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2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 887, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650270

RESUMO

Chest X-rays are the most economically viable diagnostic imaging test for active pulmonary tuberculosis screening despite the high sensitivity and low specificity when interpreted by clinicians or radiologists. Computer aided detection (CAD) algorithms, especially convolution based deep learning architecture, have been proposed to facilitate the automation of radiography imaging modalities. Deep learning algorithms have found success in classifying various abnormalities in lung using chest X-ray. We fine-tuned, validated and tested EfficientNetB4 architecture and utilized the transfer learning methodology for multilabel approach to detect lung zone wise and image wise manifestations of active pulmonary tuberculosis using chest X-ray. We used Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUC), sensitivity and specificity along with 95% confidence interval as model evaluation metrics. We also utilized the visualisation capabilities of convolutional neural networks (CNN), Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) as post-hoc attention method to investigate the model and visualisation of Tuberculosis abnormalities and discuss them from radiological perspectives. EfficientNetB4 trained network achieved remarkable AUC, sensitivity and specificity of various pulmonary tuberculosis manifestations in intramural test set and external test set from different geographical region. The grad-CAM visualisations and their ability to localize the abnormalities can aid the clinicians at primary care settings for screening and triaging of tuberculosis where resources are constrained or overburdened.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Raios X , Radiografia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 28, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36653768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem. Although the visibility of the epidemic in this population group has increased, further research is needed. OBJECTIVE: To design, implement and evaluate an integrated care strategy for children under five years old who are household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Medellín and the Metropolitan Area. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study in which approximately 300 children who are household contacts of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients from Medellín and the Metropolitan Area will be evaluated and recruited over one year. A subgroup of these children, estimated at 85, who require treatment for latent tuberculosis, will receive an integrated care strategy that includes: some modifications of the current standardized scheme in Colombia, with rifampicin treatment daily for four months, follow-up under the project scheme with nursing personnel, general practitioners, specialists, professionals from other disciplines such as social work, psychology, and nutritionist. Additionally, transportation and food assistance will be provided to encourage treatment compliance. This strategy will be compared with isoniazid treatment received by a cohort of children between 2015 and 2018 following the standardized scheme in the country. The study was approved by the CIB Research Ethics Committee and UPB. CLINICALTRIALS: gov identifier NCT04331262. DISCUSSION: This study is expected to contribute to the development of integrated care strategies for the treatment of latent tuberculosis in children. The results will have a direct impact on the management of childhood tuberculosis contributing to achieving the goals proposed by the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04331262 . Implementation of an Integrated Care Strategy for Children Contacts of Patients with Tuberculosis. Registered 2 April 2020.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Tuberculose Latente , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida
4.
JCI Insight ; 8(2)2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692017

RESUMO

The expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a robust immunosuppressant, is significantly induced in macaque tuberculosis (TB) granulomas, where it is expressed on IFN-responsive macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. IDO expression is also highly induced in human TB granulomas, and products of its activity are detected in patients with TB. In vivo blockade of IDO activity resulted in the reorganization of the granuloma with substantially greater T cells being recruited to the core of the lesions. This correlated with better immune control of TB and reduced lung M. tuberculosis burdens. To study if the IDO blockade strategy can be translated to a bona fide host-directed therapy in the clinical setting of TB, we studied the effect of IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-d-tryptophan adjunctive to suboptimal anti-TB chemotherapy. While two-thirds of controls and one-third of chemotherapy-treated animals progressed to active TB, inhibition of IDO adjunctive to the same therapy protected macaques from TB, as measured by clinical, radiological, and microbiological attributes. Although chemotherapy improved proliferative T cell responses, adjunctive inhibition of IDO further enhanced the recruitment of effector T cells to the lung. These results strongly suggest the possibility that IDO inhibition can be attempted adjunctive to anti-TB chemotherapy in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Animais , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Granuloma
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674038

RESUMO

Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis are two significant public health problems that continue to take millions of lives each year. They may have similar symptoms and, in some cases, are diagnosed simultaneously or may have a causal relationship. In tuberculosis disease, the chronic inflammation, different produced molecules, genomic changes, and fibrosis are believed to be important factors that may promote carcinogenesis. As a reverse reaction, the development of carcinogenesis and the treatment may induce the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Moreover, the recently used checkpoint inhibitors are a debatable subject since they help treat lung cancer but may lead to the reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis and checkpoint-induced pneumonitis. Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective intervention in post-tuberculosis patients and lung cancer patients and should be recommended to improve outcomes in these pathologies.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Carcinogênese
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(1): 103-110, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594309

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health issues in many developing nations especially in Bangladesh. Though most focus is being directed towards mortality and incidence rate, the changes in morbidity and other health status parameters are not been well considered. The aim of the study was a comprehensive assessment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by measuring patient's quality of life which may lead to better outcome in patients' health, infection surveillance and prevention programs. This prospective study was conducted in the department of Respiratory and Internal Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from September 2015 to March 2017. The quality of life scores of 61 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were measured by validated Bangla version of SF-36 questionnaire before or at the starting of treatment, after the initial phase and at the end of treatment. Then the score was compared with those of 75 healthy matched controls. The changes of the quality of life with the stage of treatment and with socio-demographic variables were assessed. Before treatment, all domains of HRQoL of the pulmonary TB patients were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.001). At the end of six-month treatment period, HRQoL of the pulmonary TB patient had significantly increased compared to before treatment (p<0.001). There was no significant difference of scores after six months of treatment with that of control (p>0.05). The lowest score in tuberculosis patients was related to general health perception and vitality. Patients with low socio economic status, low educational level, prolonged disease duration and increased number of symptoms had lower HRQoL scores.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Prospectivos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia
7.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This intensified case finding study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease among people with HIV entering the largest prison in Malaysia. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study was conducted in Kajang prison, starting in July 2013 in the men's prison and June 2015 in the women's prison. Individuals tested positive for HIV infection, during the mandatory HIV testing at the prison entry, were consecutively recruited over five months at each prison. Consented participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and asked to submit two sputum samples that were assessed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and culture, irrespective of clinical presentation. Factors associated with active TB (defined as a positive result on either Xpert or culture) were assessed using regression analyses. FINDINGS: Overall, 214 incarcerated people with HIV were recruited. Most were men (84.6%), Malaysians (84.1%) and people who inject drugs (67.8%). The mean age was 37.5 (SD 8.2) years, and median CD4 lymphocyte count was 376 cells/mL (IQR 232-526). Overall, 27 (12.6%) TB cases were identified, which was independently associated with scores of five or more on the World Health Organization clinical scoring system for prisons (ARR 2.90 [95% CI 1.48-5.68]). ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Limited data exists about the prevalence of TB disease at prison entry, globally and none from Malaysia. The reported high prevalence of TB disease in the study adds an important and highly needed information to design comprehensive TB control programmes in prisons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prisões , Malásia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações
8.
Clin Nucl Med ; 48(2): 188-189, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607369

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old man presented with cough and hemoptysis for 1 month. Chest CT showed an irregular mass in the right lung, with enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum and right hilum. These findings were suggestive of lung cancer with lymph node metastases. The patient was subsequently enrolled in a 68Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT clinical trial. 68Ga-DOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT revealed a mass in the upper lobe of right lung, with intense tracer uptake. Meanwhile, PET/CT showed enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum and right hilum, with mild FAPI uptake. However, pathological examination confirmed the mass was tuberculous granuloma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Linfadenopatia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transporte Biológico , Fluordesoxiglucose F18
9.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0277314, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649267

RESUMO

In this paper, we separately constructed ARIMA, ARIMAX, and RNN models to determine whether there exists an impact of the air pollutants (such as PM2.5, PM10, CO, O3, NO2, and SO2) on the number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases from January 2014 to December 2018 in Urumqi, Xinjiang. In addition, by using a new comprehensive evaluation index DISO to compare the performance of three models, it was demonstrated that ARIMAX (1,1,2) × (0,1,1)12 + PM2.5 (lag = 12) model was the optimal one, which was applied to predict the number of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in Urumqi from January 2019 to December 2019. The predicting results were in good agreement with the actual pulmonary tuberculosis cases and shown that pulmonary tuberculosis cases obviously declined, which indicated that the policies of environmental protection and universal health checkups in Urumqi have been very effective in recent years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tempo , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) manifests itself primarily in the lungs as pulmonary disease (PTB) and sometimes disseminates to other organs to cause extra-pulmonary TB, such as lymph node TB (LNTB). This study aimed to investigate the role of host genetic polymorphism in immunity related genes to find a genetic basis for such differences. METHODS: Sixty-three, Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in twenty-three, TB-immunity related genes including eleven innate immunity (SLCA11, VDR, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, IRGM, P2RX7, LTA4H, SP110, DCSIGN and NOS2A) and twelve cytokine (TNFA, IFNG, IL2, Il12, IL18, IL1B, IL10, IL6, IL4, rs1794068, IL8 and TNFB) genes were investigated to find genetic associations in both PTB and LNTB as compared to healthy community controls. The serum cytokine levels were correlated for association with the genotypes. RESULTS: PTB and LNTB showed differential genetic associations. The genetic variants in the cytokine genes (IFNG, IL12, IL4, TNFB and IL1RA and TLR2, 4 associated with PTB susceptibility and cytokine levels but not LNTB (p < 0.05). Similarly, genetic variants in LTA4H, P2RX7, DCSIGN and SP110 showed susceptibility to LNTB and not PTB. Pathway analysis showed abundance of cytokine related variants for PTB and apoptosis related variants for LNTB. CONCLUSIONS: PTB and LNTB outcomes of TB infection have a genetic component and should be considered for any future functional studies or studies on susceptibility to pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose dos Linfonodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Citocinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Interleucina-12/genética , Pulmão
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(1): 80-89, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical tuberculosis (TB) is accidentally detected by radiologic and microbiologic findings. Transmission by those with subclinical TB could delay prevention effort. However, our study demonstrated positive aspect of COVID-19 outbreak as it could allow subclinical TB to be detected faster through a chest X-Ray (CXR). METHODS: This cross-sectional cohort study aimed to report demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes related to early detection of TB among COVID-19 patients, and to elaborate the association between SARS-CoV-2 and pulmonary TB. Data of patients with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) diagnosed between March 2020 - March 2022 was collected. RESULTS: Out of 12,275 COVID-19 patients, 26 were definitively diagnosed with MTB infection (mean age 48.16 ± 20.17 years). All cases that had suspicious CXR that were not typical for COVID-19, were tested for MTB. On average, pulmonary TB was diagnosed after admission 5(3-10) days, the treatment initiation period was 3(1-5) days from the TB diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This suggests an early detection of tuberculosis among COVID-19 patients by quicker screening CXR and sputum comparing to previous symptom guided screening. Thereby reducing the chance of TB transmission demonstrated during COVID-19 pandemic. So, clinicians should be aware of pulmonary tuberculosis in COVID-19 patients with atypical radiologic findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia
12.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2148355, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2018, over 14 million people have been treated for tuberculosis (TB) globally. However, pre-treatment loss to follow-up (PTLFU) has been shown to contribute substantially to patient losses in the TB care cascade with subsequent high community transmission and mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: To identify, appraise, and synthesise evidence on the perspectives of patients and healthcare workers on factors contributing to PTLFU in adults with pulmonary TB. METHODS: We registered the title with PROSPERO (CRD42021253212). We searched nine relevant databases up to 24 May 2021 for qualitative studies. Two review authors independently reviewed records for eligibility and extracted data. We assessed methodological quality with the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Centre tool and synthesised data using the Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework. We assessed confidence in our findings using Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (GRADE-CERQual). RESULTS: We reviewed a total of 1239 records and included five studies, all from low- and middle-income countries. Key themes reported by patients and healthcare workers were communication challenges among healthcare workers and between healthcare workers and patients; knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours about TB and its management; accessibility and availability of facilities for TB care; and human resource and financial constraints, weakness in management and leadership in TB programmes. Patients' change of residence, long waiting times, and poor referral systems were additional factors that contributed to patients disengaging from care. We had moderate confidence in most of our findings. CONCLUSION: Findings from our qualitative evidence synthesis highlight multiple factors that contribute to PTLFU. Central to addressing these factors will be the need to strengthen health systems and offer people-centred care.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Adulto , Seguimentos , Pessoal de Saúde , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 962510, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457328

RESUMO

Currently, there are no particularly effective biomarkers to distinguish between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and evaluate the outcome of TB treatment. In this study, we have characterized the changes in the serum metabolic profiles caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and standard anti-TB treatment with isoniazid-rifampin-pyrazinamide-ethambutol (HRZE) using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Seven metabolites, including 3-oxopalmitic acid, akeboside ste, sulfolithocholic acid, 2-decylfuran (4,8,8-trimethyldecahydro-1,4-methanoazulen-9-yl)methanol, d-(+)-camphor, and 2-methylaminoadenosine, were identified to have significantly higher levels in LTBI and untreated PTB patients (T0) than those in uninfected healthy controls (Un). Among them, akeboside Ste and sulfolithocholic acid were significantly decreased in PTB patients with 2-month HRZE (T2) and cured PTB patients with 2-month HRZE followed by 4-month isoniazid-rifampin (HR) (T6). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that the combined diagnostic model showed excellent performance for distinguishing LT from T0 and Un. By analyzing the biochemical and disease-related pathways, we observed that the differential metabolites in the serum of LTBI or TB patients, compared to healthy controls, were mainly involved in glutathione metabolism, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism. The metabolites with significant differences between the T0 group and the T6 group were mainly enriched in niacin and nicotinamide metabolism. Our study provided more detailed experimental data for developing laboratory standards for evaluating LTBI and cured PTB.


Assuntos
Infecção Latente , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida , Prognóstico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
15.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 385-388, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460367

RESUMO

Pulmonary tuberculosis and nCovid 19 share many common risk factors. nCovid19 may increase the risk to develop pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis may precede, co-exist or follow nCovid19. Careful evaluation of chest radiography is useful to differentiate tuberculosis from nCovid19 bronchopneumonia. Symptoms of tuberculosis may be mistaken for long covid. A normal chest x ray in the absence of sputum production may help to rule out tuberculosis in such cases. All patients with nCovid19 bronchopneumonia should undergo a careful chest x ray evaluation for any lesions suggestive of tuberculosis. All patients with chest radiological abnormality should undergo sputum examination to rule tuberculosis as atypical radiological manifestations may be more common in patients with nCovid19. Symptoms, signs, clinical features and chest radiographic features of Pulmonary tuberculosis and nCovid19 bronchopneumonia may overlap in some cases. Correlation of chest radiographic findings with epidemiologic history, clinical presentation, and RT-PCR test results or in later stages antibody titres will help in confirming or excluding the diagnosis in suspected cases of nCovid19. In pulmonary tuberculosis definitive diagnosis should be established by bacteriological confirmation. Molecular diagnostic tools should be used to confirm or exclude tuberculosis in suspect cases as the results are rapid, accurate and reliable.


Assuntos
Broncopneumonia , COVID-19 , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Radiografia
16.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 421-426, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460370

RESUMO

Gall bladder tuberculosis (GB TB) is a very rare disease and scarce data is available on exact incidence and clinicopathogenesis even in endemic areas. The aim is to provide an insight into epidemiology, pathophysiology and management for better understanding of gall bladder tuberculosis. We collected data available from the literature on all histologically proven gall bladder tuberculosis. Case reports with either no article or only abstracts were available excluded from the study. Fifty two case reports and series with total 73 patients were included in this study. Mean age of patients was 48 years (Range 8-86 years) with male: female ratio of 1:1.7. 53 (73%) patient had isolated disease and 18 (24%) had associated abdominal tuberculosis. 3 (4%) of patients had concomitant and 7 (9%) had past history of pulmonary tuberculosis. 39 patients presented as cholecystitis and 25 as gall bladder mass. 44 (60%) patients had gall stones and majority of them (56%) are multiple. Granuloma and caseous necrosis was found in 80% & 60% of patients respectively. In conclusion, Gall bladder tuberculosis is a very uncommon presentation of abdominal tuberculosis. Pre-operative diagnosis is not possible due to lack of specific diagnostic test so increase in awareness and a high index of suspicious is required.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vesícula Biliar , Abdome , Doenças Raras
17.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 432-440, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis is a highly prevalent disease in low-income countries; clinical prediction tools allow healthcare personnel to catalog patients with a higher risk of death in order to prioritize medical attention. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a literature search on prognostic models aimed to predict mortality in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. We included prospective and retrospective studies where prognostic models predicting mortality were either developed or validated in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Three reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies using the PROBAST tool (Prediction model study Risk of Bias Assessment Tool). A narrative review of the characteristics of each model was conducted. RESULTS: Six articles (n = 3553 patients) containing six prediction models were included in the review. Most studies (5 out of 6) were retrospective cohorts, only one study was a prospective case-control study. All the studies had a high risk of bias according to the PROBAST tool in the overall assessment. Regarding the applicability of the prediction models, three studies had a low concern of applicability, two high concern and one unclear concern. Five studies developed new prediction rules. In general, the presented models had a good discriminatory ability, with areas under the curve fluctuating between 0.65 up to 0.91. CONCLUSION: None of the prognostic models included in the review accurately predict mortality in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, due to great heterogeneity in the population and a high risk of bias.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pobreza
18.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 523-529, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-Pulmonary TB structural lung disease with cavitation and bronchiectasis favours the growth of Aspergillus. It leads to progressive lung destruction and the persistence of symptoms after successful ATT and can mimic smear-negative PTB. There is lack of prevalence study of this disease from India. Antifungal therapy is very beneficial, as it reduces both morbidity and mortality. The present study is being undertaken to study the occurrence of spectrum of PA in PTBLD. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study, conducted at one of the tertiary chest institute of India over a period of one year, after approval from institutional human ethics committee. A total of 60 patients with history of treatment for PTB were recruited. Active PTB were excluded. Diagnosis of PA in were established on the basis of clinical, radiological, microbiological and serological parameters. Based on this, the spectrum of PA viz. CPA, ABPA and IPA were established. RESULTS: The mean age was 47.88 ± 12.89 years with males being 60%. Mean duration of illness was 6.57 ± 5.11 years with mean asymptomatic period of 4.97 ± 7.41 year. Cough and breathlessness (100%) being the most common symptom followed by wheezing (58%). PA was diagnosed in 48% of cases out of which 43% cases were of CPA. The most common subtype of CPA was simple aspergilloma 14 (54%) followed by CCPA 10 (38%), 2CFPA (8%). ABPA was diagnosed in two cases of PA and one case of aspergillus sensitization. None of the case diagnosed as IPA. CONCLUSION: We found high prevalence of PA among PTBLD, especially CPA. Early recognition and treatment with antifungal has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality. There is a need of prospective community-based larger multicentric studies to precisely define the prevalence of these disorders.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Aspergillus , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 535-538, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice it has been observed that several patients of cured pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) suffer with lung dysfunction and these problems are less documented routinely. Prevalence of these abnormalities remains unknown. Aim of this study is to estimate the lung function abnormality and exercise capacity including diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in cured PTB cases. METHODS: A hospital based observational descriptive study was carried out among 100 patients with PTB, who had been declared cured. These patients were evaluated by spirometry and DLCO to assess their lung function and were classified as normal or abnormal. Modified medical research council (mMRC) dyspnea scale for symptom assessment and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to determine the exercise capacity was also done. Borg's scale was used for dyspnea assessment in 6MWT. RESULTS: 83 (83%) patients having abnormal spirometry, 17 (17%) had obstructive pattern, 32 (32%) had restrictive pattern and 34 (34%) had mixed pattern. 22 (22%) patients had mild decrease in DLCO, 43 (43%) patients had moderate decrease in DLCO, while only 4 (4%) had severe decrease in DLCO. More than half of the patients having normal spirometry had reduced in DLCO. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abnormal lung functions is high even after complete anti-tubercular treatment. DLCO could be a better tool for evaluation of lung function in these patients. There is need to strengthen the National Programme to detect and treat TB patient earlier, also there is need to formulate guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation of cured PTB patient.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Espirometria , Dispneia , Tórax , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(4): 552-557, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health problem contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key for TB control. Sputum microscopy is a rapid and inexpensive test but due to low and variable sensitivity, many cases can be missed. Culture is considered to be the gold standard but is time consuming. Gene Xpert is a novel and rapid cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) that can be used for prompt diagnosis. AIM: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Gene Xpert with culture in diagnosing tuberculosis in sputum smear negative patients. METHODS: The study is a prospective observational study conducted from December 2017 to January 2019 on 189 patients, who were sputum smear negative but had signs and symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis. Their respiratory samples were taken (either sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage) and sent for Gene Xpert. The results were compared with culture, which was taken as the gold standard, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed. RESULT: A total of 189 patients were included in the study. In 25 patients sputum was taken and in 164 patients BAL was taken (which included 22 patients in whom sputum Gene Xpert was negative but there was high clinical suspicion of tuberculosis). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Gene Xpert in diagnosing smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be 96.3%, 81.3%, 87.5% and 94.2% respectively. CONCLUSION: Gene Xpert can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in patients who are sputum smear negative but have clinical features highly suggestive of tuberculosis. It additionally helps in detecting rifampicin resistance. But every Gene Xpert positive case does not necessarily mean an active disease, therefore, past history of tuberculosis along with radiological signs of disease activity are to be considered. In case of negative Gene Xpert but high clinico-radiological suspicion of TB, patients should be followed up on regular intervals, while awaiting their culture.


Assuntos
Radiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Escarro , Rifampina , Microscopia
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