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1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 209-219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642957

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chip color after harvest (AH), cold storage (CS) and after reconditioning (RC) in diploid potato and compare them with QTLs for starch-corrected chip color. Chip color traits AH, CS, and RC significantly correlated with tuber starch content (TSC). To limit the effect of starch content, the chip color was corrected for TSC. The QTLs for chip color (AH, CS, and RC) and the starch-corrected chip color determined with the starch content after harvest (SCAH), after cold storage (SCCS) and after reconditioning (SCRC) were compared to assess the extent of the effect of starch and the location of genetic factors underlying this effect on chip color. We detected QTLs for the AH, CS, RC and starch-corrected traits on ten potato chromosomes, confirming the polygenic nature of the traits. The QTLs with the strongest effects were detected on chromosomes I (AH, 0 cM, 11.5% of variance explained), IV (CS, 43.9 cM, 12.7%) and I (RC, 49.7 cM, 14.1%). When starch correction was applied, the QTLs with the strongest effects were revealed on chromosomes VIII (SCAH, 39.3 cM, 10.8% of variance explained), XI (SCCS, 79.5 cM, 10.9%) and IV (SCRC, 43.9 cM, 10.8%). Applying the starch correction changed the landscape of QTLs for chip color, as some QTLs became statistically insignificant, shifted or were refined, and new QTLs were detected for SCAH. The QTLs on chromosomes I and IV were significant for all traits with and without starch correction.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cor , Diploide , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Tubérculos/genética
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2777-2784, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359690

RESUMO

According to the data of Pinellia ternate transcriptome,two calmodulin genes were cloned and named as Pt Ca M1 and PtCa M2 respectively. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that Pt Ca Ms genes contained a 450 bp open reading frame,encoding149 amino acids.The identity of the coding sequences was 80%,and the identity of amino acids sequence was 91%. Pt Ca Ms genes contained EF-hand structure domain,belonging to the Ca M families. The Real-time PCR analysed the expression patterns of Pt Ca Ms in different tissues and different treatments. RESULTS:: showed that Pt Ca M1 and Pt Ca M2 gene were the highest expression level in tuber. Under Ca Cl2 treatment,the expressions of Pt Ca Ms were significantly higher than the control. Under EGTA,La Cl3 and TFP treatments,the expression level of Pt Ca Ms decreased gradually. In this study,the Pt Ca Ms gene were successfully cloned from P. ternate,which laid a foundation for the functional characteristic of Pt Ca Ms gene and the synthesis of alkaloids from P. ternata for further study.


Assuntos
Calmodulina/genética , Pinellia/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Tubérculos/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 297: 124991, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253316

RESUMO

Plant species differ greatly in their ability to acclimatise to and survive, cold stress. Normally, potato tubers are stored at low temperatures (below 10 °C) to delay sprouting. In this research, combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis was conducted on potato tubers stored at 15 °C, 4 °C and 0 °C to investigate the mechanism of cold responses during postharvest storage. Results showed that soluble sugars were accumulated under low temperatures, regulating by granule-bound starch synthase 1, beta-amylase, invertase inhibitor and fructokinase. In addition, fifteen heat shock proteins (Hsps), including three Hsp70s, two Hsp80s, one Hsp90, one Hsp100 and eight small Hsps, were induced by low temperatures, which may act individually or synergistically to prevent physiological or cellular damage from cold stress in postharvest potato tubers. This research provided general information of sugar accumulation and defense response in potato tuber under cold storage.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , beta-Amilase/metabolismo
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 139: 411-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981157

RESUMO

Potato tuber dormancy is critical for the postharvest quality. The supply of carbohydrates is considered as one of the important factors controlling the rate of potato tuber sprouting. Starch is the major carbohydrate reserve in potato tuber, but very little is known about the specific starch degrading enzymes responsible for controlling tuber dormancy and sprouting. In this study, we demonstrate that an α-amylase gene StAmy23 is involved in starch breakdown and regulation of tuber dormancy. Silencing of StAmy23 delayed tuber sprouting by one to two weeks compared with the control. This phenotype is accompanied by reduced levels of reducing sugars and elevated levels of malto-oligosaccharides in tuber cortex and pith tissue below the bud eye of StAmy23-deficient potato tubers. Changes in soluble sugars is accompanied by a slight variation of phytoglycogen structure and starch granule size. Our results suggest that StAmy23 may stimulate sprouting by hydrolyzing soluble phytoglycogen to ensure supply of sugars during tuber dormancy.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Germinação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/genética
5.
Physiol Plant ; 167(2): 250-263, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478903

RESUMO

In the obligate short-day potato Solanum tuberosum group Andigena (Solanum andigena), short days, or actually long nights, induce tuberization. Applying a night break in the middle of this long night represses tuberization. However, it is not yet understood how this repression takes place. We suggest a coincidence model, similar to the model explaining photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. We hypothesize that potato CONSTANS (StCOL1), expressed in the night of a short day, is stabilized by the light of the night break. This allows for StCOL1 to repress tuberization through induction of StSP5G, which represses the tuberization signal StSP6A. We grew S. andigena plants in short days, with night breaks applied at different time points during the dark period, either coinciding with StCOL1 expression or not. StCOL1 protein presence, StCOL1 expression and expression of downstream targets StSP5G and StSP6A were measured during a 24-h time course. Our results show that a night break applied during peak StCOL1 expression is unable to delay tuberization, while coincidence with low or no StCOL1 expression leads to severely repressed tuberization. These results imply that coincidence between StCOL1 expression and light does not explain why a night break represses tuberization in short days. Furthermore, stable StCOL1 did not always induce StSP5G, and upregulated StSP5G did not always lead to fully repressed StSP6A. Our findings suggest there is a yet unknown level of control between StCOL1, StSP5G and StSP6A expression, which determines whether a plant tuberizes.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima
6.
J Exp Bot ; 70(3): 835-843, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395257

RESUMO

Potato tuber bud dormancy break followed by premature sprouting is a major commercial problem which results in quality losses and decreased tuber marketability. An approach to controlling premature tuber sprouting is to develop potato cultivars with a longer dormancy period and/or reduced rate of sprout growth. Our recent studies using a potato diploid population have identified several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that are associated with tuber sprout growth. In the current study, we aim to characterize a candidate gene associated with one of the largest effect QTLs for rapid tuber sprout growth on potato chromosome 3. Underlying this QTL is a gene encoding a TERMINAL FLOWER 1/CENTRORADIALIS homologue (PGSC0003DMG400014322). Here, we use a transgenic approach to manipulate the expression level of the CEN family member in a potato tetraploid genotype (cv. Désirée). We demonstrate a clear effect of manipulation of StCEN expression, with decreased expression levels associated with an increased rate of sprout growth, and overexpressing lines showing a lower rate of sprout growth than controls. Associated with different levels of StCEN expression were different levels of abscisic acid and cytokinins, implying a role in controlling the levels of plant growth regulators in the apical meristem.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Physiol Plant ; 166(3): 833-847, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357855

RESUMO

Tomato/potato heterografting-triggered phenotypic variations are well documented, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced phenotypic processes remain unknown. To investigate the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of grafting parents in heterografting in comparison with self-grafting, tomato (Sl) was grafted onto potato rootstocks (St), and comparative phenotyping and transcriptome profiling were performed. Phenotypic analysis showed that Sl/St heterografting induced few phenotypic changes in the tomato scion. A total of 209 upregulated genes were identified in the tomato scion, some of which appear to be involved in starch and sucrose biosynthesis. Sl/St heterografting induced several modifications in the potato rootstocks (St-R), stolon number, stolon length and tuber number decreased significantly, together with an increase in GA3 content of stolon and tuber, compared with self-grafted potato (St-WT). These results indicate that the tomato scion is less effective at producing substances or signals to induce tuberization but promotes stolon development into aerial stems and sprouting. RNA-Seq data analysis showed that 1529 genes were upregulated and 1329 downregulated between St-WT and St-R; some of these genes are involved in plant hormone signal transduction, with GID1-like gibberellin receptor (StGID1) and DELLA protein (StDELLA) being upregulated. Several genes in auxin, abscisic acid and ethylene pathways were differentially expressed as well. Various hormone signals engage in crosstalk to regulate diverse phenotypic events after grafting. This work provides abundant transcriptome profile data and lays a foundation for further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying RNA-based interactions between rootstocks and scions after tomato/potato heterografting.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/fisiologia , Transplante Heterólogo
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17643, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518768

RESUMO

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume (AhBl) is one of the valued medicinal plants. However, its genetic information is limited, which impedes further studies of this valuable resource. To investigate the genes involved in the isoflavonoid biosynthesis, we deeply performed transcriptome sequencing for AhBl. An average of 10.98 Gb clean reads were obtained based on root, tuber and leaf tissues, and 109,937 unigenes were yielded after de novo assembly. In total, 72,287 of those unigenes were annotated in at least one public database. The numbers of expressed unigenes in each tissue were 35,686, 43,363 and 47,783, respectively. The overall expression levels of transcripts in leaf were higher than those in root and tuber. Differentially expressed genes analysis indicated that a total of 12,448 shared unigenes were detected in all three tissues, 10,215 of which were higher expressed in tuber than that in root and leaf. Besides, 87 candidate unigenes that encode for enzymes involved in biosynthesis of isoflavonoid were identified and analyzed, and some key enzyme genes were experimentally validated by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study provides a unique dataset for the systematic analysis of AhBl functional genes and expression characteristics, and facilitates the future study of the pharmacological mechanism of AhBl.


Assuntos
Arisaema/genética , Isoflavonas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Arisaema/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 284, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small RNAs (sRNAs), especially miRNAs, act as crucial regulators of plant growth and development. Two other sRNA groups, trans-acting short-interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) or phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), are also emerging as potential regulators of plant development. Stolon-to-tuber transition in potato is an important developmental phase governed by many environmental, biochemical and hormonal cues. Among different environmental factors, photoperiod has a major influence on tuberization. Several mobile signals, mRNAs, proteins and transcription factors have been widely studied for their role in tuber formation in potato, however, no information is yet available that describes the molecular signals governing the early stages of stolon transitions or cell-fate changes at the stolon tip before it matures to potato. Stolon could be an interesting model for studying below ground organ development and we hypothesize that small RNAs might be involved in regulation of stolon-to-tuber transition process in potato. Also, there is no literature that describes the phased siRNAs in potato development. RESULTS: We performed sRNA profiling of early stolon stages (4, 7 and 10 d) under long-day (LD; 16 h light, 8 h dark) and short-day (SD; 8 h light, 16 h dark) photoperiodic conditions. Altogether, 7 (out of 324) conserved and 12 (out of 311) novel miRNAs showed differential expression in early stolon stages under SD vs LD photoperiodic conditions. Key target genes (StGRAS, StTCP2/4 and StPTB6) exhibited differential expression in early stolon stages under SD vs LD photoperiodic conditions, indicative of their potential role in tuberization. Out of 830 TAS-like loci identified, 24 were cleaved by miRNAs to generate 190 phased siRNAs. Some of them targeted crucial tuberization genes such as StPTB1, POTH1 and StCDPKs. Two conserved TAS loci, referred as StTAS3 and StTAS5, which share close conservation with members of the Solanaceae family, were identified in our analysis. One TAS-like locus (StTm2) was validated for phased siRNA generation and one of its siRNA was predicted to cleave an important tuber marker gene StGA2ox1. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that sRNAs and their selective target genes could be associated with the regulation of early stages of stolon-to-tuber transitions in a photoperiod-dependent manner in potato.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fotoperíodo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Planta ; 248(6): 1569-1579, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276470

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The PmBiPPro1 promoter of the luminal binding protein (BiP) from Douglas-fir is fully functional in transgenic potato, responsive to wounding, and has high transcriptional activity in tubers. A predefined pattern and level of transgene expression targeted to specific tissues or organs and at a particular developmental stage is a pre-requisite for the successful development of plants with desired traits. Here, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of the PmBiPPro1 promoter of the luminal binding protein (BiP) from Douglas-fir, by expressing reporter ß-D-glucuronidase (GUS) gene constructs containing three different PmBiPPro1 promoter versions (2258 bp, 1259 bp, and 278 bp) in transgenic potato. In conifers, this promoter regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperon of the HSP70 stress-related protein family and is essential for proper functioning of the ER. Stable expression analysis demonstrated that two of three PmBiPPro1 promoter versions (PmBiPPro1-1 and PmBiPPro1-3) were fully functional in the heterologous host, exhibited high transcriptional activities in the leaves of unstressed potatoes, and were responsive to wounding. Deletion analysis showed that the positive cis-active regulatory elements necessary for higher level expression resided within the - 1243 to - 261 region, whereas negative cis-active elements encompassed nucleotides - 2242 to - 1243. Histochemical staining revealed high level of GUS activities in tissues associated with a high rate of cell division and secretory activities. Most importantly, the PmBiPPro1 promoters, especially the full-length version, had activity in microtubers at a level that was much higher than in any other potato organ or tissue. The - 2242 to - 1243 bp region likely contains important cis element(s) that interact with tuber-specific transcription factors required for promoter activation in the storage organs. The organ-specific activity of the PmBiPPro1 promoters may be useful for targeted expression of heterologous molecules in potato tubers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pseudotsuga/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Genes Reporter , Especificidade de Órgãos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(44): 11864-11872, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350976

RESUMO

Patatin is the major tuber storage protein constituted by multiple isoforms highly variable across potato ( S. tuberosum) varieties. Here, we report a first association study of the variability of patatin isoforms between cultivars with their differences in tuber quality traits. Patatin-based proteomic distances were assessed between 15 table and/or processing potato cultivars from profiles of patatin obtained by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The content of ash, dry matter, reducing sugars, starch, total protein, and amino acid composition was also evaluated in tubers of each cultivar. Results showed that proteomic distances were significantly ( P < 0.05) associated with differences in the content of ash, dry matter, and essential amino acids. Proteomic distances were also able to identify outlier cultivars regarding the content of dry matter, content of protein, and protein quality. In conclusion, patatin-based proteomic distances can shorten the screening and selection processes of potato cultivars with advantageous characteristics in molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/química , Tubérculos/classificação , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solanum tuberosum/química , Solanum tuberosum/classificação , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo
12.
BMC Genet ; 19(1): 87, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers coupled with allele dosage information has emerged as a powerful tool for studying complex traits in cultivated autotetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 2n = 4× = 48). To date, this approach has been effectively applied to the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying highly heritable traits such as disease resistance, but largely unexplored for traits with complex patterns of inheritance. RESULTS: In this study, an F1 tetraploid russet mapping population (162 individuals) was evaluated for multiple quantitative traits over two years and two locations to identify QTLs associated with tuber sugar concentration, processing quality, vine maturity, and other high-value agronomic traits. We report the linkage maps for the 12 potato chromosomes and the QTL location with corresponding genetic models and candidate SNPs explaining the highest phenotypic variation for tuber quality and maturity related traits. Significant QTLs for tuber glucose concentration and tuber fry color were detected on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 10, and 11. Collectively, these QTLs explained between 24 and 46% of the total phenotypic variation for tuber glucose and fry color, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 10 was associated with apoplastic invertases, with 'Premier Russet' contributing the favorable allele for fry processing quality. On chromosome 5, minor-effect QTLs for tuber glucose concentration and fry color co-localized with various major-effect QTLs, including vine maturity, growth habit, tuber shape, early blight (Altenaria tenuis), and Verticillium wilt (Verticillium spp.). CONCLUSIONS: Linkage analysis and QTL mapping in a russet mapping population (A05141) using SNP dosage information successfully identified favorable alleles and candidate SNPs for resistance to the accumulation of tuber reducing sugars. These novel markers have a high potential for the improvement of tuber processing quality. Moreover, the discovery of different genetic models for traits with overlapping QTLs at the maturity locus clearly suggests an independent genetic control.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Tetraploidia
13.
Plant Sci ; 274: 476-484, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080637

RESUMO

The mechanism underlying internal browning (IB), or brown discoloration, of the central region of tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was examined. IB disorder begins in roots from approx. 90 days after transplanting, and the severity increases significantly with time. IB damage initially occurs in cells around the secondary vascular tissue, and the area per cell occupied by starch grains in this region was larger than in the unaffected region. High levels of reducing sugars, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities, chlorogenic acid, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were detected in cells from the IB damaged regions. The content of sugar and polyphenols was higher in disks (transverse sections) with larger amounts of damaged tissues than in disks of sound root. The transcript levels of acid invertase (IbAIV) tended to be higher with greater IB severity, whereas fluctuation patterns of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (IbAGPase), granule bound starch synthase (IbGBSS), and starch branching enzyme 1 (IbSBE1) were lower with higher IB severity. These observations suggest that the incidence of IB disorder in sweet potato is largely dependent on the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells around the secondary vascular tissues due to the abundant accumulation of sugar and/or starch grains during the root maturation period.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/enzimologia , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Tubérculos/enzimologia , Tubérculos/genética , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/enzimologia , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/genética , Feixe Vascular de Plantas/fisiologia , Sintase do Amido/genética , Sintase do Amido/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/genética , beta-Frutofuranosidase/metabolismo
14.
Plant Mol Biol ; 98(1-2): 137-152, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143991

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In this study we show that expression of the Arabidopsis ABF4 gene in potato increases tuber yield under normal and abiotic stress conditions, improves storage capability and processing quality of the tubers, and enhances salt and drought tolerance. Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. Potato plants are susceptible to salinity and drought, which negatively affect crop yield, tuber quality and market value. The development of new varieties with higher yields and increased tolerance to adverse environmental conditions is a main objective in potato breeding. In addition, tubers suffer from undesirable sprouting during storage that leads to major quality losses; therefore, the control of tuber sprouting is of considerable economic importance. ABF (ABRE-binding factor) proteins are bZIP transcription factors that regulate abscisic acid signaling during abiotic stress. ABF proteins also play an important role in the tuberization induction. We developed transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis ABF4 gene (35S::ABF4). In this study, we evaluated the performance of 35S::ABF4 plants grown in soil, determining different parameters related to tuber yield, tuber quality (carbohydrates content and sprouting behavior) and tolerance to salt and drought stress. Besides enhancing salt stress and drought tolerance, constitutive expression of ABF4 increases tuber yield under normal and stress conditions, enhances storage capability and improves the processing quality of the tubers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transpiração Vegetal/genética , Tubérculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Prolina/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
15.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have proven the importance of SnRK1 in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and plant development. Compared to Arabidopsis, much less is known about SnRK1 complexes in crop plants, and therefore, more work needs to be done to identify SnRK1 genes and to investigate their function in crop plants. METHODS: In this study we identified five SnRK1-related genes in potato by analyzing the potato genome through BLAST, which encode one α-subunit isoform (stKIN), two ß-subunit isoforms (stKINß1 and stKINß2) and two γ-subunit isoforms (stKINγ and stKINßγ). To investigate the functions of SnRK1 in the tuber development of potato, we further made overexpression and RNAi transgenic plants of these five genes. Based on these overexpression transgenic plants, the Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) were employed to purify SnRK1 complexes, which were tracked by western-blot. RESULTS: Experiments in vivo and in vitro showed that these five proteins in potato are functional SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1-related proteins. The SnRK1 activity decreased by 60% in the RNAi transgenic lines of stKIN; the starch content increased by 25% in the overexpression transgenic lines of stKIN, compared to that in the wild-type lines, whereas there is no significant difference in SnRK1 activity and starch content in the RNAi transgenic or overexpression lines of stKINß1, stKINß2, stKINγ and stKINßγ. In addition, we found that a few different SnRK1 complexes are present in potato by partially purifying SnRK1 complexes from these overexpression transgenic plants. CONCLUSIONS: Five functional SnRK1-related genes were identified in potato, including three novel genes, which encode one α-subunit isoform (stKIN), two ß-subunit isoforms (stKINß1 and stKINß2) and two γ-subunit isoforms (stKINγ and stKINßγ). We found that a few SnRK1 related genes are present in potato tuber, which form several different SnRK1 isoenzymes. We found that stKIN is the primary α subunit of SnRK1 in potato tuber and plays important roles in the development of potato tubers.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197166, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856865

RESUMO

Plant succulence provides a classic example of evolutionary convergence in over 40 plant families. If evolutionary parallelism is in fact responsible for separate evolutionary origins of expanded storage tissues in stems, hypocotyls, and roots, we expect similar gene expression profiles in stem and hypocotyl / root tubers. We analyzed RNA-Seq transcript abundance patterns in stem and hypocotyl / root tubers of the Brassica crops kohlrabi (B. oleracea) and turnip (B. rapa) and compared their transcript expression profiles to those in the conspecific thin-stemmed and thin-rooted crops flowering kale and pak choi, respectively. Across these four cultivars, 38,192 expressed gene loci were identified. Of the 3,709 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the turnip: pak choi comparison and the 6,521 DEGs in the kohlrabi: kale comparison, turnips and kohlrabies share a statistically disproportionate overlap of 841 DEG homologs in their tubers (p value < 1e-10). This overlapping set is statistically enriched in biochemical functions that are also associated with tuber induction in potatoes and sweet potatoes: sucrose metabolism, lipoxygenases, auxin metabolism, and meristem development. These shared expression profiles in tuberous stems and root / hypocotyls in Brassica suggest parallel employment of shared molecular genetic pathways during the evolution of tubers in stems, hypocotyls and roots of Brassica crops and more widely in other tuberous plants as well.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Brassica/genética , Loci Gênicos/fisiologia , Hipocótilo/genética , Tubérculos/genética
17.
Transgenic Res ; 27(3): 301-313, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728958

RESUMO

In this study, the compositions of transgenic potatoes (TPs) resistant to potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) were compared with those of its non-transgenic (NTP) counterparts. The light inducible promoter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase led to the expression of Cry1Ab only in the leaves and light-treated tubers of the TPs. No significant differences were found in the moisture, ash, dry weight, total soluble protein, carbohydrate, starch, fiber, ascorbate, cations, anions, fatty acids, and glycoalkaloids contents of TP and NTP. Moreover, light treatment significantly affected the contents of ascorbate, acetate and nitrite anions, palmitic, stearic and linolenic fatty acids, α-haconine and α-solanine glycoalkaloids in TP and NTP tubers. While, significant differences were observed in the amino acid contents in light-treated tubers of TPs than the NTP ones. Although, light treatment in potato tubers resulted in marked metabolic changes, all the variations observed in the metabolites compositions were found to be within the desired reference ranges for potato plants. In conclusion, the results indicated that the TPs were substantially and nutritionally equivalent to the NTP counterparts.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Animais , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Amido/genética
18.
Phytopathology ; 108(9): 1046-1055, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658842

RESUMO

Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab; however, how they affect common scab-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a common scab-infested field: (i) soil close to the plant (SCP); (ii) rhizosphere soil (RS); and (iii) geocaulosphere soil (GS). Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon, and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68 and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced common scab pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with five to six times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rizosfera , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Streptomyces/genética
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 160, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Potato has a large genetic diversity. This diversity is in part due to somaclonal variability that appears within potato selections for which tubers are used as seeds. However, the potato tetraploid genome, as well as the use of tubers for crop propagation, does not allow for easy genetic studies. The objective is to gain knowledge at the genomic level from standard Russet Norkotah and a subclonal Russet Norkotah selection TXNS278. DATA DESCRIPTION: In this report, we used RNA-seq, which allows genome-wide gene expression analysis to sequence the transcriptomes of the subclonal Russet Norkotah selection TXNS278 with standard Russet Norkotah grown in commercial fields. Among the selections, TXNS278 appeared in a multi-year analysis in Texas as a top No 1 yielding variety. Russet Norkotah and TXNS278 leaf and root transcriptomes were sequenced at two time points during growing season.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
J Appl Genet ; 59(2): 123-132, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492845

RESUMO

A diploid, potato mapping population consisting of 149 individuals was assessed in three consecutive years for important agronomic and quality traits: tuber shape, regularity of tuber shape, eye depth, mean tuber weight, and tuber flesh color. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype had the largest influence on the phenotypic scores but effect of the genotype × year interactions was also strong. Using this data and an existing genetic map, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted. From four to seven QTL were detected for each trait except tuber flesh color, which was determined by a major QTL on chromosome III explaining 76.8% of the trait variance. Additionally, a minor QTL for flesh color was localized on chromosome II. For the other traits, significant QTL were detected: for tuber shape on chromosome X, for regularity of tuber shape on chromosome III, for eye depth on chromosome IV, and for tuber weight on chromosome I. Some detected QTL confirmed previous studies, but new ones were also identified.


Assuntos
Tubérculos/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Diploide , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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