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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26841, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397855

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (SPPTB) is the major contributor to the spread of tuberculosis (TB) infection, and it creates high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the predictors of delayed sputum smear conversion at the end of the intensive phase of TB treatment in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.This retrospective study was conducted utilising data of SPPTB patients treated in 5 TB treatment centres located in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia from 2013 to 2018. Pulmonary TB (PTB) patients included in the study were those who had at least completed the intensive phase of anti-TB treatment with sputum smear results at the end of the 2nd month of treatment. The factors associated with delayed sputum smear conversion were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Predictors of sputum smear conversion at the end of intensive phase were evaluated.A total of 2641 patients from the 2013 to 2018 periods were included in this study. One hundred eighty nine (7.2%) patients were identified as having delayed sputum smear conversion at the end of the intensive phase treatment. Factors of moderate (advanced odd ratio [aOR]: 1.7) and advanced (aOR: 2.7) chest X-ray findings at diagnosis, age range of >60 (aOR: 2.1), year of enrolment 2016 (aOR: 2.8), 2017 (aOR: 3.9), and 2018 (aOR: 2.8), smokers (aOR: 1.5), no directly observed treatment short-course (DOTS) supervisor (aOR: 6.9), non-Malaysian citizens (aOR: 1.5), and suburban home locations (aOR: 1.6) were associated with delayed sputum smear conversion at the end of the intensive phase of the treatment.To improve sputum smear conversion success rate, the early detection of PTB cases has to be fine-tuned so as to reduce late or severe case presentation during diagnosis. Efforts must also be in place to encourage PTB patients to quit smoking. The percentage of patients assigned with DOTS supervisors should be increased while at the same time ensuring that vulnerable groups such as those residing in suburban localities, the elderly and migrant TB patients are provided with proper follow-up treatment and management.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Latente , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e117, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902774

RESUMO

No previous studies have examined Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) in only elderly patients ⩾75 years old. Here, we investigated the exacerbating factors of MAC-PD in elderly patients and clarified cases that can be followed up without MAC medication. From April 2011 to March 2019, 126 advanced aged patients at our institute were newly diagnosed with MAC-PD, and could be observed based on radiological findings for over a year. Their medical records were retrospectively examined for clinical and radiological findings at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later. To identify the predictors of exacerbation, clinical characteristics of 109 treatment-naïve patients were compared between exacerbated and unchanged groups. Additionally, the unchanged group was followed for one more year. In the current study, positive acid-fast bacilli smears from the sputum test, the presence of cavitary lesions and extensive radiological findings, particularly abnormal shadows in ⩾3 lobes, were predictive of exacerbation among treatment-naïve elderly MAC-PD patients. In the unchanged group, <10% showed exacerbation of radiological findings within the subsequent year. In conclusion, if the sputum smear is negative, no cavitary lesions are present, and abnormal shadows are restricted to ⩽2 lobes, elderly patients with MAC-PD may remain untreated for a few years.


Assuntos
Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/patologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/terapia , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(4): e1003566, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two weeks' isolation is widely recommended for people commencing treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The evidence that this corresponds to clearance of potentially infectious tuberculous mycobacteria in sputum is not well established. This World Health Organization-commissioned review investigated sputum sterilisation dynamics during TB treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For the main analysis, 2 systematic literature searches of OvidSP MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus were conducted to identify studies with data on TB infectiousness (all studies to search date, 1 December 2017) and all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for drug-susceptible TB (from 1 January 1990 to search date, 20 February 2018). Included articles reported on patients receiving effective treatment for culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. The outcome of interest was sputum bacteriological conversion: the proportion of patients having converted by a defined time point or a summary measure of time to conversion, assessed by smear or culture. Any study design with 10 or more particpants was considered. Record sifting and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses were performed. A narrative summary additionally describes the results of a systematic search for data evaluating infectiousness from humans to experimental animals (PubMed, all studies to 27 March 2018). Other evidence on duration of infectiousness-including studies reporting on cough dynamics, human tuberculin skin test conversion, or early bactericidal activity of TB treatments-was outside the scope of this review. The literature search was repeated on 22 November 2020, at the request of the editors, to identify studies published after the previous censor date. Four small studies reporting 3 different outcome measures were identified, which included no data that would alter the findings of the review; they are not included in the meta-analyses. Of 5,290 identified records, 44 were included. Twenty-seven (61%) were RCTs and 17 (39%) were cohort studies. Thirteen studies (30%) reported data from Africa, 12 (27%) from Asia, 6 (14%) from South America, 5 (11%) from North America, and 4 (9%) from Europe. Four studies reported data from multiple continents. Summary estimates suggested smear conversion in 9% of patients at 2 weeks (95% CI 3%-24%, 1 single study [N = 1]), and 82% of patients at 2 months of treatment (95% CI 78%-86%, N = 10). Among baseline smear-positive patients, solid culture conversion occurred by 2 weeks in 5% (95% CI 0%-14%, N = 2), increasing to 88% at 2 months (95% CI 84%-92%, N = 20). At equivalent time points, liquid culture conversion was achieved in 3% (95% CI 1%-16%, N = 1) and 59% (95% CI 47%-70%, N = 8). Significant heterogeneity was observed. Further interrogation of the data to explain this heterogeneity was limited by the lack of disaggregation of results, including by factors such as HIV status, baseline smear status, and the presence or absence of lung cavitation. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review found that most patients remained culture positive at 2 weeks of TB treatment, challenging the view that individuals are not infectious after this interval. Culture positivity is, however, only 1 component of infectiousness, with reduced cough frequency and aerosol generation after TB treatment initiation likely to also be important. Studies that integrate our findings with data on cough dynamics could provide a more complete perspective on potential transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by individuals on treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 85226.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Humanos
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(6): e841-e853, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rapid, blood-based triage test that allows targeted investigation for tuberculosis at the point of care could shorten the time to tuberculosis treatment and reduce mortality. We aimed to test the performance of a host blood transcriptomic signature (RISK11) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting progression to active pulmonary disease (prognosis) in people with HIV in a community setting. METHODS: In this prospective diagnostic and prognostic accuracy study, adults (aged 18-59 years) with HIV were recruited from five communities in South Africa. Individuals with a history of tuberculosis or household exposure to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis within the past 3 years, comorbid risk factors for tuberculosis, or any condition that would interfere with the study were excluded. RISK11 status was assessed at baseline by real-time PCR; participants and study staff were masked to the result. Participants underwent active surveillance for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis by providing spontaneously expectorated sputum samples at baseline, if symptomatic during 15 months of follow-up, and at 15 months (the end of the study). The coprimary outcomes were the prevalence and cumulative incidence of tuberculosis disease confirmed by a positive Xpert MTB/RIF, Xpert Ultra, or Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube culture, or a combination of such, on at least two separate sputum samples collected within any 30-day period. FINDINGS: Between March 22, 2017, and May 15, 2018, 963 participants were assessed for eligibility and 861 were enrolled. Among 820 participants with valid RISK11 results, eight (1%) had prevalent tuberculosis at baseline: seven (2·5%; 95% CI 1·2-5·0) of 285 RISK11-positive participants and one (0·2%; 0·0-1·1) of 535 RISK11-negative participants. The relative risk (RR) of prevalent tuberculosis was 13·1 times (95% CI 2·1-81·6) greater in RISK11-positive participants than in RISK11-negative participants. RISK11 had a diagnostic area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 88·2% (95% CI 77·6-96·7), and a sensitivity of 87·5% (58·3-100·0) and specificity of 65·8% (62·5-69·0) at a predefined score threshold (60%). Of those with RISK11 results, eight had primary endpoint incident tuberculosis during 15 months of follow-up. Tuberculosis incidence was 2·5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·7-4·4) in the RISK11-positive group and 0·2 per 100 person-years (0·0-0·5) in the RISK11-negative group. The probability of primary endpoint incident tuberculosis was greater in the RISK11-positive group than in the RISK11-negative group (cumulative incidence ratio 16·0 [95% CI 2·0-129·5]). RISK11 had a prognostic AUC of 80·0% (95% CI 70·6-86·9), and a sensitivity of 88·6% (43·5-98·7) and a specificity of 68·9% (65·3-72·3) for incident tuberculosis at the 60% threshold. INTERPRETATION: RISK11 identified prevalent tuberculosis and predicted risk of progression to incident tuberculosis within 15 months in ambulant people living with HIV. RISK11's performance approached, but did not meet, WHO's target product profile benchmarks for screening and prognostic tests for tuberculosis. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the South African Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/sangue , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 126: 102020, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246269

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are currently the two main causes of death among infectious diseases. There is an increasing number of studies trying to elucidate the interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2. Some of the first case reports point to a worsening of respiratory symptoms in co-infected TB/COVID-19 individuals. However, data from the cohort studies has shown some conflicting results. This study proposes to conduct a systematic review on the current literature on TB/COVID-19 co-infection cohorts, evaluating clinical and epidemiological data, focusing on its implications to the immune system. From an immunological perspective, the TB/COVID-19 co-infection has the potential to converge in a "perfect storm". The disorders induced by each pathogen to the immunomodulation tend to induce an unbalanced inflammatory response, which can promote the progression and worsening of both diseases. Understanding the nature of the interactions between M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 will be crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies against co-infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Coinfecção , Progressão da Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 373-386, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A therapeutic vaccine that prevents recurrent tuberculosis would be a major advance in the development of shorter treatment regimens. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the ID93 + GLA-SE vaccine at various doses and injection schedules in patients with previously treated tuberculosis. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2a trial was conducted at three clinical sites near Cape Town, South Africa. Patients were recruited at local clinics after receiving 4 months of tuberculosis treatment, and screened for eligibility after providing written informed consent. Participants were aged 18-60 years, BCG-vaccinated, HIV-uninfected, and diagnosed with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. Eligible patients had completed standard treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in the past 28 days. Participants were enrolled after completing standard treatment and randomly assigned sequentially to receive vaccine or placebo in three cohorts: 2 µg intramuscular ID93 + 2 µg GLA-SE on days 0 and 56 (cohort 1); 10 µg ID93 + 2 µg GLA-SE on days 0 and 56 (cohort 2); 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE on days 0 and 56 and placebo on day 28 (cohort 3); 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE on days 0, 28, and 56 (cohort 3); or placebo on days 0 and 56 (cohorts 1 and 2), with the placebo group for cohort 3 receiving an additional injection on day 28. Randomisation was in a ratio of 3:1 for ID93 + GLA-SE and saline placebo in cohorts 1 and 2, and in a ratio of 3:3:1 for (2 ×) ID93 + GLA-SE, (3 ×) ID93 + GLA-SE, and placebo in cohort 3. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity (vaccine-specific antibody response and T-cell response). For the safety outcome, participants were observed for 30 min after each injection, injection site reactions and systemic adverse events were monitored until day 84, and serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest were monitored for 6 months after the last injection. Vaccine-specific antibody responses were measured by serum ELISA, and T-cell responses after stimulation with vaccine antigens were measured in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells specimens using intracellular cytokine staining followed by flow cytometry. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02465216. FINDINGS: Between June 17, 2015, and May 30, 2016, we assessed 177 patients for inclusion. 61 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive: saline placebo (n=5) or (2 ×) 2 µg ID93 + 2 µg GLA-SE (n=15) on days 0 and 56 (cohort 1); saline placebo (n=2) or (2 ×) 10 µg ID93 + 2 µg GLA-SE (n=5) on days 0 and 56 (cohort 2); saline placebo (n=5) on days 0, 28 and 56, or 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE (n=15) on days 0 and 56 and placebo injection on day 28, or (3 ×) 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE (n=14) on days 0, 28, and 56 (cohort 3). ID93 + GLA-SE induced robust and durable antibody responses and specific, polyfunctional CD4 T-cell responses to vaccine antigens. Two injections of the 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE dose induced antigen-specific IgG and CD4 T-cell responses that were significantly higher than those with placebo and persisted for the 6-month study duration. Mild to moderate injection site pain was reported after vaccination across all dose combinations, and induration and erythema in patients given 2 µg ID93 + 5 µg GLA-SE in two or three doses. One participant had grade 3 erythema and induration at the injection site. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were observed. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination with ID93 + GLA-SE was safe and immunogenic for all tested regimens. These data support further evaluation of ID93 + GLA-SE in therapeutic vaccination strategies to improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (102028/Z/13/Z).


Assuntos
Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/imunologia , Humanos , Lipídeo A/administração & dosagem , Lipídeo A/efeitos adversos , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Recidiva , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/sangue , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/imunologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3620425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274203

RESUMO

Objectives: This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical application value of RNA simultaneous amplification and testing method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SAT-TB) combined with acid-fast staining in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Methods: This paper included 168 suspected and confirmed PTB sufferers admitted to The Sixth People's Hospital of Wenzhou from December 2018 to December 2019, whose sputum was collected and tested using SAT-TB, smear acid-fast staining method, and the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. With the MGIT 960 culture test method as the gold standard, the application value of SAT-TB, acid-fast staining, or SAT-TB combined with acid-fast staining in the diagnosis and treatment of PTB was assessed. Results: With the MGIT 960 culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SAT-TB for the diagnosis of PTB were 57.3%, 92.5%, 84.3%, and 73.5%, respectively. The conformity was 76.8%, and the Kappa value was 0.515, suggesting a statistically significant difference (χ 2 = 7.314, p < 0.05) and a general consistency degree. Additionally, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SAT-TB combined with sputum smear acid-fast staining were 81.3%, 86.0%, 88.4%, and 80.8%, respectively, with the MGIT 960 culture still the gold standard. The conformity and Kappa value were 83.9% and 0.672, respectively, showing no statistically significant difference (χ 2 = 0.438, p > 0.05) and a relatively high consistency degree. Conclusion: SAT-TB combined with acid-fast staining had a similar detection rate to that of the MGIT 960 culture test with a high consistency degree, which could be applied in the diagnosis of PTB efficiently and accurately.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23853, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350777

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with Burkitt lymphoma is related to the presence of Epstein Barr virus infection and the impact of the HIV antigen on the expansion of B-polyclonal cells. In Southeast Europe, the association is rare, and recognizing this is important in the therapeutic decision to increase patient survival rate. The association of HIV with Burkitt lymphoma and tuberculosis is even more rarely described in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a 40-year-old patient who presented with a 3-week history of fever (max. 38.7 °C), painful axillary swelling on the right side, lumbar pain, gait disorders, headache, and night sweats. Clinical manifestations included marked weight loss (about 30 kg in the last 2 months before his admission). DIAGNOSIS: A LyCD4 count of 38/µL and a HIV1 viral load of 384,000/mm3, classified the patient into a C3 stage. A biopsy of the right axillary lymph node was performed for suspected ganglionic tuberculosis due to immunodeficiency. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. Cultures on Löwenstein-Jensen medium from sputum harvested at first admission were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. INTERVENTIONS: Highly active antiretroviral therapy, chemotherapeutic agents for Burkitt lymphoma, anti-tuberculous drug therapy, neurosurgical intervention of spinal cord decompression, and antibiotic therapy of the associated bacterial infection. OUTCOME: Burkitt lymphoma disseminated rapidly, with central nervous system, spinal cord, osteomuscular, adrenal, and spleen involvement. The evolution under treatment was unfavorable, with patient death occurring 6 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The association of HIV infection with Burkitt lymphoma and tuberculosis is rare in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, posing prompt and multidisciplinary therapeutic management issues. Similar cases of HIV-TB and Burkitt lymphoma association have been described, but none of the other cases showed the involvement of the central nervous system or of the bilateral adrenal glands.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo , Linfoma de Burkitt , Infecções por HIV , Medula Espinal , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/complicações , Linfoma de Burkitt/patologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/fisiopatologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/cirurgia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Deterioração Clínica , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Evolução Fatal , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Carga Viral/métodos
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013888

RESUMO

Even if the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been decreasing over the last years, the number of patients with TB is increasing worldwide. The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB is making control of TB more difficult. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine fails to prevent pulmonary TB in adults, and there is an urgent need for a vaccine that is also effective in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Therefore, TB control may benefit on novel therapeutic options beyond antimicrobial treatment. Host-directed immunotherapies could offer therapeutic strategies for patients with drug-resistant TB or with HIV and TB coinfection. In the last years, the use of donor lymphocytes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has emerged as a new strategy in the cure of hematologic malignancies in order to induce graft-versus leukemia and graft-versus-infection effects. Moreover, adoptive therapy has proven to be effective in controlling cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in immunocompromised patients with ex vivo expanded viral antigen-specific T cells. Unconventional T cells are a heterogeneous group of T lymphocytes with limited diversity. One of their characteristics is that antigen recognition is not restricted by the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC). They include CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1)-restricted T cells, MHC-related protein-1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, MHC class Ib-reactive T cells, and γδ T cells. Because these T cells are genotype-independent, they are also termed "donor unrestricted" T cells. The combined features of low donor diversity and the lack of genetic restriction make these cells suitable candidates for T cell-based immunotherapy of TB.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/transplante , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1364, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis adds a significant burden in current health systems in developing countries including Nepal. The main objective of this study was to explore cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with Tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among patients with tuberculosis in 12 tuberculosis treatment centers from eight districts of Nepal between May and July 2017. Interviews with participants were conducted using a structured questionnaire and were supplemented by anthropometric measurements and on-site blood glucose tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Among 221 study participants, 138 (62.4%) had new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 (10.9%) had new smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and 34 (15.4%) had new extra- pulmonary tuberculosis. Overall, 43.1% of the patients with tuberculosis had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. The prevalence of at least one cardiometabolic risk factor was more in male than female (47.8% versus 33.8%). Prevalence of tobacco (18.9% versus 4.8%), and alcohol (12.6% versus 6.5%) use was proportionately higher in male compared to female. The prevalence of hypertension (17% vs. 21%) and obesity (11.9% vs. 12.9%) was lower in male compared to females. Female (AOR = 0.47; CI: 0.23-0.94), those from Gandaki Province (AOR = 0.32; CI: 0.13-0.79) and literate (AOR = 0.49; CI: 0.25-0.96) had reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of gender and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis. The findings from this study can guide medical practitioners and policy makers to consider clinical suspicion, diagnosis and treatment. National treatment guideline can benefit by integrating the management of non-communicable diseases in Tuberculosis treatment centers.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 102-106, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) care initiation and risk factors for TB diagnostic delay in The Gambia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, adult patients diagnosed with pulmonary TB (pTB) in public facilities in the Greater Banjul Area of The Gambia were consecutively recruited from October 2016 to March 2017. Diagnostic delay was defined as >21 days from the onset of at least one symptom suggestive of pTB to diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors for diagnostic delay. RESULTS: Overall, 216 pTB patients were included in the study; the median (Interquartile Range (IQR)) age was 30 (23-39) years and 167 (77%) were male patients. Of the 216 patients, 110 (50.9%) of them initiated care-seeking in the formal and informal private sector and 181/216 (83.8%) had TB diagnostic delay. The median (IQR) duration from the onset of symptoms to TB diagnosis was 34 (28-56) days. Age groups 18-29 years (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.8 [p = 0.02]) and 30-49 years (aOR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-16.2 [p = 0.006]) and being employed (aOR 4.2; 95% CI 1.7-10.5 [p = 0.002]) were independent risk factors for TB diagnostic delay. CONCLUSION: There is considerable TB diagnostic delay in The Gambia, and this is likely to be worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Adulto Jovem
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