In clinical samples, coinfection with T. annulata and A. marginale was the most common. The findings of mPCR were consistent with uniplex PCR under field conditions except for subtle variations in A. marginale infection. Overall, the mPCR assay represents an economical, reproducible and robust diagnostic tool for concurrent detection of cattle haemoparasites and large scale epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale/genética , Babesia/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Theileria annulata/genética , Trypanosoma/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 77: 104095, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689541

RESUMO

Even if the number of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) cases from Kinshasa province in DRC is going towards elimination for the last decade, cases still occur in the periphery of the city. The diagnosis of 21 cases in the south periphery of Kinshasa, between 2015 and 2017 gives evidence of the existence of an active focus in this area. Here, we present the results of a punctual entomological survey that was realized in july 2014 in the outskirts of the southeast of Kinshasa. Using pyramidal traps, we caught tsetse flies during 2 days, dissecting the fresh ones for further molecular analysis. The average Apparent Density of flies per Trap and per Day was three with a maximum of 5.6 flies in Nganda PIO. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the midguts provided evidence of a high prevalence (57.2%) of infected flies. Ninety three percent of the trypanosomes that were identified belonged to the Nanomonas species, but Trypanozoon trypanosomes were also present in 24% of the infected flies, including mixed infections with Nanomonas, including 3 flies carrying Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the human pathogen of trypanosomiasis. These results show that at the time of the field's study there was an active reservoir of trypanosomes, closed to pigsties, knowing that pig is a potential animal reservoir. It also demonstrates that xenomonitoring using the entomological approach can be an efficient tool for monitoring sleeping sickness. Finally, results are discussed in the frame of WHO's HAT elimination project. Regarding Kinshasa, it points out the need of regular epidemiologic surveys.


Assuntos
Trypanosoma/classificação , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Evolução Molecular , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/classificação , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/genética , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/transmissão
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016319, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058011

RESUMO

Abstract Leishmania infantum is a trypanosomatid that causes parasitic dermatopathy in dogs. Trypanosoma caninum is another trypanosomatid, which infects the skin of dogs, although cutaneous abnormalities are absent. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of T. caninum infection and its associated cutaneous and histological changes and compare it with the occurrence of L. infantum infection in dogs. The study included 150 dogs, of which T. caninum infection was identified in 3 (2%) and L. infantum infection in 15 (10%) of them, with no association (p>0.05) of these infections with the breed, gender, age, or cutaneous abnormalities. The cutaneous abnormalities were based on 1 (4.8%) and 12 (57.1%) dogs infected by T. caninum and L. infantum, respectively. The dermatohistopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with T. caninum included mild perivascular lymphohistioplasmacytic infiltrates in the clinically asymptomatic ones, while in those with dermatological abnormalities, acanthosis, epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, melanomacrophages, and co-infection with Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. were observed. InL. infantum infected, the histopathological findings included chronic granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates and structures compatible with amastigotes. Despite the low frequency of T. caninum infection, our findings suggest that this trypanosomatid, unlike L. infantum, does not cause any macroscopic skin abnormalities.


Resumo Leishmania infantum é um tripanosomatídeo que causa dermatopatia parasitária em cães. Trypanosoma caninum é outro tripanosomatídeo, que infecta a pele de cães, embora anormalidades cutâneas sejam ausentes. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência da infecção por T. caninum e suas alterações cutâneas e histológicas associadas e compará-las com a ocorrência da infecção por L. infantum em cães. O estudo incluiu 150 cães, dos quais a infecção por T. caninum foi identificada em 3 (2%) e a infecção por L. infantum em 15 (10%) deles, sem associação (p>0,05) dessas infecções com a raça, sexo, idade ou anormalidades cutâneas. As alterações cutâneas foram observadas em 1 (4,8%) e 12 (57,1%) cães infectados por T. caninum e L. infantum, respectivamente. As anormalidades dermato-histopatológicas nos cães infectados por T. caninum incluíram infiltrados linfo-histioplasmocitários perivasculares leves nos clinicamente assintomáticos, enquanto naqueles com anormalidades dermatológicas, foram observados acantose, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica epidermal e melanomacrófagos e co-infecção por Microsporum sp. e Trichophyton sp. Nos cães infectados por L. infantum, os achados histopatológicos incluíram infiltrados inflamatórios granulomatosos crônicos e estruturas compatíveis com amastigotas. A despeito da baixa frequência da infecção por T. caninum, nossos achados sugerem que esse tripanosomatídeo, diferentemente de L. infantum, não causa anormalidades macroscópicas na pele.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Tripanossomíase/patologia , Tripanossomíase/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 598, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camel trypanosomiasis or surra is of great concern in Somalia, since the country possesses the largest one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in the world. Civil war in Somalia has resulted in the destruction of educational, research, economic and social structures, making the country scores very low for most humanitarian indicators. Previous studies on detection of Trypanosoma species in Somali camels have only been performed during the 1990s using standard trypanosome detection methods (STDM). Considering the lack of state-of-the-art knowledge on camel trypanosomiasis in Somalia, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. in three districts of Somalia. METHODS: A total of 182 blood samples from C. dromedarius from nomadic and dairy farms were evaluated using STDM, serological (CATT/T. evansi) and molecular (ITS1-PCR) methods. RESULTS: All samples were negative for Trypanosoma spp. by STDM. A total of 125/182 (68.7%, 95% CI: 61.4-75.3%) camels were seropositive for T. evansi by CATT/T. evansi. Camels reared in nomadic system were more likely to be seropositive for T. evansi than those under dairy production system (OR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.1-15.2, P = 0.0001). Five out of 182 (2.7%, 95% CI: 0.9-6.3%) camels tested positive for Trypanosoma sp. by ITS1-PCR. Sequencing of the ITS1 region of the Trypanosoma species detected herein revealed that camels were infected with T. evansi and T. simiae. CONCLUSIONS: Trypanosoma evansi is highly prevalent in camels from the Banadir region of Somalia, particularly in nomadic herds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm infections with T. evansi and T. simiae in Somali camels through DNA sequencing. Our data highlight the need for implementation of adequate control measures aiming to reduce the impact on camel production in the country.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/imunologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camelus/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Somália/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/sangue , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
18.
Parasite ; 26: 69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782726

RESUMO

P-type ATPases are critical to the maintenance and regulation of cellular ion homeostasis and membrane lipid asymmetry due to their ability to move ions and phospholipids against a concentration gradient by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. P-type ATPases are particularly relevant in human pathogenic trypanosomatids which are exposed to abrupt and dramatic changes in their external environment during their life cycles. This review describes the complete inventory of ion-motive, P-type ATPase genes in the human pathogenic Trypanosomatidae; eight Leishmania species (L. aethiopica, L. braziliensis, L. donovani, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, L. panamensis, L. tropica), Trypanosoma cruzi and three Trypanosoma brucei subspecies (Trypanosoma brucei brucei TREU927, Trypanosoma brucei Lister strain 427, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense DAL972). The P-type ATPase complement in these trypanosomatids includes the P1B (metal pumps), P2A (SERCA, sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases), P2B (PMCA, plasma membrane calcium ATPases), P2D (Na+ pumps), P3A (H+ pumps), P4 (aminophospholipid translocators), and P5B (no assigned specificity) subfamilies. These subfamilies represent the P-type ATPase transport functions necessary for survival in the Trypanosomatidae as P-type ATPases for each of these seven subfamilies are found in all Leishmania and Trypanosoma species included in this analysis. These P-type ATPase subfamilies are correlated with current molecular and biochemical knowledge of their function in trypanosomatid growth, adaptation, infectivity, and survival.


Assuntos
Leishmania/enzimologia , Leishmania/genética , ATPases do Tipo-P/genética , Trypanosoma/enzimologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , ATPases do Tipo-P/classificação
19.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(10): 3014-3021, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599940

RESUMO

A long-standing mystery of genomic/transcriptomic structure involves spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS), in which short RNA "tags" transcribed from a distinct genomic locus is added near the 5' end of RNA transcripts by the spliceosome. SLTS has been observed in diverse eukaryotes in a phylogenetic pattern implying recurrent independent evolution. This striking convergence suggests important functions for SLTS, however no general novel function is known. Recent findings of frequent alternative SLTS (ALT-TS) suggest that ALT-TS could impart widespread functionality. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ALT-TS diversifies proteomes by comparing splicing patterns in orthologous genes between two deeply diverged trypanosome parasites. We also tested proteome diversification functions of ALT-TS by utilizing ribosome profiling sequence data. Finally, we investigated ALT-TS as a mechanism to regulate the expression of unproductive transcripts. Although our results indicate the functional importance of some cases of trans-splicing, we find no evidence for the hypothesis that proteome diversification is a general function of trans-splicing.


Assuntos
Proteoma/genética , RNA Líder para Processamento/metabolismo , Trans-Splicing , Trypanosoma/genética , Iniciação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Trypanosoma/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 481, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosomes cause disease in humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa and rely on tsetse flies as their main insect vector. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa; however, only limited information about the occurrence and diversity of trypanosomes circulating in the country is available. METHODS: Tsetse flies were collected from five different locations in or adjacent to protected areas, i.e. national parks and game reserves, in Nigeria. Proboscis and gut samples were analysed for trypanosome DNA by molecular amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and part of the trypanosome specific glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene. RESULTS: The most abundant Trypanosoma species found in the tsetse gut was T. grayi, a trypanosome infecting crocodiles. It was ubiquitously distributed throughout the country, accounting for over 90% of all cases involving trypanosomes. Trypanosoma congolense was detected in gut samples from all locations except Cross River National Park, but not in the proboscis, while T. brucei (sensu lato) was not detected at all. In proboscis samples, T. vivax was the most prominent. The sequence diversity of gGAPDH suggests that T. vivax and T. grayi represent genetically diverse species clusters. This implies that they are highly dynamic populations. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of animal pathogenic trypanosomes throughout Nigeria emphasises the role of protected areas as reservoirs for livestock trypanosomes. The genetic diversity observed within T. vivax and T. grayi populations might be an indication for changing pathogenicity or host range and the origin and consequences of this diversity has to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Intergênico/química , DNA Intergênico/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma congolense/classificação , Trypanosoma congolense/genética , Trypanosoma congolense/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma vivax/classificação , Trypanosoma vivax/genética , Trypanosoma vivax/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/classificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...