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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 657, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is still a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with high proportion of smear- and culture- negative incidences worldwide. The conventional diagnostic tests are time-consuming and have a low sensitivity. Digital PCR is a novel technology which can detect target sequences with relatively low abundance and obtain the absolute copy numbers of the targets. METHODS: We assessed the accuracy of dPCR in TB diagnosis using more than 250 specimens, and for the first time, we selected M.tuberculosis-specific IS1081 in addition to widely used IS6110 as the amplification targets for dPCR. The quantification of target DNA was calculated using QuantaSoft Version 1.7.4.0917 (BioRad), and SPSS version 13.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: IS6110-dPCR was more sensitive than IS1081, with the sensitivity and specificity accounting for 40.6 and 93.4% respectively. When we classified the TB patients by personal factors for high copy number of M.tuberculosis derived DNA in plasma: bilateral TB, extrapulmonary TB and disseminated TB, the sensitivity of both IS6110- and IS1081- dPCR was the highest in patients with disseminated TB (IS6110, 100%; IS1081, 68.8%), while their sensitivity was a bit higher in patients with extrapulmonary TB (IS6110, 50.0%; IS1081, 39.3%) than that in bilateral TB (IS6110, 43.3%; IS1081, 33.3%). Compared with traditional TB diagnostic tests, joint detection IS6110 & IS1081-dPCR was not as sensitive as smear microscope or mycobacterial culture, but it was higher than IS6110 qPCR (p < 0.05) and was able to detect 47.4% of smear-negative TB patients. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that plasma IS6110-dPCR is a rapid, moderate accurate and less-invasive method to detect M.tuberculosis DNA in plasma of TB patients and IS6110 & IS1081-dPCR has a potential to aid diagnosis of smear-negative TB.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 789-796, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and the status of M. bovis BCG vaccination may affect host immune responses to M. tb antigens. Understanding of the predominant local M. tb strain and immune signatures induced by its strain-specific antigens may contribute to an improved diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine immune responses to M. tb antigen which was identified from the hyper-virulent Beijing/K strain in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients (n=52) and healthy subjects (n=92) including individuals with latent TB infection (n=31) were recruited, and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube tests were performed. The Beijing/K-antigen specific immune signatures were examined by diluted whole blood assays and multiplex bead arrays in a setting where nationwide BCG vaccination is employed. RESULTS: Statistical analyses demonstrated that three [C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL10), interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-α] of 17 cytokines/chemokines distinguished active cases from healthy controls following stimulation with the Beijing/K-specific antigen. IFN-α also differentiated between active diseases and latent TB infection (p<0.01), and the detection rate of TB was dramatically increased in combination with IL-6 and CXCL10 at the highest levels of specificity (95-100%). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that immune signatures to the M. tb Beijing/K-specific antigen can provide useful information for improved TB diagnostics. The antigen may be developed as a diagnostic marker or a vaccine candidate, particularly in regions where the M. tb Beijing/K strain is endemic.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias , Pequim , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Urologiia ; (4): 10-13, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Methods for evaluating the efficiency of treatment which were developed for pulmonary tuberculosis (absence of bacterial transmission and closure of cavities) are not suitable for urogenital tuberculosis. AIM: To evaluate the use of scoring system for assessing the efficiency of treatment of urogenital tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pilot simple open-label prospective noncomparative cohort study was carried out, which included 15 patients with urogenital tuberculosis. All patients completed the urogenital tuberculosis score upon admission and after 1 month, along with standard clinical, laboratory and X-ray examinations. We developed this score to objectify evaluate the efficiency of antituberculosis therapy and it includes clinical and laboratory manifestations of urogenital tuberculosis. RESULTS: Eleven (73.3%) patients responded well to standard therapy, and 4 (26.7%) required therapy correction. Considering that the correction of therapy was carried out in a timely manner, the final result of the treatment was satisfactory. The efficiency of the proposed score has been demonstrated by clinical results. CONCLUSION: Using the urogenital tuberculosis score for assessing the results of treatment of urogenital tuberculosis allows timely correction of therapy according to objective criteria.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose Urogenital/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(3)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885625

RESUMO

COVID-19 has been affecting mankind round the globe. The incidence of this infectious disease of respiratory origin is constantly on rise. Another infectious disease widely prevalent is tuberculosis (TB). During past corona virus pandemics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, coinfection with TB was seen. We present this review as the co-infection of COVID-19 with TB has not been assessed yet, imposing a greater global threat. We suggest few measures to be implemented without delay for effectively screening the suspects of co-infection and also follow up of non-suspect patients in the post-pandemic phase.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21921, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871928

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The anesthetic management of patients with severe pulmonary hypertension is different from that of normal, healthy patients, and regional nerve blocks are commonly used for them. Due to the individual variability of the course, distribution, and branching of the nerves below the inguinal ligament, the supra-inguinal fascia iliaca (SIFI) block has a wider and more stable blocking area. In combination with the sacral plexus block, they can satisfy the needs of surgical anesthesia below the hip. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old man with tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary heart disease, World Health Organization (WHO) class III pulmonary hypertension and right heart dysfunction, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class III needed fixation of an intramedullary nail in the left lower extremity. Additionally, he had broken his left lower limb after a recent fall. Both general anesthesia and epidural anesthesia were not appropriate. DIAGNOSES: The patient had a clear history of tuberculosis, computerized tomography scan displayed destructive pneumonophthisis. Furthermore, he had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary heart disease. INTERVENTIONS: An ultrasound-guided SIFI combined with a sacral plexus block was successfully performed for surgical anesthesia and avoided all hemodynamic fluctuations. OUTCOMES: We successfully performed an ultrasound-guided SIFI combined with a sacral plexus block for surgical anesthesia and avoided all hemodynamic fluctuations. LESSONS: Ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca block combined with a sacral plexus block can be suitable for anesthesia for patients with severe circulatory compromise.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Pinos Ortopédicos , Fáscia/inervação , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/complicações , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/instrumentação , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Plexo Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações
6.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(7-8): 518-520, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779902

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma in 90 % of cases) is the most common neoplasia of the urinary tract. Superficial carcinoma represents 70-80 % of bladder cancers. The treatment of these tumours includes, after transuretral resection, intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation therapy. This treatment constitutes, by its immune-mediated anti-tumoral action, the first step of immunotherapy in cancer. Severe complications (granulomatosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis or orchitis) are rare (0.5-2 %). Here we report a complex case of pulmonary granulomatosis secondary to BCG therapy. This is a 74-year-old male, treated for superficial bladder carcinoma by transuretral resection (pT1G3) and then endovesical instillations of BCG therapy for two months. Two years later, a new transuretral resection shows an infiltrating urothelial carcinoma pT2G3. The extension balance finds a persistent micro-nodular pulmonary infiltrate. A broncho-alveolar lavage is then realised but no mycobacteria was found. A surgical biopsy of a nodule is performed and revealed a histiocytic reaction without any neoplastic element. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was finally positive. In the absence of a secondary lesion, the patient had a cysto-prostatectomy and began a tritherapy against tuberculosis. Post-BCG therapy granulomatosis is a rare complication but should remain a differential diagnosis in front of the appearance of pulmonary nodes in patients who have received posttransuretral resection BCG instillations. Mycobacterial DNA PCR research remains the most sensitive examination.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Miliar , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravesical , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted in bioaerosols containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite being central to ongoing TB transmission, no routine diagnostic assay exists to measure Mtb in bioaerosols. Furthermore, published studies of Mtb in bioaerosol samples have been limited to individuals with sputum-positive pulmonary TB. Notably, TB diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and sputum laboratory findings. This is despite the fact that approximately half of all patients commencing TB treatment are sputum-negative, resulting in a high proportion of presumptive treatments. Here, we propose to use a sensitive air sampling protocol to investigate the prevalence of Mtb-containing bioaerosols in both sputum-positive and sputum-negative TB suspects, at the same time evaluating the potential to identify unrecognized transmitters of TB. METHODS: Our parallel-group design will identify viable Mtb in bioaerosols produced by individuals attending a TB clinic in South Africa. Sampling will be performed on eligible individuals presenting with symptoms indicative of TB and repeated at 14 days if initially positive. Participants will be prospectively classified into three distinct groups based on National TB Control Program (NTBCP) criteria: Group A, TB notification with sputum-based laboratory confirmation; Group B, TB notification with empiric diagnosis; and Group C, individuals not notified. Group C individuals with detectable Mtb bioaerosol will be monitored until resolution of clinical and laboratory status. Collection of bioaerosol specimens will be via two consecutive sampling modalities: (1) direct sampling following a specific respiratory manoeuvre; and (2) indirect sampling during passive respiratory activity. Bioaerosol specimens will be analyzed for viable Mtb using DMN-trehalose staining and live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Mtb genomes and mycobacterial and host lipids will be detected using droplet digital PCR and mass spectrometry analyses, respectively. The primary objective is to determine the prevalence of Mtb bioaerosols in all TB clinic attendees and in each of the groups. Secondary objectives are to investigate differences in prevalence of Mtb bioaerosol by HIV status and current isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) use; we will also determine the impact of anti-TB chemotherapy on Mtb-containing bioaerosol production. DISCUSSION: Respiratory bioaerosol has a potential role in non-invasive TB diagnosis, infectivity measurement and treatment monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04241809 . Date of Registration: 27/1/2020.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , África do Sul , Escarro/microbiologia
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(32): 2525-2531, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829600

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Biomedical Database was searched to collect randomized controlled trials (RCT) related to vitamin D supplementation in tuberculosis patients, and the retrieval time was from establishment to November 2019. Two evaluators independently screened the literature and extracted the data. The negative conversion rate of acid-fast-bacilli of sputum smear, the negative conversion rate of mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and the change of serum vitamin D level were the main outcome indicators, and the body mass index was the secondary outcome indicator. The incidence of hypercalcemia and abnormal urinary calcium were used as adverse event indicators and the RevMan 5.2 software was used for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 8 RCT(S) met the inclusion criteria, including 850 patients with tuberculosis. Meta-analysis showed that compared with the control group, negative conversion rate of acid-fast-bacilli of sputum smear and serum vitamin D level increased after 8 weeks of vitamin D supplementation [RR (95%CI) and mean deviation (MD) (95%CI) were 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) and 8.81 (1.81, 15.81), respectively; negative conversion rate of acid-fast-bacilli of sputum smear was not increased at week 4 and 12 [RR (95%CI) were 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) and 1.01 (0.91, 1.12), respectively]; negative conversion rate of mycobacterium tuberculosis culture in sputum was not increased after 4 and 8 weeks [RR (95%CI) were 1.06 (0.91, 1.22) and 1.02 (0.96, 1.08), respectively]; there was no change in body mass index [MD (95%CI):-0.02 (-0.53, 0.50)]; there was increased risk of abnormal urinary calcium [RR (95%CI): 2.45 (1.75, 3.41)], while no increase in risk of hypercalcemia [RR (95%CI): 1.99 (0.96, 4.13)]. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation is safe but not effective in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Escarro , Vitamina D
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 556, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a general dearth of information on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Here, we investigated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drug resistance and transmission patterns in EPTB patients treated in the Tshwane metropolitan area, in South Africa. METHODS: Consecutive Mtb culture-positive non-pulmonary samples from unique EPTB patients underwent mycobacterial genotyping and were assigned to phylogenetic lineages and transmission clusters based on spoligotypes. MTBDRplus assay was used to search mutations for isoniazid and rifampin resistance. Machine learning algorithms were used to identify clinically meaningful patterns in data. We computed odds ratio (OR), attributable risk (AR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of the 70 isolates examined, the largest cluster comprised 25 (36%) Mtb strains that belonged to the East Asian lineage. East Asian lineage was significantly more likely to occur within chains of transmission when compared to the Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages: OR = 10.11 (95% CI: 1.56-116). Lymphadenitis, meningitis and cutaneous TB, were significantly more likely to be associated with drug resistance: OR = 12.69 (95% CI: 1.82-141.60) and AR = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.06-0.43) when compared with other EPTB sites, which suggests that poor rifampin penetration might be a contributing factor. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of Mtb strains circulating in the Tshwane metropolis belongs to East Asian, Euro-American and East-African Indian lineages. Each of these are likely to be clustered, suggesting on-going EPTB transmission. Since 25% of the drug resistance was attributable to sanctuary EPTB sites notorious for poor rifampin penetration, we hypothesize that poor anti-tuberculosis drug dosing might have a role in the development of resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , África do Sul , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 593, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious health risk, for people living with human immune deficiency virus worldwide, and the burden of TB/HIV infection is still high in Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in East and West Gojjam, northwest, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based unmatched case-control study was employed to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in east and west Gojjam, Northwest, Ethiopia from March 7-April 15, 2017. Just about 552 participants were participated in the study (139 Cases and 413 controls). Cases were confirmed with active TB and infected with HIV, and controls were HIV positive adults with non-TB. All cases in each health facility who confirmed by acid-fast bacilli, culture and gene expert were considered as TB positive. However, controls were selected by using simple random sampling technique through the above diagnostic criteria and the data were collected with Face to face interview as well as patient medical record were utilized, and the quality of the data were assured, checked, coded, cleaned and entered in EPI-Data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for the analysis. RESULT: Of the total sample (556), just about 552(99.2%) were participated in the study. 47.5% were females and 58.9% were rural dweller. Behavioral and modifiable biological risk factors: alcohol users (AOR = 2.33; 95%CI:1.34,4.07), BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (AOR = 3.03;95%CI:1.79,5.14), CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl (AOR = 2.34;95%CI:1.89,2.79) and between 201 and 499 cells/µl (AOR = 2.63; 95%CI: 1.01,6.84), bedridden and ambulatory (AOR = 3.3;95%CI:1.70,6.29 and AOR = 8.2;95%CI:4.34,15.64), respectively. TB history in the family (AOR = 3.00; 95%CI: 1.57, 5.74) were predictors for TB infection. Taking CPT (AOR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.21, 0.62) and having early WHO clinical stage I or II (AOR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56) had protective effect against TB infection. CONCLUSION: From this study, it has been concluded that alcohol users, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, CD4 count < 499 cells/µl, bedridden and ambulatory and TB history were predictors for TB-HIV co-infected adults. Strengthen screening more frequently, CPT Prophlaxysis and treated promptly important to reduce TB co-morbidity.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 612, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is one of the serious infectious diseases worldwide; however, the gene network involved in the host response remain largely unclear. METHODS: This study integrated two cohorts profile datasets GSE34608 and GSE83456 to elucidate the potential gene network and signaling pathways in PTB. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained for Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis using Metascape database. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed by the online database the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING). Modules were identified by the plug-in APP Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) in Cytoscape. GO and KEGG pathway of Module 1 were further analyzed by STRING. Hub genes were selected for further expression validation in dataset GSE19439. The gene expression level was also investigated in the dataset GSE31348 to display the change pattern during the PTB treatment. RESULTS: Totally, 180 shared DEGs were identified from two datasets. Gene function and KEGG pathway enrichment revealed that DEGs mainly enriched in defense response to other organism, response to bacterium, myeloid leukocyte activation, cytokine production, etc. Seven modules were clustered based on PPI network. Module 1 contained 35 genes related to cytokine associated functions, among which 14 genes, including chemokine receptors, interferon-induced proteins and Toll-like receptors, were identified as hub genes. Expression levels of the hub genes were validated with a third dataset GSE19439. The signature of this core gene network showed significant response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and correlated with the gene network pattern during anti-PTB therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study unveils the coordination of causal genes during PTB infection, and provides a promising gene panel for PTB diagnosis. As major regulators of the host immune response to Mtb infection, the 14 hub genes are also potential molecular targets for developing PTB drugs.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(9): 73-74, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798351

RESUMO

Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a disease entity with notable signs and symptoms that cannot go unnoticed by clinicians and taken as a clear sign of infiltrative mediastinal involvement, usually caused by neoplasms in this location, however other causes of benign origin can also present with these symptoms. This unusual case highlights the fact that tuberculosis should also be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with symptoms of SVC obstruction. A timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment leads to cure.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/etiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 531, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China is a country with a high burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chongqing is in the southwest of China, where the notification rate of PTB ranks tenth in China. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of PTB in Chongqing in order to improve TB control measures. METHODS: A spatial-temporal analysis has been performed based on the data of PTB from 2011 to 2018, which was extracted from the National Surveillance System. The effect of TB control was measured by variation trend of pathogenic positive PTB notification rate and total TB notification rate. Time series, spatial autonomic correlation and spatial-temporal scanning methods were used to identify the temporal trends and spatial patterns at county level. RESULTS: A total of 188,528 cases were included in this study. A downward trend was observed in PTB between 2011 and 2018 in Chongqing. The peak of PTB notification occurred in late winter and early spring annually. By calculating the value of Global Moran's I and Local Getis's Gi*, we found that PTB was spatially clustered and some significant hot spots were detected in the southeast and northeast of Chongqing. One most likely cluster and three secondary clusters were identified by Kulldorff's scan spatial-temporal Statistic. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified seasonal patterns and spatial-temporal clusters of PTB cases in Chongqing. Priorities should be given to southeast and northeast of Chongqing for better TB control.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235859, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687494

RESUMO

In our work, we aim to identify new candidate host biomarkers to discriminate between active TB patients (n = 28), latent infection (LTBI; n = 27) and uninfected (NoTBI; n = 42) individuals. For that, active TB patients and their contacts were recruited that donated serum and saliva samples. A multiplex assay was performed to study the concentration of different cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Proteins with significant differences between groups were selected and logistic regression and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy. The best marker combinations that discriminate active TB from NoTBI contacts were [IP-10 + IL-7] in serum and [Fractalkine + IP-10 + IL-1α + VEGF] in saliva. Best discrimination between active TB and LTBI was achieved using [IP-10 + BCA-1] in serum (AUC = 0.83) and IP-10 in saliva (p = 0.0007; AUC = 0.78). The levels of TNFα (p = 0.003; AUC = 0.73) in serum and the combination of [Fractalkine+IL-12p40] (AUC = 0.83) in saliva, were able to differentiate between NoTBI and LTBI contacts. In conclusion, different individual and combined protein markers could help to discriminate between active TB and both uninfected and latently-infected contacts. The most promising ones include [IP-10 + IL-7], [IP-10 + BCA-1] and TNFα in serum and [Fractalkine + IP-10 + IL-1α + VEGF], IP-10 and [Fractalkine+IL-12p40] in saliva.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CX3CL1/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Tuberculose Latente/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocina CX3CL1/análise , Quimiocina CXCL10/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/análise , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saliva/química , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667932

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection stimulates the release of cytokines, including interferons (IFNs). IFNs are initiators, regulators, and effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. Accordingly, the expression levels of Type I (α, ß) and II (γ) IFNs, among untreated tuberculosis (TB) patients and household contacts (HHC) clinically free of TB was assessed. A total of 264 individuals (TB patients-123; HHC-86; laboratory volunteers-55; Treated TB patients-36) were enrolled for this study. IFN-α mRNA expression levels predominated compared to IFN-γ and IFN-ß among untreated TB patients. IFN-α transcripts were ~3.5 folds higher in TB patients compared to HHC, (p<0.0001). High expression of IFN-α was seen among 46% (56/ 123) of the TB patients and 26%, (22/86) of HHCs. The expression levels of IFN-α correlated with that of IFN transcriptional release factor 7 (IRF) (p<0.0001). In contrast, an inverse relationship exists between PGE2 and IFN-α expression levels; high IFN-α expressers were associated with low levels of PGE2 and vice-versa (Spearman's rho = -0.563; p<0.0001). In-vitro, IFN-α failed to restrict the replication of intracellular M.tb. The anti-mycobacterial activity of IFN-γ was compromised in the presence of IFN-α, but not by IFN-ß. The expression of IFN-α and ß diminished or is absent, among successfully treated TB patients. These observations suggest the utility of assessment of Type I IFNs expression levels as a prognostic marker to monitor tuberculosis patient response to chemotherapy because changes in Type I IFNs expression are expected to precede the clearance and /reduction in bacterial load.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prognóstico
17.
Lancet HIV ; 7(7): e463-e471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and mortality among people living with HIV. The primary aims of this study were to assess the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the risk of mortality and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation among adults living with HIV who initiated ART and had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 30 ng/mL at four large HIV care and treatment centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years, pregnant at the time of randomisation, or were enrolled in any other clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either weekly oral 50 000 IU vitamin D3 supplements (cholecalciferol) for the first month of ART followed by daily 2000 IU vitamin D3 supplements or a matching weekly and daily placebo regimen. The randomisation list was computer-generated by a non-study statistician with sequence blocks of ten that were stratified by study clinic. Complete allocation concealment was ensured and patients, field team, and investigators were masked to group assignment. The trial follow-up duration was 1 year and the primary efficacy outcomes were death and incident pulmonary tuberculosis. An intention-to-treat analysis was followed for all-cause mortality; participants diagnosed with or receiving treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis at randomisation, or suspected to have tuberculosis at randomisation and who later had that diagnosis confirmed, were excluded from analyses of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence. Safety was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01798680, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Feb 24, 2014, and Feb 24, 2017, 6250 adults initiating ART had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D screening, 4000 of whom were enrolled in the trial and followed up for 1 year (follow-up of all participants was completed on March 7, 2018). 2001 patients were randomly assigned to the vitamin D3 supplementation group, and 1999 to the placebo group. 415 deaths were recorded: 211 in the vitamin D3 group and 204 in the placebo group. Among all randomly assigned participants, there was no overall effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on the risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·04, 95% CI 0·85-1·25; p=0·73). There was also no difference in the overall incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis between the vitamin D3 (50 events in 1812 patients analysed) and placebo groups (64 events in 1827 patients; HR 0·78, 0·54-1·13; p=0·19). The vitamin D3 regimen did not increase the risk of hypercalcaemia (three events in the vitamin D3 group and two events in the placebo group; relative risk 1·25, 95% CI 0·43-3·66; Fisher's exact p=1·00). 101 hospital admissions were reported in the vitamin D3 group and 94 in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 1·06, 95% CI 0·80-1·41; p=0·66). INTERPRETATION: Additional research is needed before vitamin D3 supplementation should be considered for implementation in HIV care and treatment programmes for the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis or mortality. FUNDING: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Placebos , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 456, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed treatment initiation of tuberculosis (TB) increases disease progression and development of complications which may lead to a higher level of infectiousness, clinical severity and increased mortality. But published evidences that investigated the effect of delayed initiation of treatment on clinical severity and level of infectiousness of pulmonary tuberculosis patients is scarce in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of delayed treatment initiation of new adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients with clinical severity and level of infectiousness. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study design, a total of 875 newly diagnosed adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited from 21 health facilities from October 2018 to October 2019. Health facilities and study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews of patients within the first 2 weeks of treatment initiation. Clinical severity was assessed by Bandim tuberculosis score and level of infectiousness was assessed by smear positivity or lung cavitations. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 software program. Logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain the association of delay with clinical severity and level of infectiousness. P-BMC Public Health of less than 0.05 was reported as being statistically significant. RESULTS: Those who had initiated treatment without delay and those who have initiated treatment after a medium delay of 31 to 60 days were significantly associated with decreased clinical score compared to those who initiated treatment after a delay of more than two months. Compared with patients who have initiated treatment within one month, the level of infectiousness was greater for delay of 30-60 days and above 60 days. Patients having more than 3 family members have higher level of infectiousness as compared to those who have a maximum of 3 family members. Whereas, patients having at least two rooms and being HIV negative had lower levels of infectiousness compared to their counter patients. CONCLUSION: Narrowing the gap between their initial occurrence of TB symptoms and treatment initiation is the way forward to improve clinical courses of TB patients and to reduce the level of infectiousness of TB to other people from these patients.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 484, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are an epidemiological group with increased exposure to tuberculosis (TB), especially at health-care facilities (HCFs) with poor TB infection control in high-TB-burden settings. China is a high-TB-burden country, and the comprehensive measures for stopping TB transmission at some HCFs were not implemented well owing to limited resources and other factors. The purpose of this study was to review risk of occupational exposure to TB among HCWs and its change trend, and identify epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among HCWs in Henan, central part of China. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 2010 to 2017. All HCWs and teachers in Henan were enrolled to the study as exposed group and non-exposed control group, respectively. Relative risk (RR), attributable risk (AR) and AR percent (AR%) were used to measure the association between the occupational exposure and PTB, and estimated with Poisson regression. RESULTS: The study results showed a total of 1663 cases of PTB were reported among the HCWs in Henan, accounting for 3.2‰ of all PTB cases reported in the whole population, and annual incidence rate of PTB among HCWs declined by 34% from 2010 to 2017. Over the eight years, the incidence rate of PTB among HCWs was 43.7 cases per 100,000 person-years (PYs), significantly higher than that among teachers (18.8 cases/100,000 PYs), and RR, AR and AR% were estimated to 2.3, 24.9 cases per 100,000 PYs and 57%, respectively. Among HCWs, males were more likely to suffer from PTB than females (adjusted RR: 1.3; 95%CI: 1.2-1.4), and HCWs aged under 25 years had the highest relative risk over all age groups with adjusted RR equaling to 8.3 (95%CI: 6.9-9.9) calculated with those aged 45-54 years as the reference. CONCLUSIONS: Although overall incidence rate of PTB among HCWs showed decreasing temporal trends over the period of 2010-2017, attributable risk of occupational exposure to TB among HCWs did not decrease in Henan, and TB infection at HCFs for males, young or senior HCWs, especially for young HCWs is of much concern.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
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