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1.
Georgian Med News ; (310): 93-101, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658416

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess general characteristics of drug resistant tuberculosis and its association with treatment outcomes in Georgia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 1581 DR-TB adult (18+) patients, from 2015 - 2020 cohorts, whose anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes was known. Adjusted analysis of the study participants data [1581 (100%)] shows significant association of a successful TB treatment outcome with the "Female gender" (adjusted OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.33 - 2.39, p<0.001), "New TB case" (adjusted OR 2.34, 95% CI: 1.88-2.91, p<0.001) and with "HIV negative status" (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.53-3.55; p<0.001). Based on bivariate and multivariate analysis of the study data, the significant association of a treatment outcome with other key factors, including "New drugs in the regimen" was not found. Since the programmatic using of the new effective DR-TB regimens are widely recommended only from 2019, the treatment outcomes of all patients on these regimens are still not defined. Further studies are necessary to assess complete data of the patients on new DR-TB regimens and its association with the treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 238, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sputum smear bacilliary load is a fundamental indicator of the level of infectiousness in DR-TB patients. However, evidence on DR-TB sputum smear grading and its factors in the study setting is limited. This study was aimed to determine the level of sputum smear grading and associated factors among DR-TB patients in Ethiopia. METHODS: This was an institution based cross-sectional study on 520 bacteriological confirmed pulmonary DR-TB patients from September 2010 to December 2017 in the northwest Ethiopia. Epidata 4.2.00 and SPSS 20 were used for data entry and management, respectively. Ordinary logistic regression was fitted. A cut of p-value less than 0.05 in the multivariable ordinary logistic regression was considered to declare statistically significant variables. RESULTS: Of all 520 bacteriological confirmed pulmonary DR-TB patients; 34.42% had 3+, 15.77% had 2+, 18.27% had 1+, 15.19% had scanty, and 16.35% had negative sputum smear grading results. The odds of having higher sputum smear grades were significantly associated with the patient's educational status of secondary (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.43, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.21, 0.89), body mass index of 16 to 18.49 kg/m2 (AOR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.16, 2.84), and TB treatment history of two and more times (AOR = 1.78, 95%CI: 1.24, 2.55). CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of the bacteriological confirmed pulmonary DR-TB patients in the study setting was highly infectious with the highest bacillary load. The odds of having a high bacillary load were significantly associated with the patient's TB treatment history, nutritional, and educational status.


Assuntos
Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/patologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) requires spatial proximity between infectious cases and susceptible persons. We assess activity space overlap among MDRTB cases and community controls to identify potential areas of transmission. METHODS: We enrolled 35 MDRTB cases and 64 TB-free community controls in Lima, Peru. Cases were whole genome sequenced and strain clustering was used as a proxy for transmission. GPS data were gathered from participants over seven days. Kernel density estimation methods were used to construct activity spaces from GPS locations and the utilization distribution overlap index (UDOI) was used to quantify activity space overlap. RESULTS: Activity spaces of controls (median = 35.6 km2, IQR = 25.1-54) were larger than cases (median = 21.3 km2, IQR = 17.9-48.6) (P = 0.02). Activity space overlap was greatest among genetically clustered cases (mean UDOI = 0.63, sd = 0.67) and lowest between cases and controls (mean UDOI = 0.13, sd = 0.28). UDOI was positively associated with genetic similarity of MDRTB strains between case pairs (P < 0.001). The odds of two cases being genetically clustered increased by 22% per 0.10 increase in UDOI (OR = 1.22, CI = 1.09-1.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Activity space overlap is associated with MDRTB clustering. MDRTB transmission may be occurring in small, overlapping activity spaces in community settings. GPS studies may be useful in identifying new areas of MDRTB transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão , Adulto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 205, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB; or resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid (INH)), are important to guide preventive therapy for their household contacts (HHCs). METHODS: As part of a feasibility study done in preparation for an MDR-TB preventive therapy trial in HHCs, smear, Xpert MTB/RIF, Hain MTBDRplus, culture and DST results of index MDR-TB patients were obtained from routine TB programs. A sputum sample was collected at study entry and evaluated by the same tests. Not all tests were performed on all specimens due to variations in test availability. RESULTS: Three hundred eight adults with reported RR/MDR-TB were enrolled from 16 participating sites in 8 countries. Their median age was 36 years, and 36% were HIV-infected. Routine testing on all 308 were confirmed as having RR-TB, but only 75% were documented as having MDR-TB. The majority of those not classified as having MDR-TB were because only rifampicin resistance was tested. At study entry (median 59 days after MDR-TB treatment initiation), 280 participants (91%) were able to produce sputum for the study, of whom 147 (53%) still had detectable MTB. All but 2 of these 147 had rifampicin DST done, with resistance detected in 89%. Almost half (47%) of the 147 specimens had INH DST done, with 83% resistance. Therefore, 20% of the 280 study specimens had MDR-TB confirmed. Overall, DST for second-line drugs were available in only 35% of the 308 routine specimens and 15% of 280 study specimens. CONCLUSIONS: RR-TB was detected in all routine specimens but only 75% had documented MDR-TB, illustrating the need for expanded DST beyond Xpert MTB/RIF to target preventive therapy for HHC.


Assuntos
Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145422, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living closer to greenness were thought to benefit various health outcomes. We aimed to assess the association between residential greenness and mortality among patients undergoing multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. METHODS: We enrolled all local MDR-TB patients reported in Zhejiang, China from 2009 to 2017 and followed them throughout the treatment. We calculated the contemporaneous normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the 250 and 500 m radius around patient's residence. Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying NDVI were used to assess the impact of greenness exposure on all-cause mortality during MDR-TB treatment, adjusting for potential individual and contextual covariates. RESULTS: We ascertained 1,621 active MDR-TB cases, which contributed 3036 person-years at risk with an average follow-up of 684 days (s.d. 149 days) per patient. Among them, there were 163 deaths during follow-up, representing a crude mortality rate of 537 deaths per 10,000 person-years. Patients exposed to the second quintile (Q2) of greenness within the 500 m buffer had around 64% reduced mortality risk over the lowest quintile of greenness with hazard ratio (HR) = 0.364 (95% CI: 0.109-1.22). In lower nighttime light (NTL) areas, the hazard ratios (HR) per quintile increase in NDVI within the 500 m buffer were Q2: 0.35 (95% CI: 0.10-1.18), Q3: 0.24 (95% CI: 0.09-0.66), Q4: 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10-0.69), and Q5: 0.26 (95% CI: 0.10-0.71) relevant to the lowest quintile Q1, with a trend of p-value ≤0.01. Patients who were female, younger (<60 years), resided in urban areas, or had high PM2.5 (i.e. particles with diagram ≤2.5 µm) exposure were more likely to benefit from greenness exposure. Associations were neither observed with NDVI in the 250 m buffer nor for patients living in higher NTL areas. There was a non-linear exposure-response relationship between greenness and deaths with p-value ≤0.05. CONCLUSION: Increasing greenness exposure along with medical treatment reduces all-cause mortality among patients living in lower NTL areas.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 51, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in HIV infected individuals is a serious threat to global efforts to combat tuberculosis. Inconsistent findings on the association between HIV infection and MDR-TB were present in many studies. We aimed to review existing data on the relationship between HIV infection and MDR-TB systematically to assess the contribution of HIV on MDR-TB worldwide. We also investigated the patterns of MDR-TB by age, country-wise income, study designs, and global regions. METHODS: We utilized PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases to select eligible studies for meta-analysis that were published between January 12,010, and July 30, 2020. The random-effects model was used to obtain the pooled odds ratio of the crude association between HIV and MDR-TB with a 95% confidence interval. We investigated the potential publication-bias by checking funnel plot asymmetry and using the Egger's test. Moreover, we assessed the heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on sample size and adjustment factors. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO-CRD42019132752. RESULTS: We identified 1603 studies through a database search, and after subsequent eliminations we selected 54 studies including 430,534 TB patients. The pooled odds of MDR-TB was 1.42 times higher in HIV-positive patients than HIV-negative patients (OR=1.42,CI=1.17-1.71, I2=75.8%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the estimated pooled odds for South-East Asian countries was 1.86, which is the highest in WHO regions (OR=1.86,CI=1.30-2.67, I2=0.00%), followed by Europe and Africa. The effect estimate was found to be higher for primary MDR-TB (OR=2.76,CI=1.70-4.46, I2=0.00%). There was also a trend towards increased odds of MDR-TB for HIV patients older than 40 years (OR=1.56,CI=1.17-2.06). The association was found to be significant in high-burden TB countries (OR=1.75, CI=1.39-2.19) and in high-income countries (OR=1.55, CI=1.06-2.27). CONCLUSION: Such findings indicate that HIV infection raises the risk of MDR-TB, and after contrasting it with the results of the earlier pooled study, it appeared to be an upward risk trend. Moreover, we found that the risk is the highest in the South-East Asian region. A balanced allocation of resources is needed to halt both primary and secondary MDR-TB, particularly in HIV infected people with 40 years of age and older.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22608, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120748

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics and profile of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) among children with TB in Sichuan province of China.From January 2015 to December 2018, microbiological culture-confirmed child TB cases (aged <15 years old) were enrolled retrospectively. Epidemiological and clinical information from these cases, and the drug susceptibility testing results of the isolates were collected and analyzed.Of 317 culture-confirmed child TB cases, 16.7% (53/317) were aged under 5 years old. 54.9% were Tibetans, and 31.9% had clear history of contact with TB patients. More than half (53.9%) were not vaccinated by Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG). Thirty percent (n = 95) were diagnosed as severe TB, and 92.4% (n = 293) were new cases. The ratio of severe TB in BCG vaccinated group was significant lower than that observed in unvaccinated group (P < .01). Significantly higher proportion of severe TB among Tibetans than Han child TB cases was observed in BCG unvaccinated group (P < .01). The overall rate of DR-TB in this study was 24.3% (77/317) and 17 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases were identified with rate of MDR-TB at 5.4% (17/317). No extensively drug-resistant case was found. Thirteen out of 17 MDR-TB cases (76.4%) were Tibetan children. The ratio of any resistance to 4 first-line drugs identified were: isoniazid (INH), 15.5%; rifampicin (RIF), 9.1%; ethambutol, 0.6% and streptomycin, 6.0%, respectively. More than half of MDR patterns were resistant to INH + RIF (9/17), followed by at least resistance to INH + RIF + streptomycin (n = 7).This was the first investigation on the epidemiological characteristics and profiles of DR-TB among child TB cases in Southwest of China. Our findings indicated a potentially high risk of TB infection to Tibetan children in the concentrated Tibetan communities of Sichuan.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 752, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the core of current research to find out the association of the M. tuberculosis genotypes with its outbreak and transmission. The high prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain among multidrug resistance (MDR) TB has already been reported in various studies around India. The overall objective of this study was to detect the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains of MDR M. tuberculosis and their association with the clinical characteristics of TB patients. METHODS: In this study 381 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were obtained from sputum samples from 2008 to 2014. The multiplex-PCR and Spoligotyping (n = 131) methods were used to investigate the prevalence of the Beijing genotype strain by targeting the Rv2820 gene and their association with drug resistance and clinical characteristics of TB patients. The drug susceptibility testing of first-line anti-TB drugs was performed by using the proportion method and MGIT960. A collection of isolates having Beijing and non-Beijing strains were also characterized to see if Beijing genotype strains had a higher rate of mutations at codons 516, 526 and 531 of the 81-bp region of the rpoB gene, codon 315 of the katG gene, and codon 306 of the embB gene. RESULTS: The sensitivities and specificities of multiplex-PCR assay compared to that of standard Spoligotyping was detected to be 100%. Further, we observe that the multi drug-resistance was significantly associated with Beijing genotype strains (p = 0.03) and a strong correlation between Beijing genotype strains and specific resistance mutations at the katG315, rpoB531, and embB306 codons (p = < 0.0001, < 0.0001 & 0.0014 respectively) was also found. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid, simple, and cost-effective multiplex PCR assay can effectively be used for monitoring the prevalence of Beijing genotype strains in low resource settings. Findings of this study may provide a scientific basis for the development of new diagnostic tools for detection and effective management of DR-TB in countries with a higher incidence rate of Beijing genotype strains.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Catalase/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Taxa de Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1986-1988, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978934

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique threat to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe a case of a patient with pulmonary MDR-TB and COVID-19 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and highlight the challenges and approach to managing a patient with both diseases.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/complicações , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 678, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is a primary global health priority but the goal to eliminate TB is being threatened by the increase in incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). With this series of seven MDR-TB cases in migrant patients with identical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains we aim to illustrate the challenges encountered during therapy and follow-up: language barriers, access to care for migrant patients, depression due to isolation, adverse reactions to the treatment, management of pediatric TB, further contact tracing. We also discuss best practices for the management of complex MDR-TB cases in settings with low overall TB incidence focusing on modern diagnostic assays and an individualized and an interdisciplinary therapeutic approach. METHODS: We describe a case series of seven consecutively diagnosed MDR-TB patients, six of them treated at our tertiary care hospital between May 2018 and March 2020. Epidemiologic data was gained by semi-structured patient interviews and reconstruction of the migration route. The origin of the cluster was confirmed by genotyping of the TB-strains. RESULTS: Six related patients were diagnosed with pulmonary MDR-TB between May and August 2018. All had a positive Interferon-Gamma-Release Assay (IGRA), in five patients sputum microscopy was positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The genetic and phenotypical drug susceptibility test did not match with MDR-TB strains from an East-African origin. The index patient was identified through genetical fingerprinting. By changing the therapy to a modern MDR-TB regime and using an interdisciplinary and culture-sensitive approach, all patients improved clinically and radiologically. CONCLUSION: Human migration plays an important role for the global spread of MDR-TB in low incidence countries. Early case detection and adequate treatment are key to prevention of outbreaks. Especially language barriers and complex migration routes make genotyping of TB-strains a crucial tool to identify cases clusters, the potential index patient and transmission dynamics. We are fortunate enough to experience times in which new TB-antibiotics were made available and in which molecular assays revolutionized TB-diagnostics. We need to take advantage of that and develop personalized therapies for patients suffering from drug resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Escarro/microbiologia , Sudão , Migrantes , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is among top five high burden countries for tuberculosis and drug resistant TB. Among rifampicin sensitive new pulmonary TB (PTB), prevalence of isoniazid resistance is 8.3% (95%CI: 7.0-10.7) and resistance to fluoroquinolone is higher (11·1%, 95%CI: 7·8-14·3) than isoniazid resistance. METHOD: Five year retrospective data (2015-2019) of drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, performed using recommended phenotypic (pDST) and/or genotypic (gDST) methods was analyzed stratified by rifampicin results for isoniazid resistance profiles and associated levofloxacin and pyrazinamide resistance. FINDINGS: DST data was analyzed from 11045 TB patients. Isolates were tested using pDST (87%), gDST (92%) and both methods (79.5%). For both rifampicin and isoniazid, a significant difference (P < .001) was noted between resistance detected by pDST and gDST. Among isolates, tested by both methods (8787), 49% were resistant to rifampicin and 51.7% to isoniazid with discordance in resistant results of 15.8% for each, with 13.2% (570) of rifampicin resistance reported sensitive by pDST and 14.2% (660) of isoniazid resistance missed by gDST. Estimated isoniazid resistance among rifampicin sensitive new PTB, extrapulmonary TB and previously treated PTB was 9.8% (95%CI: 8.7-11.1), 6.8% (95%CI: 5.4-8.5) and 14.6% (95%CI: 11.8-17.9) respectively. Significant differences were reported between the genotypic profile of isoniazid resistance associated with rifampicin-resistant and sensitive isolates including detectable mutations (87% vs 71.6%), frequency of inhA (7.6% and 30.2%) and katG mutations (76.1% vs 41.2%) respectively. Among rifampicin resistant and sensitive isolates, a significantly higher level of resistance to levofloxacin and pyrazinamide was seen associated with isoniazid resistance. CONCLUSION: There are risks and many challenges in implementing WHO recommended treatment for isoniazid resistant tuberculosis. The laboratory based surveillance can complement random surveys in country specific planning for TB diagnostics and appropriate treatment regimens.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Pirazinamida/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Laboratórios , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1172-1177, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788498

RESUMO

Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a global health challenge. The emergence of MDR TB has contributed remarkably to the spread of tuberculosis and also poses a threat, which if not effectively addressed may wipe out the achievements of previous efforts in controlling tuberculosis. Objective: This study was aimed at detecting MDR-TB among patients in a setting prevalent with tuberculosis and HIV in Southeast, Nigeria. Method: Sputum specimens collected from 740 suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients were screened for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). All the 111 AFB positive samples were subjected to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 TB system. The isolates were then confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis using SD Bioline Rapid Diagnostic Tests before being subjected to drug susceptibility testing to first-line anti-TB drugs. MDR-TB was determined by isolates being resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV testing was performed for participants included in the study using standard rapid diagnostic tests. Result: Out of the 111 AFB-positive sputum samples, 65 (58.6%) were culture-positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MDR-TB was found in 2 ([3.1%] 95% CI = 0.0-7.3) of the culture-positive samples. The rate of TB and HIV coinfection was 7.7%. Maximum single-drug resistance was seen in ethambutol 12 ([18.5%] 95% CI = 9.0-27.9). Conclusion: The MDR-TB rate of 3.1% found in this study was relatively low and efforts should be intensified to keep it low.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Afghanistan is affected by one of the world's longest protracted armed conflicts, frequent natural disasters, disease outbreaks and large population movements and it suffers from a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), including rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). The study shows Médecins Sans Frontières' experiences with care for patients with RR-TB in Kandahar Province. We describe the uptake of RR-TB treatment, how World Health Organisation criteria for the choice between the short and an individualized regimen were implemented, and treatment outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected data from RR-TB patients enrolled in care from 2016 until 2019. Descriptive analysis was performed to present characteristics of patients and treatment outcomes. Multivariable Cox analysis was performed to identify risk factors for having an unfavourable treatment outcome. RESULTS: Out of 146 enrolled RR-TB patients, 112 (76.7%) started treatment: 41 (36.6%) and 71 (63.4%) with the short and individualized treatment regimen, respectively. Of 82 with results for fluoroquinolone susceptibility, 39 (47.6%) had fluoroquinolone-resistant TB. Seven patients with initially fluoroquinolone-resistant TB and three pregnant women started the short regimen and 18 patients eligible for the short regimen started the injectable-free individualized regimen. Overall, six-month smear and culture conversion were 98.7% and 97.1%, respectively; treatment success was 70.1%. Known initial fluoroquinolone resistance (aHR 3.77, 95%CI:1.53-9.27) but not choice of regimen predicted having an unfavourable outcome. CONCLUSION: Even though criteria for the choice of treatment regimen were not applied strictly, we have achieved acceptable outcomes in this cohort. To expand RR-TB care, treatment regimens should fit provision at primary health care level and take patient preferences into account.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 594, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of an effective Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System in low-income countries like Tanzania is problematic, despite being an essential tool for the detection and effective monitoring of drug resistant tuberculosis. Long delays in specimen transportation from the facilities to reference laboratory and results dissemination back to the health facilities, result in poor patient management, particularly where multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease is present. METHODS: Following a detailed qualitative study, a pilot intervention of a revised Tuberculosis Routine Surveillance System was implemented in Mwanza region, Tanzania. This included the use of rapid molecular methods for the detection of both tuberculosis and drug resistance using Xpert MTB/RIF in some Mwanza sites, the use of Xpert MTB/RIF and Line Probe Assay at the Central Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, a revised communication strategy and interventions to address the issue of poor form completion. A before and after comparison of the intervention on the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified and the time taken for results feedback to the requesting site was reported. RESULTS: The revised system for previously treated cases tested at the Central Reference Laboratory was able to obtain the following findings; the number of cases tested increased from 75 in 2016 to 185 in 2017. The times for specimen transportation from health facilities to the reference laboratory were reduced by 22% (from 9 to 7 days). The median time for the district to receive results was reduced by 36% (from 11 to 7 days). Overall the number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases starting treatment increased by 67% (from 12 to 20). CONCLUSION: Detection of drug resistance could significantly be enhanced, and delays reduced by introduction of new technologies and improved routine surveillance system, including better communication using mobile applications such as 'WhatsApp' and close follow-ups. A larger scale study is now merited to ascertain if these benefits are robust across different contexts.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is among the top 10 causes of mortality and the first killer among infectious diseases worldwide. One of the factors fuelling the TB epidemic is the global rise of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with MDR-TB in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia. METHOD: This study employed a facility-based cross-sectional study design, which was conducted between July 2018 and August 2019. The inclusion criteria for the study participants were GeneXpert-positive who were not under treatment for TB, PTB patients' ≥15 years of age and who provided written informed consent. A total of 300 participants were enrolled in the study, with a structured questionnaire used to collect data on clinical, sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Sputum samples were collected and processed for acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and drug susceptibility testing. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using a line probe assay. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between outcome and predictor variables. RESULTS: The overall proportion of MDR-TB was 16.7% (11.6% and 32.7% for new and previously treated patients, respectively). Of the total MDR-TB isolates, 5.3% were pre-XDR-TB. The proportion of MDR-TB/HIV co-infection was 21.1%. A previous history of TB treatment AOR 3.75; 95% CI (0.7-2.24), cigarette smoking AOR 6.09; CI (1.65-2.50) and patients who had an intermittent fever (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.21-5.4) were strongly associated with MDR-TB development. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of MDR-TB observed among new and previously treated patients is very alarming, which calls for an urgent need for intervention. The high proportion of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed cases indicates ongoing transmission, which suggests the need for enhanced TB control program performance to interrupt transmission. The increased proportion of MDR-TB among previously treated cases indicates a need for better patient management to prevent the evolution of drug resistance. Assessing the TB control program performance gaps and an optimal implementation of the WHO recommended priority actions for the management of drug-resistant TB, is imperative to help reduce the current high MDR-TB burden in the study region.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Escarro/efeitos dos fármacos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/patologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 570, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), most prisons are overcrowded with poor ventilation and put prisoners disproportionally at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and developing TB infection but are mostly missed due to poor access to healthcare. Active case-finding (ACF) of TB in prisons facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of inmates and prevent the spread. We explored literature and described evidence on TB ACF interventions and approaches for prisoners in SSA prisons. METHODS: Guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Academic search complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE with full text via EBSCOhost for articles on prisoners and ACF from 2000 to May 2019 with no language restriction. Two investigators independently screened the articles at the abstract and full-text stages in parallel guided by the eligibility criteria as well as performed the methodological quality appraisal of the included studies using the latest mixed-method appraisal tool. We extracted all relevant data, organized them into themes and sub-themes, and presented a narrative summary of the results. RESULTS: Of the 391 eligible articles found, 31 met the inclusion criteria. All 31 articles were published between 2006 and 2019 with the highest six (19.4%) in 2015. We found evidence in 11 countries. That is, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Coˆte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia with most 41.9% (13/31) recorded in Ethiopia. These intervention studies were conducted in 134 prisons between 2001 and 2018 using either a single or combination of mass, facility-led, entry, peer educators for routine screening, and exit ACF approaches. The majority (74%) of the studies utilized only a mass screening approach. The most (68%) reported study outcome was smear-positive TB cases only (68%). We found no evidence in 16 SSA countries although they are classified among the three high-burden country lists for TB TB/HIV and Multidrug resistant-TB group. CONCLUSION: Our review highlights a dearth of evidence on TB ACF interventions in most SSA countries prisons. Hence, there is the need to scaling-up ACF interventions in SSA prisons, particularly countries included in the three high-burden country lists for TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Prisioneiros , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Prevalência , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 576, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China ranks second in the world in terms of numbers of tuberculosis (TB) cases and is one of the top three countries with the largest number of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). It also has high mortality and low cure rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive TB patients. This study aimed to analyse, under the integrated TB control model, the characteristics of TB patients seeking healthcare in the largest designated TB hospital in Chongqing. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of TB registers in a health facility. Record data of 1827 TB patients who had attended the Chongqing Public Health Medical Center (CPHMC) from 1 January to 31 December 2018 were included. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 18.0; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyse the data. Counting data were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher' s exact test. Among the results of the univariate analysis, the variables with statistical significance were included in the binomial stepwise logistic regression, with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval calculated. A two-tailed probability level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The majority of registered patients were men (1197), of Han ethnicity (1670), aged 21-60 years (1331), farmer/unemployed (1075), and living in county/district (1207). Approximately 24.9% of patients (455/1827) contracted DR-TB, 6% (110/1827) were co-infected with HIV, and 41.0% (749/1827) had drug-related hepatotoxicity. Among those patients, DR-TB was more likely to develop among farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity (P < 0.05). Women who received retreatment and lived in county/district were less likely to be HIV positive (P < 0.05). Compared with farmers, patients who were unemployed were more likely to be HIV positive, and those aged 21-60 years had a higher risk of being tested as HIV positive (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity are more susceptible to DR-TB; young unemployed men have a higher risk of contracting HIV-positive TB. The demographic and clinical characteristics of TB patients should be taken into consideration in DR-TB and HIV-positive TB screening in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
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