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1.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403519

RESUMO

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis-infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short-chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss-treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis-related proteins in the lungs of koumiss-treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the "gut-lung" axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Kumis/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Cavalos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity can contribute to poor adherence to both tuberculosis treatment and HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interventions that target food insecurity have the potential to increase treatment adherence, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease mortality. The goals of this study were to compare the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of implementing two different forms of nutrition support for HIV-TB co-infected adults in the Casamance region of Senegal. METHODS: We conducted a randomized pilot implementation study among HIV-TB co-infected adults initiating treatment for TB (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03711721). Subjects received nutrition support in the form of a local food basket or Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF), distributed on a monthly basis for six months. RESULTS: A total of 178 monthly study encounters were completed by 26 HIV-TB co-infected adults; 14 received food baskets and 12 received RUTF. For both the food basket and RUTF, 100% of subjects obtained the supplement at every study encounter, transferred the supplement from the clinic to their household, and consumed the supplement. The food basket had greater acceptability and was more likely to be shared with members of the household. Adherence to TB treatment and ART exceeded 95%, and all outcomes, including CD4 cell count, hemoglobin, nutritional status, and food security, improved over the study period. All subjects completed TB treatment and were smear negative at treatment completion. The total cost of the local food basket was approximately $0.68 per day versus $0.99 for the RUTF. CONCLUSION: The implementation of nutrition support for HIV-TB co-infected adults in Senegal is feasible and may provide an effective strategy to improve adherence, treatment completion, and clinical outcomes for less than 1 USD per day. Further studies to determine the impact of nutrition support among a larger population of HIV-TB co-infected individuals are indicated.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/dietoterapia , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Apoio Nutricional , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Senegal , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD010578, 2018 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Supplementary feeding may help food insecure and vulnerable people by optimising the nutritional value and adequacy of the diet, improving quality of life and improving various health parameters of disadvantaged families. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the problems supplementary feeding aims to address are entangled with poverty and deprivation, the programmes are expensive and delivery is complicated. OBJECTIVES: 1. To summarise the evidence from systematic reviews of supplementary feeding for food insecure, vulnerable and malnourished populations, including children under five years of age, school-aged children, pregnant and lactating women, people with HIV or tuberculosis (or both), and older populations.2. To describe and explore the effects of supplementary feeding given to people in these groups, and to describe the range of outcomes between reviews and range of effects in the different groups. METHODS: In January 2017, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase and nine other databases. We included systematic reviews evaluating community-based supplementary feeding, and concerning food insecure, vulnerable and malnourished populations. Two review authors independently undertook selection of systematic reviews, data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment. We assessed review quality using the AMSTAR tool, and used GRADEpro 'Summary of findings' tables from each review to indicate the certainty of the evidence for the main comparisons. We summarised review findings in the text and reported the data for each outcome in additional tables. We also used forest plots to display results graphically. MAIN RESULTS: This overview included eight systematic reviews (with last search dates between May 2006 and February 2016). Seven were Cochrane Reviews evaluating interventions in pregnant women; children (aged from birth to five years) from LMIC; disadvantaged infants and young children (aged three months to five years); children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM); disadvantaged school children; adults and children who were HIV positive or with active tuberculosis (with or without HIV). One was a non-Cochrane systematic review in older people with Alzheimer's disease. These reviews included 95 trials relevant to this overview, with the majority (74%) of participants from LMIC.The number of included participants varied between 91 and 7940 adults, and 271 and more than 12,595 children. Trials included a wide array of nutritional interventions that varied in duration, frequency and format, with micronutrients often reported as cointerventions. Follow-up ranged from six weeks to two years; three trials investigated outcomes at four to 17 years of age. All reviews were rated as high quality (AMSTAR score between eight and 11). The GRADE certainty ratings ranged from very low to moderate for individual comparisons, with the evidence often comprising only one or two small trials, thereby resulting in many underpowered analyses (too small to detect small but important differences). The main outcome categories reported across reviews were death, anthropometry (adults and children) and other markers of nutritional status, disease-related outcomes, neurocognitive development and psychosocial outcomes, and adverse events.Mortality data were limited and underpowered in meta-analysis in all populations (children with MAM, in children with HIV, and in adults with tuberculosis) with the exception of balanced energy and protein supplementation in pregnancy, which may have reduced the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.94; 5 trials, 3408 women). Supplementation in pregnancy also improved infant birth weight (mean difference (MD) 40.96 g, 95% CI 4.66 to 77.26; 11 trials, 5385 participants) and reduced risk of infants born small-for-gestational age (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.90; 7 trials, 4408 participants). These effects did not translate into demonstrable long-term benefits for children in terms of growth and neurocognitive development in the one to two trials reporting on longer-term outcomes. In one study (505 participants), high-protein supplementation was associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational age babies.Effects on growth in children were mixed. In children under five years of age from LMIC, one review found that supplementary feeding had a little or no effect on child growth; however, a more recent review in a similar population found that those who received food supplementation gained an average of 0.12 kg more in weight (MD 0.12 kg, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.18; 9 trials, 1057 participants) and 0.27 cm more in height (MD 0.27 cm, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.48; 9 trials, 1463 participants) than those who were not supplemented. Supplementary food was generally more effective for younger children (younger than two years of age) and for those who were poorer or less well-nourished. In children with MAM, the provision of specially formulated food improved their weight, weight-for-height z scores and other key outcomes such as recovery rate (by 29%), as well as reducing the number of participants dropping out (by 70%). In LMIC, school meals seemed to lead to small benefits for children, including improvements in weight z scores, especially in children from lower-income countries, height z scores, cognition or intelligence quotient tests, and maths and spelling performance.Supplementary feeding in adults who were HIV positive increased the daily energy and protein intake compared to nutritional counselling alone. Supplementation led to an initial improvement in weight gain or body mass index but did not seem to confer long-term benefit.In adults with tuberculosis, one small trial found a significant benefit on treatment completion and sputum conversion rate. There were also significant but modest benefits in terms of weight gain (up to 2.60 kg) during active tuberculosis.The one study included in the Alzheimer's disease review found that three months of daily oral nutritional supplements improved nutritional outcomes in the intervention group.There was little or no evidence regarding people's quality of life, adherence to treatment, attendance at clinic or the costs of supplementary feeding programmes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Considering the current evidence base included, supplementary food effects are modest at best, with inconsistent and limited mortality evidence. The trials reflected in the reviews mostly reported on short-term outcomes and across the whole of the supplementation trial literature it appears important outcomes, such as quality of life and cost of programmes, are not systematically reported or summarised.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Populações Vulneráveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/dietoterapia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/dietoterapia , Natimorto , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/mortalidade
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 15(5): 528-34, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25863562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects that might aid clearance of mycobacterial infection. We aimed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation would reduce time to sputum culture conversion in patients with active tuberculosis. METHODS: We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial at 13 sites in India. Treatment-naive patients who were sputum-smear positive, HIV negative, and had pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly assigned (1:1), with centrally labelled, serially numbered bottles, to receive standard active tuberculosis treatment with either supplemental high-dose oral vitamin D3 (four doses of 2·5 mg at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6) or placebo. Neither the patients nor the clinical and laboratory investigators and personnel were aware of treatment assignment. The primary efficacy outcome was time to sputum culture conversion. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00366470. FINDINGS: Between Jan 20, 2010, and Aug 23, 2011, we randomly assigned 247 participants to the vitamin D group (n=121) or the placebo group (n=126), of whom 211 participants (n=101 and n=110, respectively) were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Median time to culture conversion in the vitamin D group was 43·0 days (95% CI 33·3-52·8) versus 42·0 days (33·9-50·1) in the placebo group (log-rank p=0·95). Three (2%) patients died in the vitamin D group and one (1%) patient died in the placebo group; no death was considered attributable to the study intervention. No patients had hypercalcaemia. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that vitamin D supplementation did not reduce time to sputum culture conversion. Further studies should investigate the role of vitamin D in prevention or reactivation of tuberculosis infection. FUNDING: Dalhousie University and Infectious Diseases Training and Research Centre.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 142(7): 1505-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24093552

RESUMO

Limited studies exist regarding whether incorporating micronutrient supplements during tuberculosis (TB) treatment may improve cell-mediated immune response. We examined the effect of micronutrient supplementation on lymphocyte proliferation response to mycobacteria or T-cell mitogens in a randomized trial conducted on 423 patients with pulmonary TB. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of micronutrients (vitamins A, B-complex, C, E, and selenium) or placebo at the time of initiation of TB treatment. We found no overall effect of micronutrient supplements on lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohaemagglutinin or purified protein derivatives in HIV-negative and HIV-positive TB patients. Of HIV-negative TB patients, the micronutrient group tended to show higher proliferative responses to concanavalin A than the placebo group, although the clinical relevance of this finding is not readily notable. The role of nutritional intervention in this vulnerable population remains an important area of future research.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Células Cultivadas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fito-Hemaglutininas/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculina/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/virologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Clin Nutr ; 32(6): 1023-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23541173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: To develop and evaluate a culture-specific nutrient intake assessment tool for use in adults with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Tbilisi, Georgia. METHODS: We developed an instrument to measure food intake over 3 consecutive days using a questionnaire format. The tool was then compared to 24 h food recalls. Food intake data from 31 subjects with TB were analyzed using the Nutrient Database System for Research (NDS-R) dietary analysis program. Paired t-tests, Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the agreement between the two methods of dietary intake for calculated nutrient intakes. RESULTS: The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean daily caloric intake between the 2 methods was 0.37 (P = 0.04) with a mean difference of 171 kcals/day (p = 0.34). The ICC was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.03-0.64) suggesting the within-patient variability may be larger than between-patient variability. Results for mean daily intake of total fat, total carbohydrate, total protein, retinol, vitamins D and E, thiamine, calcium, sodium, iron, selenium, copper, and zinc between the two assessment methods were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: This novel nutrient intake assessment tool provided quantitative nutrient intake data from TB patients. These pilot data can inform larger studies in similar populations.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
10.
PLoS One ; 7(1): e29588, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22238625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time to detection (TTD) on automated liquid mycobacterial cultures is an emerging biomarker of tuberculosis outcomes. The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing genotype is spreading globally, indicating a selective advantage. There is a paucity of data on the association between baseline TTD and W-Beijing genotype and tuberculosis outcomes. AIM: To assess baseline predictors of failure of sputum culture conversion, within the first 2 months of antitubercular therapy, in participants with pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN: Between May 2005 and August 2008 we conducted a prospective cohort study of time to sputum culture conversion in ambulatory participants with first episodes of smear and culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis attending two primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Rifampicin resistance (diagnosed on phenotypic susceptibility testing) was an exclusion criterion. Sputum was collected weekly for 8 weeks for mycobacterial culture on liquid media (BACTEC MGIT 960). Due to missing data, multiple imputation was performed. Time to sputum culture conversion was analysed using a Cox-proportional hazards model. Bayesian model averaging determined the posterior effect probability for each variable. RESULTS: 113 participants were enrolled (30.1% female, 10.5% HIV-infected, 44.2% W-Beijing genotype, and 89% cavities). On Kaplan Meier analysis 50.4% of participants underwent sputum culture conversion by 8 weeks. The following baseline factors were associated with slower sputum culture conversion: TTD (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02; 1.2), lung cavities (aHR = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02; 0.95), ever smoking (aHR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.1; 1.02) and the W-Beijing genotype (aHR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25; 1.07). On Bayesian model averaging, posterior probability effects were strong for TTD, lung cavitation and smoking and moderate for W-Beijing genotype. CONCLUSION: We found that baseline TTD, smoking, cavities and W-Beijing genotype were associated with delayed 2 month sputum culture. Larger studies are needed to confirm the relationship between the W-Beijing genotype and sputum culture conversion.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Cavidade Pulpar/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/administração & dosagem
11.
Singapore Med J ; 51(12): 957-62, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21221502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wasting is the cardinal feature of tuberculosis, but not much documentary evidence supporting food supplements exists. This study was done to assess the effects of food supplements on body weight, physical function, quality of life and treatment outcomes in patients with tuberculosis and wasting. METHODS: The study was conducted in 30 Anganwadi centres of 16 villages in the catchment area of Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation and the Gannavaram Directly Observed Treatment Short Course chemotherapy centre from August 2005 to December 2005. A total of 100 patients participated in the study. Patients who were started on anti-tubercular therapy within the previous two weeks were randomly assigned to either the control or the food supplement group. At the end of three months, their body weight was measured and physical function and quality of life were assessed. Treatment outcomes were assessed at the one-year follow-up for both groups. RESULTS: Patients who received supplements had a significant increase in body weight (8.6 percent versus 2.6 percent, p-value less than 0.001) and maximum grip strength (p-value less than 0.001), a higher sputum conversion rate (p-value is 0.039), a higher treatment completion rate (p-value is 0.031) and improvements in the quality of life scores. CONCLUSION: Intake of food supplements resulted in a definitive increase in body weight and physical function in our study sample. Improvements can be observed in all areas, including psychologically, physiologically, socially and in the treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Emaciação/dietoterapia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Emaciação/tratamento farmacológico , Ganho de Peso
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (4): CD006086, 2008 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18843702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious infection affecting mainly the lungs. It may contribute to nutritional deficiencies which in turn may delay recovery by depressing immune functions. Nutritional supplements might therefore promote recovery in people being treated for tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the provision of oral nutritional supplements to promote the recovery of people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register (June 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 2), MEDLINE (June 2008), EMBASE (June 2008), LILACS (June 2008), mRCT (June 2008), the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis (1983 to June 2008), and checked the reference lists of all included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing any oral nutritional supplement given for at least four weeks with no nutritional intervention, placebo, or dietary advice only for people being treated for active tuberculosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables and mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Twelve trials (3393 participants) were included. Five trials had adequate allocation concealment. Interventions included a high energy supplement, high cholesterol diet, vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, arginine, multiple micronutrient supplements, combined multiple micronutrient supplements and zinc, combined vitamin A and zinc, and combined vitamin A and selenium. The following supplements were associated with increased body weight at follow up: high energy supplements (MD 1.73 kg, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.65; 34 participants, 1 trial); multiple micronutrients plus additional zinc (MD 2.37 kg, 95% CI 2.21 to 2.53; 192 participants, 1 trial); and vitamin A plus zinc (MD 3.10 kg, 95% CI 0.74 to 5.46; 80 participants, 1 trial). There was no evidence that any supplement affected the number of deaths or number of participants with sputum test positive results at the end of treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence that high energy supplements and some combinations of zinc with other micronutrients may help people with tuberculosis to gain weight. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of other combinations of nutrients. A number of relevant trials are in progress, and, where appropriate, the results will be incorporated into future updates of this review.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Tuberculose/dietoterapia , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Lik Sprava ; (8): 65-70, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Ucraniano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17427429

RESUMO

Results of clinical and laboratoty studies on efficiency and safety of upplied soya-based food during intensive antimicobacterial treatment of patients with tuberculosis are presented in the article. Obtained results showed the necessity of introduction soya-based food in a complex treatment of this infection as it enhances processes of detoxication, positevely influences on functional and structural state of the liver, reduces cytolysis, cholestasis symptomes, mesenchymal and inflamation reactions thus increases the tolerance of antimicobacterial agents.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Alimentos de Soja , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo
14.
Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk ; (8): 26-9, 2005.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16209015

RESUMO

The etiotropic directionality of scientific searches of the introduction of new antibiotics and therapy regimens fails to substantially increase the efficiency of treatment of tuberculosis. The use of the strict multicomponent chemotherapy standards proposed for the treatment of different forms of tuberculosis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) being kept in mind does not reduce the number of progressing processes. Etiotropic chemotherapy with the standard regimens of different combinations and intensity, which is aimed at suppressing MBT viability should be always combined with the methods rehabilitating the physiological processes of cell-tissue masses involved into a specific tuberculous process. The basic methods are improvement of the gas-exchange function of respiratory organs; balanced diet; widely use of natural climatic and artificial physical factors. The combined use of etiotropic and rehabilitative therapies accelerates reparative processes and substantially reduces the time of involution of tuberculous inflammation and the patient's recovery. Thus, out of 258 patients with acutely progressive tuberculosis, their use ceased bacillar isolation in 84.2%, by closing decay cavities in 79.8% whereas out of 284 patients receiving the routine chemotherapy regimens, these figures were 57.3 and 40.8%, respectively. The efficient use of general biological principles in the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with active tuberculosis can reduce the time of inpatient treatment by 1.5-2 times and accordingly economic expenses on the cure of a patient.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/reabilitação , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/economia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
15.
Trop Med Int Health ; 10(9): 826-32, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16135188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of micronutrient supplementation on culture conversion in tuberculosis (TB) patients. DESIGN: The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 2 x 2 trial of zinc and multi-micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pulmonary TB patients in Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 499 pulmonary TB patients were included in the trial after being confirmed sputum-positive by microscopy or culture. At 8 weeks, 25% were sputum-smear positive but only 11% were culture-positive (P<0.0001). No significant differences were observed in culture conversion rate among those allocated to MMN or placebo (89.5 vs. 86.2%, P=0.29) at 8 weeks, although at week 4 those allocated to MMN had a slightly reduced culture conversion rate (42.8 vs. 52.8%, P=0.058). Zinc had no effects on culture conversion. MMN increased weight gain by 0.78 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12--1.43] at week 8, while zinc supplementation had no effect. The effects of MMN and zinc did not interact and neither MMN nor zinc interacted with human immunodeficiency virus status, sex and culture-intensity at baseline. CONCLUSION: Neither zinc nor MMN supplementation had significant effects on culture conversion, but MMN supplementation increased weight gain in TB patients.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Escarro/microbiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Vopr Pitan ; 74(1): 40-3, 2005.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15822646

RESUMO

Main component of biologically active additive to food on the basis of sea alga Laminaria of which are copper derivatives of a chlorophyll. Application of this biologically active to food in complex with tuberculosis chemotherapy of 48 adolescents (14-17 years old) at a sanatorium stage of treatment was investigated. The comparison group were 30 patients, receiving chemotherapy without utilize of biologically active to food. It is established, that mentioned biologically active additive to food promotes favorable radiological dynamic of process, improvement of functional activity T-lymphocites and the contents of substances of low and average molecular weight and malonic dialdehyde in plasma.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/uso terapêutico , Laminaria/química , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estâncias para Tratamento de Saúde , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
17.
Chest ; 127(2): 643-51, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15706008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypocholesterolemia is common among tuberculous patients and is associated with mortality in miliary cases. Some in vitro studies have shown that cholesterol is necessary for the good functioning of macrophages and lymphocytes. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a cholesterol-rich diet could accelerate sputum sterilization in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. DESIGN: An 8-week follow-up, randomized, controlled trial carried out from March 2001 to January 2002. SETTING: A third-level hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Adult patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were hospitalized for 8 weeks and randomly assigned to receive a cholesterol-rich diet (800 mg/d cholesterol [experimental group]) or a normal diet (250 mg/d cholesterol [control group]). All patients received the same four-drug antitubercular regimen (ie, isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Every week, a quantitative sputum culture and laboratory tests were done and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Patients in the experimental group (10 patients) and the control group (11 subjects) were HIV-negative and harbored Mycobacterium tuberculosis that was fully sensitive to antitubercular drugs. Sterilization of the sputum culture was achieved faster in the experimental group, as demonstrated either by the percentage of negative culture findings in week 2 (80%; control group, 9%; p = 0.0019) or by the Gehan-Breslow test for Kaplan-Meier curves (p = 0.0037). Likewise, the bacillary population decreased faster (p = 0.0002) in the experimental group. Respiratory symptoms improved in both groups, but sputum production decreased faster in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Laboratory test results did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: A cholesterol-rich diet accelerated the sterilization rate of sputum cultures in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, suggesting that cholesterol should be used as a complementary measure in antitubercular treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/deficiência , Interações Alimento-Droga , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Adulto , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Colesterol/sangue , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Terapia Combinada , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escarro/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
18.
Antibiot Khimioter ; 49(12): 31-5, 2004.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16050498

RESUMO

Dysbacteriosis of the large intestine is one of severe complications of long-term use of antituberculosis agents in the treatment of respiratory tract tuberculosis that results in a significant decrease of tolerability of antituberculosis agents, persistence of tuberculosis intoxication and slower involution of the tuberculosis process in the lungs. When the complex treatment with antituberculosis agents was accompanied by the use of cow's kumiss for correction of the large intestine dysbacteriosis, the intoxication signs disappeared in 12% of the patients in the main group, while in the patients of the control group the level of the intoxication syndrome increased twice. The rate of the tuberculosis lesions regression evident from the lung roentgenograms was 2.7-fold higher in the main group vs. the control (62 and 23% respectively). The indices of the lung functional capacity recovery in the patients of the main group vs. the control were also higher (41 and 33% respectively). Hepatic toxic reactions in the patients not given cow's kumiss for correction of dysbacteriosis were 8 times more frequent vs. the control. The results of the study made it possible to develop recommendations for phthisiologists in the use of cow's kumiss as one of the methods of pathogenetic therapy in complex treatment of patients with respiratory tract tuberculosis in sanatoria.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Colo/dietoterapia , Laticínios , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Colo/etiologia , Doenças do Colo/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Masculino , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Asunción; s.n; 2000. 143 p. tab, graf. (PY).
Tese em Espanhol, Inglês | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1018388

RESUMO

Estudio descriptivo de carácter cuali-cuantitativo con una muestra de 53 pacientes que reingresaron al Sanatorio Juan Max Boettner. Presenta el perfil de los enfermos que por abandono o interrupción de su tratamiento regresan al hospital originandose nuevas reacciones y se buscan estrategias de solución. Describe el impacto de esta enfermedad en la sociedad y sus connotaciones


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/dietoterapia , Tuberculose/patologia
20.
Tuber Lung Dis ; 76(2): 109-13, 1995 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7780091

RESUMO

SETTING: Concomitant feeding and administration of antituberculosis medication has been proposed to increase compliance (by decreasing pyrazinamide associated nausea) and improve nutritional status. Food may however decrease the oral bioavailability of rifampicin and isoniazid. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: A triple-crossover pharmacokinetic study in 27 patients with tuberculosis (15 males and 12 females) compared the bioavailability of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide without food (control) with that when taken with a high carbohydrate (CHO) or high lipid (LIPID) diet. RESULTS: the CHO diet decreased isoniazid bioavailability. The maximum measured drug concentration (Cm) was decreased by 20% (P = 0.0002) and the area under the concentration-time curve to 8 h (AUC8) by 19% (P = 0.01). The CHO diet increased the time to maximum measured drug concentration (Tmax) for rifampicin by 21% (P = 0.03). The LIPID diet decreased the Cm of isoniazid by 9% (P = 0.03). Individual patient bioavailability on each meal was compared to the no-food control. A decrease of Cm or AUC8 of greater than 20% was considered significant. The bioavailability of isoniazid and rifampicin was decreased by food in a high percentage (33-56%) of patients. CONCLUSION: Concomitant feeding may thus have an important adverse effect on the therapy of tuberculosis and the desirability of this practice is called into question.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Isoniazida/farmacocinética , Pirazinamida/farmacocinética , Rifampina/farmacocinética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinamida/sangue , Rifampina/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/dietoterapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
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