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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027392

RESUMO

Tuberculosis of the skull or calvarial tuberculosis (CTB) is rare. The literature until 2019 reported less than 60 cases of CTB in childhood. The authors describe two patients with CTB associated with other manifestations of TB, such as: spine and rib injuries, peripheral adenopathy, hepatic and splenic involvement who improved with chemotherapy. The patients were a four-year-old and an eight-year-old child, whose diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological, bacteriological or molecular investigation. Both were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and did not need orthopedic treatment.


Assuntos
Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053077

RESUMO

Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
3.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 131, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health and economic security threat with staggering cumulative incidence worldwide. Given the severity of projections, hospitals across the globe are creating additional critical care surge capacity and limiting patient routine access to care for other diseases like tuberculosis (TB). The outbreak fuels panic in sub-Saharan Africa where the healthcare system is fragile in withstanding the disease. Here, we looked over the COVID-19 containment measures in Ethiopia in context from reliable sources and put forth recommendations that leverage the health system response to COVID-19 and TB. MAIN TEXT: Ethiopia shares a major proportion of the global burden of infectious diseases, while the patterns of COVID-19 are still at an earlier stage of the epidemiology curve. The Ethiopian government exerted tremendous efforts to curb the disease. It limited public gatherings, ordered school closures, directed high-risk civil servants to work from home, and closed borders. It suspended flights to 120 countries and restricted mass transports. It declared a five-month national state of emergency and granted a pardon for 20 402 prisoners. It officially postponed parliamentary and presidential elections. It launched the 'PM Abiy-Jack Ma initiative', which supports African countries with COVID-19 diagnostics and infection prevention and control commodities. It expanded its COVID-19 testing capacity to 38 countrywide laboratories. Many institutions are made available to provide clinical care and quarantine. However, the outbreak still has the potential for greater loss of life in Ethiopia if the community is unable to shape the regular behavioral and sociocultural norms that would facilitate the spread of the disease. The government needs to keep cautious that irregular migrants would fuel the disease. A robust testing capacity is needed to figure out the actual status of the disease. The pandemic has reduced TB care and research activities significantly and these need due attention. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia took several steps to detect, manage, and control COVID-19. More efforts are needed to increase testing capacity and bring about behavioral changes in the community. The country needs to put in place alternative options to mitigate interruptions of essential healthcare services and scientific researches of significant impact.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/terapia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs experienced by tuberculosis patients produce a severe economic impact on households, especially poor families. Few studies have investigated the full costs, including direct and indirect costs, at the patient and household levels in south-east China. METHODS: A case follow-up study was conducted in the Bao'an district of Shenzhen City, China. Eligible new and previously treated individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) during January 1st 2013 to June 30th 2013 were enrolled. Medical and non-medical costs as well as income loss were calculated in diagnosis and treatment periods, respectively. Factors associated with costs due to TB diagnosis, treatment and TB care (diagnosis + treatment) were explored respectively with a linear regression model. RESULTS: Of the total 514 TB patients enrolled, 95% were from the migrant population, and 65% were males, with a mean age of 32.25 (±10.11). The median costs due to TB diagnosis and TB treatment were 79 United States dollar (USD), 748USD (6.2897 China Yuan (CNY) = 1USD, 2013) per patient, respectively. The median costs due to TB care (diagnosis and treatment) per patient was 1218USD, corresponding to 26% of patients' annual income pre-illness. Those who visited more times to health facilities, hospitalized, received higher education, or occupied in national civil servant/services/retired staff might expense more before diagnosis. Costs due to TB treatment was significantly higher among migrant patients, sputum smear positive patients, and widowed/divorced population. Factors associated with less total costs were native patients, fewer times of visiting to health-care facilities and those with no hospitalization history due to TB. CONCLUSIONS: Although a free TB control policy is in force, patients with TB are still facing a heavy economic burden. More available interventions to reduce the financial burden on tuberculosis patients are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/economia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 685, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recombinant fusion protein ESAT6-CFP10 (EC) is a newly developed skin test reagent for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. In this study, we evaluated whether induration and erythema could be used as diagnostic indicators for EC skin test to detect M. tuberculosis infection. METHODS: A total of 743 tuberculosis patients and 1514 healthy volunteers underwent an EC skin test. The diameters of induration and erythema were measured with Vernier caliper, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after skin testing. Related indicators of EC reagent diagnostic test were tested, and the diagnostic effects of the four diagnostic indicators for EC skin test were compared. RESULTS: The sensitivity of induration / erythema measurement was lower at 24 h after EC skin test than at 48 h or 72 h (P<0.01). There was no difference in consistency (P = 0.16) between induration with clinical diagnosis, and erythema with clinical diagnosis at 48 h (88.88 and 90.16%, Kappa value was 0.75 and 0.78, respectively). In patients, the sensitivity of erythema measurement was higher than induration measurement (P<0.01). In healthy volunteers, the specificity of erythema measurement was lower than induration at 24 h after skin test, but there was no difference at 48 h after skin test (P = 0.22). In BCG vaccination volunteers, the specificity of induration and erythema were higher than 90%. In addition, there was a high consistency of induration and erythema. When induration or erythema was used as a positive diagnostic indicator, the sensitivity of the EC skin test was improved, and was no different from the other three indicators in terms of specificity and consistency with clinical diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Induration or erythema diameter not less than 5 mm could be used as a diagnostic indicator for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Phase III clinical trial of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6-CFP10 allergen; CTR20150695 ; registered in December 16, 2015.


Assuntos
Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Alérgenos , Eritema/etiologia , Eritema/patologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo , Teste Tuberculínico/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(7): 721-725, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). First COVID-19 case was detected in March, 10, 2020 in Turkey and as of May, 18, 2020 148,067 cases have been identified and 4096 citizens have died. Tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide public health concern, incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people) in Turkey was reported at 14, 1 in 2018. During pandemic COVID-19 was the main concern in every clinic and as we discuss here overlapping respiratory diseases may result in delaying of the diagnosis and treatment. METHODOLOGY: There were 4605 respiratory samples examined between March 23 and May 18 for COVID-19 and 185 samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our laboratory. The Xpert Ultra assay was performed for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis; SARS-CoV-2 RNA was determined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis in combined nasopharyngeal and deep oropharyngeal swabs of suspected cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Both of SARS-CoV-2 and M. tuberculosis tests were requested on the clinical and radiological grounds in 30 patients. Here we discussed 2 patients who were both COVID-19 and TB positive. One patient already diagnosed with tuberculosis become COVID-19 positive during hospitalization and another patient suspected and treated for COVID-19 received the final diagnosis of pulmonary TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: We want to emphasize that while considering COVID-19 primarily during these pandemic days, we should not forget one of the "great imitators", tuberculosis within differential diagnoses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 609, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ratios of different immune cell populations (i.e., monocyte-to-lymphocyte, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios) have been studied as a means of predicting future tuberculosis (TB) disease risk or to assist in the diagnosis of incident TB disease. No studies to-date, however, have evaluated the potential of these ratios to predict or assist in the diagnosis of incident TB infection - the first step in the natural history of TB disease. METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated the complete blood count (CBC)-derived metrics of monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as predictors of future TB infection risk or aids in the diagnosis of TB infection among 145 Tanzanian adolescents enrolled in the DAR-901 vaccine trial, using paired CBCs and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) obtained at 0, 60 and 720 days after study enrollment. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences between study participants who remained persistently IGRA negative throughout the study period and those who subsequently converted to IGRA positive with respect to MLR (0.18 vs 0.17, p = 0.10), NLR (0.88 vs 1.02, p = 0.08), or PLR (115 vs 120, p = 0.28). Similarly, no significant differences were noted with respect to MLR, NLR, and PLR between IGRA converters and time-matched negative controls at the time of IGRA conversion. With respect to other blood cell measures, however, there were modest but significant differences between IGRA negatives and IGRA converters with respect to red blood cell count (4.8 vs 4.6 ×  106 cells/mcL, p = 0.008), hemoglobin (12.6 vs 12.3 g/dL, p = 0.01), and hematocrit (38.8 vs 37.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to prior studies that have suggested that the ratios of different immune cell populations are associated with development of TB disease, our present findings do not demonstrate an association between these ratios and the development of TB infection. However, decreased red blood cell measures were associated with the subsequent development of TB infection, suggesting either that dysregulation of iron metabolism may play a role in TB pathogenesis or that following TB infection, iron dysregulation may precede IGRA positivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02712424 . Date of registration: March 14, 2016.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , Plaquetas , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/microbiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 555, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine TB-LAM is the first point-of-care test (POC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) and rapidly identifies TB in those at high-risk for short-term mortality. While the relationship between urine-LAM and mortality has been previously described, the outcomes of those undergoing urine-LAM testing have largely been assessed during short follow-up periods within diagnostic accuracy studies. We therefore sought to assess the relationship between baseline urine-LAM results and subsequent hospitalization and mortality under real-world conditions among outpatients in the first year of ART. METHODS: Consecutive, HIV-positive adults with a CD4 count < 100 cells/uL presenting for ART initiation were enrolled. TB diagnoses and outcomes (hospitalization, loss-to-follow and mortality) were recorded during the first year following enrolment. Baseline urine samples were retrospectively tested using the urine-LAM POC assay. Kaplan Meier survival curves were used to assess the cumulative probability of hospitalization or mortality in the first year of follow-up, according to urine-LAM status. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of hospitalization and mortality at three months and one year of follow-up. RESULTS: 468 patients with a median CD4 count of 59 cells/uL were enrolled. There were 140 patients (29.9%) with newly diagnosed TB in the first year of follow-up of which 79 (56.4%) were microbiologically-confirmed. A total of 18% (n = 84) required hospital admission and 12.2% (n = 57) died within a year of study entry. 38 out of 468 (8.1%) patients retrospectively tested urine-LAM positive - including 19.0% of those with microbiologically-proven TB diagnoses (n = 15/79) and 23.0% (n = 14/61) of those with clinical-only TB diagnoses; 9 of 38 (23.7%) of patients retrospectively testing LAM positive were never diagnosed with TB under routine program conditions. Among all patients (n = 468) in the first year of follow-up, a positive urine-LAM result was strongly associated with all-cause hospitalization and mortality with a corresponding adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 3.7 (95%CI, 1.9-7.1) and 2.6 (95%, 1.2-5.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic urine-LAM testing among ART-naïve HIV-positive outpatients with CD4 counts < 100 cells/uL detected TB cases that were missed under routine programme conditions and was highly predictive for subsequent hospitalization and mortality in the first year of ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/urina , Urinálise/métodos
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 553, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined cytokine immune response profiles among contacts to tuberculosis patients to identify immunologic and epidemiologic correlates of tuberculosis. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 1272 contacts of culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients at 9 United States and Canadian sites. Epidemiologic characteristics were recorded. Blood was collected and stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) concentrations were determined using immunoassays. RESULTS: Of 1272 contacts, 41 (3.2%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis before or < 30 days after blood collection (co-prevalent tuberculosis) and 19 (1.5%) during subsequent four-year follow-up (incident tuberculosis). Compared with contacts without tuberculosis, those with co-prevalent tuberculosis had higher median baseline TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations (in pg/mL, TNF-α 129 versus 71, P < .01; IFN-γ 231 versus 27, P < .001), and those who subsequently developed incident tuberculosis had higher median baseline TNF-α concentrations (in pg/mL, 257 vs. 71, P < .05). In multivariate analysis, contact age < 15 years, US/Canadian birth, and IFN or TNF concentrations > the median were associated with co-prevalent tuberculosis (P < .01 for each); female sex (P = .03) and smoking (P < .01) were associated with incident tuberculosis. In algorithms combining young age, positive skin test results, and elevated CFPS TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10 responses, the positive predictive values for co-prevalent and incident tuberculosis were 40 and 25%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine concentrations and epidemiologic factors at the time of contact investigation may predict co-prevalent and incident tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 592, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of tuberculosis infection (TBI) in individuals at high risk for tuberculosis (TB) disease is a priority for TB elimination in the US. Newly arrived refugees in Middle Tennessee are screened for TBI, but factors associated with gaps in the TBI care cascade are not well characterized. METHODS: We assessed the TBI care cascade from US entry to completion of treatment for refugees who resettled in Middle Tennessee from 2012 through 2016. We assessed factors associated with treatment initiation and completion using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 6776 refugees who completed initial health screening, 1681 (25%) screened positive for TBI, 1208 were eligible for treatment, 690 started treatment, and 432 completed treatment. Male sex (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.42; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.06, 1.89) and screening with interferon gamma release assay compared to tuberculin skin test (OR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.59, 5.27) were associated with increased treatment initiation; living farther away from TB clinic was associated with decreased treatment initiation (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99). Existing diabetes (OR: 7.27; 95% CI: 1.93, 27.30), receipt of influenza vaccination (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.40) and region of origin from South-Eastern or Southern Asia (ORSEAsia: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.43, 3.70; ORSAsia: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.64) were associated with increased treatment completion. Six refugees developed TB disease after declining (n = 4) or partially completing (n = 2) TBI treatment; none who completed treatment developed TB disease. CONCLUSIONS: We determined gaps in the TBI care cascade among refugees in Middle Tennessee. Further assessment of barriers to treatment initiation and completion and interventions to assist refugees are warranted to improve these gaps and prevent TB disease.


Assuntos
Refugiados/psicologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tennessee , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Host blood transcriptomic biomarkers have potential as rapid point-of-care triage, diagnostic, and predictive tests for Tuberculosis disease. We aimed to summarise the performance of host blood transcriptomic signatures for diagnosis of and prediction of progression to Tuberculosis disease; and compare their performance to the recommended World Health Organisation target product profile. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the performance of host blood mRNA signatures for diagnosing and predicting progression to Tuberculosis disease in HIV-negative adults and adolescents, in studies with an independent validation cohort. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO libraries were searched for articles published between January 2005 and May 2019, complemented by a search of bibliographies. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were done independently by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was performed for signatures that were validated in ≥3 comparable cohorts, using a bivariate random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty studies evaluating 25 signatures for diagnosis of or prediction of progression to TB disease in a total of 68 cohorts were included. Eighteen studies evaluated 24 signatures for TB diagnosis and 17 signatures met at least one TPP minimum performance criterion. Three diagnostic signatures were validated in clinically relevant cohorts to differentiate TB from other diseases, with pooled sensitivity 84%, 87% and 90% and pooled specificity 79%, 88% and 74%, respectively. Four studies evaluated signatures for progression to TB disease and performance of one signature, assessed within six months of TB diagnosis, met the minimal TPP for a predictive test for progression to TB disease. CONCLUSION: Host blood mRNA signatures hold promise as triage tests for TB. Further optimisation is needed if mRNA signatures are to be used as standalone diagnostic or predictive tests for therapeutic decision-making.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
15.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 48: 151600, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805515

RESUMO

The vaccine BCG has been reported to offer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been hypothesized this is based on nonspecific enhancement of innate immunity. This study addressed whether there is strong homology between a SARS-CoV-2 capsid protein and a Mycobacterium bovis protein that would allow for stronger, more specific immune protection. The study also showed the utility of immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic pathology laboratory for elucidating this information. Immunohistochemistry documented that an antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 envelope, but not the spike or membrane proteins, strongly cross hybridized to 11/11 Mycobacterial species tested, including M. bovis. BlastP analysis showed high homology of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein with 12 consecutive amino acids of the protein LytR C, which is a consensus protein unique to Mycobacteria. Six additional cases of human tuberculosis with few organisms showed that the viral envelope specific antibody (5/6) was more accurate than the AFB stain (2/6) for diagnostic purposes. These data indicate BCG vaccination induces a specific immunity against SARS CoV-2 that targets the viral envelope protein that is essential for infectivity. Thus, a concurrent booster or first use of the BCG vaccine may reduce the severity of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The data also suggests the value of using the SARS-CoV-2 envelope antibody in the diagnosis of Mycobacterial infections in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissues by the diagnostic pathologist.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Pandemias , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003226, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries encourage same-day initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but evidence on eligibility for same-day initiation, how best to implement it, and its impact on outcomes remains scarce. Building on the Simplified Algorithm for Treatment Eligibility (SLATE) I trial, in which nearly half of participants were ineligible for same-day initiation mainly because of TB symptoms, the study evaluated the revised SLATE II algorithm, which allowed same-day initiation for patients with mild TB symptoms and other less serious reasons for delay. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SLATE II was a nonblinded, 1:1 individually randomized pragmatic trial at three primary healthcare clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa. It randomized adult patients presenting for an HIV test or any HIV care but not yet on ART. Intervention arm patients were assessed with a symptom screen, medical history, brief physical examination, and readiness questionnaire to distinguish between patients eligible for immediate ART dispensing and those requiring further care before initiation. Standard arm patients received usual care. Follow-up was by review of routine clinic records. Primary outcomes were (1) ART initiation in ≤7 days and (2) ART initiation in ≤28 days and retention in care at 8 months (composite outcome). From 14 March to 18 September 2018, 593 adult HIV+, nonpregnant patients were enrolled (median interquartile range [IQR] age 35 [29-43]; 63% (n = 373) female; median CD4 count 293 [133-487]). Half of study patients (n = 295) presented with TB symptoms, whereas only 13 (4%) standard arm and 7 (2%) intervention arm patients tested positive for TB disease. Among 140 intervention arm patients with TB symptoms, 72% were eligible for same-day initiation. Initiation was higher in the intervention (n = 296) versus standard arm (n = 297) by 7 days (91% versus 68%; risk difference [RD] 23% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17%-29%]) and 28 days (94% versus 82%; RD 12% [7%-17%]) after enrollment. In total, 87% of intervention and 38% of standard arm patients initiated on the same day. By 8 months after study enrollment, 74% (220/296) of intervention and 59% (175/297) of standard arm patients had both initiated ART in ≤28 days and been retained in care (RD 15% [7%-23%]). Among the 41% of participants with viral load results available, suppression was 90% in the standard arm and 92% in the intervention arm among patients initiated in ≤28 days. No ART-associated adverse events were reported after initiation; two intervention and four standard arm patients were reported to have died during passive follow-up. Limitations of the study included limited geographic generalizability, exclusion of patients too sick to consent, fluctuations in procedures in the standard arm over the course of the study, high fidelity to the trial protocol by study staff, and the possibility of overestimating loss to follow-up due to data constraints. CONCLUSIONS: More than 85% of patients presenting for HIV testing or care, including those newly diagnosed, were eligible and ready for same-day initiation under the SLATE II algorithm. The algorithm increased initiation within 7 days without appearing to compromise retention and viral suppression at 8 months, offering a practical and acceptable approach that can be widely and immediately utilized by existing providers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03315013, registered 19 October 2017. First participant enrolled 14 March 2018.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012012, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A well-functioning routine health information system (RHIS) can provide the information needed for health system management, for governance, accountability, planning, policy making, surveillance and quality improvement, but poor information support has been identified as a major obstacle for improving health system management. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to improve routine health information systems in terms of RHIS performance, and also, in terms of improved health system management performance, and improved patient and population health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid and Embase Ovid in May 2019. We searched Global Health, Ovid and PsycInfo in April 2016. In January 2020 we searched for grey literature in the Grey Literature Report and in OpenGrey, and for ongoing trials using the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov. In October 2019 we also did a cited reference search using Web of Science, and a 'similar articles' search in PubMed. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and time-series studies comparing routine health information system interventions, with controls, in primary, hospital or community health care settings. Participants included clinical staff and management, district management and community health workers using routine information systems. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed records to identify studies for inclusion, extracted data from the included studies and assessed the risk of bias. Interventions and outcomes were too varied across studies to allow for pooled risk analysis. We present a 'Summary of findings' table for each intervention comparisons broadly categorised into Technical and Organisational (or a combination), and report outcomes on data quality and service quality. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included six studies: four cluster randomised trials and two controlled before-after studies, from Africa and South America. Three studies evaluated technical interventions, one study evaluated an organisational intervention, and two studies evaluated a combination of technical and organisational interventions. Four studies reported on data quality and six studies reported on service quality. In terms of data quality, a web-based electronic TB laboratory information system probably reduces the length of time to reporting of TB test results, and probably reduces the overall rate of recording errors of TB test results, compared to a paper-based system (moderate certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of the electronic laboratory information system on the recording rate of serious (misidentification) errors for TB test results compared to a paper-based system (very low certainty evidence). Misidentification errors are inaccuracies in transferring test results between an electronic register and patients' clinical charts. We are also uncertain about the effect of the intervention on service quality (timeliness of starting or changing a patient's TB treatment) (very low certainty evidence). A hand-held electronic device probably improves the length of time to report TB test results, and probably reduces the total frequency of recording errors in TB test results between the laboratory notebook and the electronic information record system, compared to a paper-based system (moderate-certainty evidence). We are, however, uncertain about the effect of the intervention on the frequency of serious (misidentification) errors in recording between the laboratory notebook and the electronic information record, compared to a paper-based system (very low certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of a hospital electronic health information system on service quality (length of time outpatients spend at hospital, length of hospital stay, and hospital revenue collection), compared to a paper-based system (very low certainty evidence). High-intensity brief text messaging (SMS) may make little or no difference to data quality (in terms of completeness of documentation of pregnancy outcomes), compared to low-intensity brief text messaging (low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of electronic drug stock notification (with either data management support or product transfer support) on service quality (in terms of transporting stock and stock levels), compared to paper-based stock notification (very low certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of health information strengthening (where it is part of comprehensive service quality improvement intervention) on service quality (health worker motivation, receipt of training by health workers, health information index scores, quality of clinical observation of children and adults) (very low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The review indicates mixed effects of mainly technical interventions to improve data quality, with gaps in evidence on interventions aimed at enhancing data-informed health system management. There is a gap in interventions studying information support beyond clinical management, such as for human resources, finances, drug supply and governance. We need to have a better understanding of the causal mechanisms by which information support may affect change in management decision-making, to inform robust intervention design and evaluation methods.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas , Política Organizacional , Melhoria de Qualidade , Viés , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação em Laboratório Clínico/normas , Computadores de Mão , Coleta de Dados/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/normas , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/normas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Inovação Organizacional , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/normas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822367

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem in the present. TB also affects other sites (extrapulmonary tuberculosis, EPTB), and accounts for a significant proportion of tuberculosis cases worldwide. In order to comprehensively understand epidemiology of EBTB in China, and improve early diagnosis and treatment, we conducted a large-scale multi-center observational study to assess the demographic data and the prevalence of common EPTB inpatients, and further evaluate the prevalence of EPTB concurrent with Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the associations between multiple EPTB types and gender-age group in China. All consecutive age≥15yr inpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of EPTB during the period from January 2011 to December 2017 were included in the study. The descriptive statistical analysis included median and quartile measurements for continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for categorical variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to compare the association of multiple EPTB types between age group and gender. The results showed that the proportion of 15-24 years and 25-34 years in EPTB inpatients were the most and the ratio of male: female was 1.51. Approximately 70% of EPTB inpatients were concurrent with PTB or other types of EPTB. The most common of EPTB was tuberculous pleurisy (50.15%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (14.96%), tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck (7.24%), tuberculous meningitis (7.23%), etc. It was found that many EPTB inpatients concurrent with PTB. The highest prevalence of EPTB concurrent with PTB was pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis (91.31%), followed by bronchial tuberculosis (89.52%), tuberculosis of hilar lymph nodes (79.52%), tuberculosis of mediastinal lymph nodes (79.13%), intestinal tuberculosis (72.04%), tuberculous pleurisy (65.31%) and tuberculous meningitis (62.64%), etc. The results from EPTB concurrent with PTB suggested that females EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB (aOR = 0.819, 95%CI:0.803-0.835) after adjusted by age. As age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased (aOR = 0.994, 95%CI: 0.989-0.999) after adjusted by gender. Our study demonstrated that the common EPTB were tuberculous pleurisy, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculous lymphadenitis of the neck, tuberculous meningitis, etc. A majority of patients with pharyngeal/laryngeal tuberculosis, bronchial tuberculosis, tuberculosis of hilar/mediastinal lymph nodes, intestinal tuberculosis, tuberculous pleurisy, tuberculous meningitis, etc. were concurrent with PTB. Female EPTB inpatients were less likely to be at higher risk of concurrent PTB, and as age increasing, the trend risk of concurrent PTB decreased. The clinicians should be alert to the presence of concurrent tuberculosis in EPTB, and all suspected cases of EPTB should be assessed for concomitant PTB to determine whether the case is infectious and to help for early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 128S-137S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Law is an important factor in the diffusion of syringe services programs (SSPs). This study measures the current status of, and 5-year change in, state laws governing SSP operations and possession of syringes by participants. METHODS: Legal researchers developed a cross-sectional data set measuring key features of state laws and regulations governing the possession and distribution of syringes across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia in effect on August 1, 2019. We compared these data with previously collected data on laws as of August 1, 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-nine states (including the District of Columbia) had laws in effect on August 1, 2019, that removed legal impediments to, explicitly authorized, and/or regulated SSPs. Thirty-three states had 1 or more laws consistent with legal possession of syringes by SSP participants under at least some circumstances. Changes from 2014 to 2019 included an increase of 14 states explicitly authorizing SSPs by law and an increase of 12 states with at least 1 provision reducing legal barriers to SSPs. Since 2014, the number of states explicitly authorizing SSPs nearly doubled, and the new states included many rural, southern, or midwestern states that had been identified as having poor access to SSPs, as well as states at high risk for HIV and hepatitis C virus outbreaks. Substantial legal barriers to SSP operation and participant syringe possession remained in >20% of US states. CONCLUSION: Legal barriers to effective operation of SSPs have declined but continue to hinder the prevention and reduction of drug-related harm.


Assuntos
Programas de Troca de Agulhas/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Características de Residência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
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