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2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health challenge and leading infectious killer worldwide. The need for continuous evaluation of TB treatment outcomes becomes more imperative in the midst of a global economic meltdown substantially impacting resource-limited-settings. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 25-years of treatment outcomes in 3,384 patients who were managed for TB at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Confirmed TB cases were given directly observed therapy of a short-course treatment regimen and monitored for clinical response. RESULTS: Out of 1,146,560 patients screened, there were 24,330 (2.1%) presumptive and 3,384 (13.9%) confirmed TB cases. The patients' mean age was 35.8 years (0.33-101 years). There were 1,902 (56.2%) male, 332(9.8%) pediatric, and 2,878 (85%) pulmonary TB cases. The annual mean measured treatment outcomes were as follows: adherence, 91.4(±5.8) %; successful outcome, 75.3(±8.8) % potentially unsatisfactory outcome, 14.8(±7.2) %; and mortality 10.0(±3.6) %. Female, extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB), newly diagnosed, and relapsed patients compliant with treatment had successful outcomes. Adulthood and HIV infection were mortality risk factors. CONCLUSION: The mean annual successful treatment outcome is 75.3(±8.8) %. Female, pediatric, EPTB, new, and relapsed patients were predisposed to successful treatment outcomes. Lessons learned will guide future program modifications.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 607-609, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880331

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a curable disease, but continues to contribute to large numbers of deaths globally and remains among the leading causes of death in South Africa (SA). Evaluating trends in TB deaths and progress towards the End TB strategy target of zero deaths is particularly important to guide policy and practice in SA. TB deaths are complicated by its relationship with HIV, and SA's initial slow response to HIV compounded this. In considering the reported deaths in SA that identify TB as the underlying cause of death, it is important to be aware of potential limitations and sources of bias. We have examined the relationship between TB and HIV and the recording of underlying and contributing causes of death, and clarified the World Health Organization's methodology for estimating TB deaths.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Documentação , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Estatísticas Vitais , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 555, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determine TB-LAM is the first point-of-care test (POC) for HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) and rapidly identifies TB in those at high-risk for short-term mortality. While the relationship between urine-LAM and mortality has been previously described, the outcomes of those undergoing urine-LAM testing have largely been assessed during short follow-up periods within diagnostic accuracy studies. We therefore sought to assess the relationship between baseline urine-LAM results and subsequent hospitalization and mortality under real-world conditions among outpatients in the first year of ART. METHODS: Consecutive, HIV-positive adults with a CD4 count < 100 cells/uL presenting for ART initiation were enrolled. TB diagnoses and outcomes (hospitalization, loss-to-follow and mortality) were recorded during the first year following enrolment. Baseline urine samples were retrospectively tested using the urine-LAM POC assay. Kaplan Meier survival curves were used to assess the cumulative probability of hospitalization or mortality in the first year of follow-up, according to urine-LAM status. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of hospitalization and mortality at three months and one year of follow-up. RESULTS: 468 patients with a median CD4 count of 59 cells/uL were enrolled. There were 140 patients (29.9%) with newly diagnosed TB in the first year of follow-up of which 79 (56.4%) were microbiologically-confirmed. A total of 18% (n = 84) required hospital admission and 12.2% (n = 57) died within a year of study entry. 38 out of 468 (8.1%) patients retrospectively tested urine-LAM positive - including 19.0% of those with microbiologically-proven TB diagnoses (n = 15/79) and 23.0% (n = 14/61) of those with clinical-only TB diagnoses; 9 of 38 (23.7%) of patients retrospectively testing LAM positive were never diagnosed with TB under routine program conditions. Among all patients (n = 468) in the first year of follow-up, a positive urine-LAM result was strongly associated with all-cause hospitalization and mortality with a corresponding adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 3.7 (95%CI, 1.9-7.1) and 2.6 (95%, 1.2-5.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic urine-LAM testing among ART-naïve HIV-positive outpatients with CD4 counts < 100 cells/uL detected TB cases that were missed under routine programme conditions and was highly predictive for subsequent hospitalization and mortality in the first year of ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/urina , Urinálise/métodos
6.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 52(12): 902-907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing literature on the association of SARS-CoV-2 and other chronic conditions, such as noncommunicable diseases. However, little is known about the impact of coinfection with tuberculosis. We aimed to compare the risk of death and recovery, as well as time-to-death and time-to-recovery, in COVID-19 patients with and without tuberculosis. METHODS: We created a 4:1 propensity score matched sample of COVID-19 patients without and with tuberculosis, using COVID-19 surveillance data in the Philippines. We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis of matched COVID-19 patients as of May 17, 2020, following them until June 15, 2020. The primary analysis estimated the risk ratios of death and recovery in patients with and without tuberculosis. Kaplan-Meier curves described time-to-death and time-to-recovery stratified by tuberculosis status, and differences in survival were assessed using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The risk of death in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis was 2.17 times higher than in those without (95% CI: 1.40-3.37). The risk of recovery in COVID-19 patients with tuberculosis was 25% lower than in those without (RR = 0.75,05% CI 0.63-0.91). Similarly, time-to-death was significantly shorter (p = .0031) and time-to-recovery significantly longer in patients with tuberculosis (p = .0046). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that coinfection with tuberculosis increased morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Our findings highlight the need to prioritize routine and testing services for tuberculosis, although health systems are disrupted by the heavy burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/terapia
7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1132-e1141, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has the potential to cause substantial disruptions to health services, due to cases overburdening the health system or response measures limiting usual programmatic activities. We aimed to quantify the extent to which disruptions to services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low-income and middle-income countries with high burdens of these diseases could lead to additional loss of life over the next 5 years. METHODS: Assuming a basic reproduction number of 3·0, we constructed four scenarios for possible responses to the COVID-19 pandemic: no action, mitigation for 6 months, suppression for 2 months, or suppression for 1 year. We used established transmission models of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria to estimate the additional impact on health that could be caused in selected settings, either due to COVID-19 interventions limiting activities, or due to the high demand on the health system due to the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: In high-burden settings, deaths due to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria over 5 years could increase by up to 10%, 20%, and 36%, respectively, compared with if there was no COVID-19 pandemic. The greatest impact on HIV was estimated to be from interruption to antiretroviral therapy, which could occur during a period of high health system demand. For tuberculosis, the greatest impact would be from reductions in timely diagnosis and treatment of new cases, which could result from any prolonged period of COVID-19 suppression interventions. The greatest impact on malaria burden could be as a result of interruption of planned net campaigns. These disruptions could lead to a loss of life-years over 5 years that is of the same order of magnitude as the direct impact from COVID-19 in places with a high burden of malaria and large HIV and tuberculosis epidemics. INTERPRETATION: Maintaining the most critical prevention activities and health-care services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria could substantially reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK Department for International Development, and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/mortalidade , Modelos Teóricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/mortalidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0231821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mortality from tuberculosis (TB) has been declining since 2000, nevertheless there is still a significant number of patients who die before or during TB treatment. The aims were to examine and describe predictors associated with TB related mortality. METHODS: Patients notified with TB from 2009 though 2014 in Denmark were included. Data were extracted from national registers and patient records were examined for clinical information and treatment outcome. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine TB related mortality. RESULTS: A total of 2131 cases were identified, 141 (6.6%) patients died before or during TB treatment. TB related mortality accounted for 104 cases (73.8%) and decreased significantly from 6.7% to 3.2% (p = .04) during the study period. Within 1 months of diagnosis, 49% of TB related deaths had occurred. The strongest risk factors present at time of diagnosis, associated with TB related mortality, were: age > 70 years, Charlson comorbidity index > 1, alcohol abuse, weight loss, anemia, and C-reactive protein > 100 mg/L (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB related deaths occurred soon after diagnosis, emphasizing that TB patients identified to have a high risk of mortality should be closely monitored before and during the intensive treatment period to improve their outcomes.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Demografia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(25): 2397-2410, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death. METHODS: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Patients recruited in Ivory Coast, Uganda, Cambodia, and Vietnam were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo screening (Xpert MTB/RIF test, urinary lipoarabinomannan test, and chest radiography) to determine whether treatment for tuberculosis should be started or to receive systematic empirical treatment with rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide daily for 2 months, followed by rifampin and isoniazid daily for 4 months. The primary end point was a composite of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease within 24 weeks (primary analysis) or within 48 weeks after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 522 patients in the systematic-treatment group and 525 in the guided-treatment group were included in the analyses. At week 24, the rate of death from any cause or invasive bacterial disease (calculated as the number of first events per 100 patient-years) was 19.4 with systematic treatment and 20.3 with guided treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.44). At week 48, the corresponding rates were 12.8 and 13.3 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.67 to 1.40]). At week 24, the probability of tuberculosis was lower with systematic treatment than with guided treatment (3.0% vs. 17.9%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.26), but the probability of grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events was higher with systematic treatment (17.4% vs. 7.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 2.57; 95% CI, 1.75 to 3.78). Serious adverse events were more common with systematic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among severely immunosuppressed adults with HIV infection who had not previously received ART, systematic treatment for tuberculosis was not superior to test-guided treatment in reducing the rate of death or invasive bacterial disease over 24 or 48 weeks and was associated with more grade 3 or 4 adverse events. (Funded by the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales; STATIS ANRS 12290 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02057796.).


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Carga Viral
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234878, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an era of renewed commitment to accelerate the declines in Tuberculosis (TB) incidence and mortality, there is the need for National Tuberculosis Programmes (NTPs) to monitor trends in key indicators across a geographical location and to provide reliable data for direct measurement of TB incidence and mortality. In this context, we explored the trends of TB case detection, mortality and HIV co-infection, and examined the predictors of TB deaths in Ten districts of the Volta region of Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all TB cases registered from 2013 to 2017 in 10 districts of the Volta Region of Ghana. Case detection rate (CDR) was computed as the ratio of the number of new and relapse TB case notified to NTP to the number of estimated incident TB cases in a given year. Case fatality rates were estimated using data from 2012-2016 cohort of TB patients. Simple and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of TB deaths with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals estimated. RESULTS: Overall, there were 3,735 new and relapse TB patients who commenced anti-TB treatment during the period, representing the case detection rate of 40.1% with district variations. The CDR remained stable during the 5 years. Of the total cases, HIV status was documented for 3,144 (84.2%), among whom, 712 (22.6%) were HIV positive. The TB/HIV co-infection was more prevalent among children under 15 years of age (30.1%), males (30.6%), treatment after lost to follow-up patients (33.3%), and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients (29.1%). The prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection did not significantly change over the years. The overall case fatality rate was 13% (n = 486), with considerable variation among HIV-positives and HIV-negative TB patients (21.8% and 11% respectively) (p<0.001) and among districts. TB/HIV co-infection, sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB and district of anti-TB treatment predicted TB mortality. CONCLUSION: TB case detection rate was low and remained stable during the study period, whereas co-infection with HIV and mortality rates were quite high, indicating the need for feasible strategies such as active case finding to improve case detection, and improved case management to reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 700, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TB remains a major global health problem. It is particularly prevalent in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa due to overcrowding, malnutrition, high HIV prevalence and insufficient medical services. Prisoners have experienced worse TB treatment outcomes than the general population. The researchers investigated the TB treatment outcomes and predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcomesamong prisoners and the general population in Zomba, Malawi. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed TB registers of prisoners and the general population diagnosed with TB from January 2011 to December 2016 at Zomba Maximum Central Prison and Zomba Central Hospital, Malawi. The study used routinely collected data extracted from national, standardized TB treatment monitoring tools. Successful treatment outcome was classified as the total for cured and completed treatment while unsuccessful treatment outcome was classified as the total of deaths and treatment failures. We used descriptive statistics to compare the demographics and TB treatment parameters among prisoners and non - prisoners and computed multivariate analysis to predict the independent factors of unsuccessful treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1652 registered cases, 27% were prisoners (all males) and 72% were non-prisoners (58% males). The median age was 35 years (IQR: 29-42); 76% were Pulmonary TB cases (78% among prisoners vs 75% among general population); 83% were new TB cases (77% among prisoners vs 86% among general population); and 65% were HIV positive (50% among prisoners vs 71% among general population). Regarding treatment outcome, 1472 (89%) were cured and/or completed treatment (93% among prisoners vs 88% among general population), 2(0.2%) were treatment failures, 122 (8%) died (5% among prisoners vs 8% among general population) and 55 (3%) were not evaluated (1% among prisoners vs 4% among general population). Unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes were associated with age greater than 35 years (aOR = 0.68: 95% C.I: 0.58-0.80), Extra-Pulmonary TB (aOR = 1.69: 95% C.I: 1.08-2.63) andHIV positive status (aOR = 0.63: 95% C.I: 0.42-0.94). CONCLUSION: Maximum prisons provide a stable population that can be easily monitored throughout the course of TB treatment. Good TB treatment outcomes which are comparable to the general population can be achieved among Malawian prisoners despite the challenging prison conditions.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320443

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The monitoring of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and examination of the factors affecting these outcomes are important for evaluation and feedback of the national TB control program. This study aims to assess the TB treatment outcomes among patients registered in the national TB surveillance database in Malaysia from 2014 until 2017 and identify factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes and all-cause mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using registry-based secondary data, a retrospective cohort study was conducted. TB patients' sociodemographic characteristics, clinical disease data and treatment outcomes at one-year surveillance were extracted from the database and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 97,505 TB cases (64.3% males) were included in this study. TB treatment success (cases categorized as cured and completed treatment) was observed in 80.7% of the patients. Among the 19.3% patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes, 10.2% died, 5.3% were lost to follow-up, 3.6% had outcomes not evaluated while the remaining failed treatment. Unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes were found to be associated with older age, males, foreign nationality, urban dwellers, lower education levels, passive detection of TB cases, absence of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar, underlying diabetes mellitus, smoking, extrapulmonary TB, history of previous TB treatment, advanced chest radiography findings and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Factors found associated with all-cause mortality were similar except for nationality (higher among Malaysians) and place of residence (higher among rural dwellers), while smoking and history of previous TB treatment were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified various sociodemographic characteristics and TB disease-related variables which were associated with unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes and mortality; these can be used to guide measures for risk assessment and stratification of TB patients in future.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/virologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 501, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of tuberculosis leads to clinical and public health benefits such as reduction in transmission, complications, and mortality among patients. However, data are limited on treatment outcomes and the associated factors among persons with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary (BC-PTB) in rural areas of high dual tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) burden countries such as Uganda. We investigated factors associated with successful treatment of tuberculosis and mortality among adult persons with BC-PTB in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: We constructed a retrospective cohort of persons with BC-PTB from a routine tuberculosis clinic database in eastern Uganda. We performed bivariate and multivariate analysis. Using a 5% level of significance, we ran a modified Poisson regression analysis to determine factors independently associated with treatment success and mortality rates. RESULTS: We retrieved 1123 records for persons with BC-PTB and the treatment outcomes were distributed as follows: 477(42.5%) cured, 323 (28.0%) treatment completed, 17(1.5%) treatment failed, 81(7.2%) died, 89(7.9%) lost to follow-up, and 136(12.1%) not evaluated. Overall, 800 (81.1%) of the 987 persons with BC-PTB that had treatment outcome, were successfully treated. Successful treatment of tuberculosis was less likely to occur among those with HIV infection (Adjusted risk ratio (aRR), 0.88; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.82-0.95), older than 50 years (aRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.97), or male sex (aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98). Mortality was associated with HIV infection (aRR, 4.48; 95% CI, 2.95-6.79), older than 50 years (aRR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.74-4.92), year of enrollment into treatment after 2015 (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97), and Community-Based Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (aRR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13-0.50). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment success rate among adult persons with BC-PTB in rural eastern Uganda is suboptimal and mortality rate is high. HIV infection and older age reduce chances of treatment success, and increase mortality rate. Older and HIV infected persons with BC-PTB will require special consideration to optimize treatment success rate and reduce mortality rate.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233791
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 112-118, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnosis, treatment outcomes, and predictors of mortality in adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in an urban setting with a high HIV prevalence. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of adult TB patients aged ≥15 years who were treated at Connaught Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone from January through December 2017. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Of 1127 TB cases notified in 2017, 1105 (98%) were tested for HIV, yielding a TB/HIV co-infection rate of 32.0%. Only HIV-tested cases (n=1105) were included in the final analysis. The majority were male (69.3%), aged 25-34 years (29.2%), and had pulmonary TB (96.3%). Treatment outcomes were as follows: 29.0% cured, 29.0% completed, 0.5% treatment failure, 24.2% lost to follow-up, 12.8% transferred/not evaluated, and 4.5% died. The majority of deaths (80.0%, 40/50) occurred within 2 months of TB treatment initiation. Age 65 years or older (adjusted odds ratio 3.48, 95% confidence interval 1.15-10.56; p=0.027) and HIV-positive status (adjusted odds ratio 3.50, 95% confidence interval 1.72-7.12; p=0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal TB treatment outcomes were observed in Sierra Leone in 2017. More local and international action is warranted to help achieve the 2035 global TB elimination targets.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 300, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem with substantial financial burden in China. The incidence of TB in Guangxi province is much higher than that in the national level, however, there is no predictive study of TB in recent years in Guangxi, therefore, it is urgent to construct a model to predict the incidence of TB, which could provide help for the prevention and control of TB. METHODS: Box-Jenkins model methods have been successfully applied to predict the incidence of infectious disease. In this study, based on the analysis of TB incidence in Guangxi from January 2012 to June 2019, we constructed TB prediction model by Box-Jenkins methods, and used root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) to test the performance and prediction accuracy of model. RESULTS: From January 2012 to June 2019, a total of 587,344 cases of TB were reported and 879 cases died in Guangxi. Based on TB incidence from January 2012 to December 2018, the SARIMA((2),0,(2))(0,1,0)12 model was established, the AIC and SC of this model were 2.87 and 2.98, the fitting accuracy indexes, such as RMSE, MAE and MAPE were 0.98, 0.77 and 5.8 respectively; the prediction accuracy indexes, such as RMSE, MAE and MAPE were 0.62, 0.45 and 3.77, respectively. Based on the SARIMA((2),0,(2))(0,1,0)12 model, we predicted the TB incidence in Guangxi from July 2019 to December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This study filled the gap in the prediction of TB incidence in Guangxi in recent years. The established SARIMA((2),0,(2))(0,1,0)12 model has high prediction accuracy and good prediction performance. The results suggested the change trend of TB incidence predicted by SARIMA((2),0,(2))(0,1,0)12 model from July 2019 to December 2020 was similar to that in the previous two years, and TB incidence will experience slight decrease, the predicted results can provide scientific reference for the prevention and control of TB in Guangxi, China.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Software , Tuberculose/mortalidade
17.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-47095

RESUMO

As novas orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) ajudarão a acelerar os esforços dos países para impedir que pessoas infectadas com tuberculose (TB) desenvolvam a doença, graças à administração de tratamento preventivo. Estima-se que um quarto da população mundial está infectada com o bacilo da tuberculose.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(11): 281-285, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191687

RESUMO

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease agent (1), including among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2). A World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, The End Tuberculosis Strategy, set ambitious targets for 2020-2035, including 20% reduction in TB incidence and 35% reduction in the absolute number of TB deaths by 2020 and 90% reduction in TB incidence and 95% reduction in TB deaths by 2035, compared with 2015 (3). This report evaluated global progress toward these targets based on data reported by WHO (1). Annual TB data routinely reported to WHO by 194 member states were used to estimate TB incidence and mortality overall and among persons with HIV infection, TB-preventive treatment (TPT) initiation, and drug-resistant TB for 2018 (1). In 2018, an estimated 10 million persons had incident TB, and 1.5 million TB-related deaths occurred, representing 2% and 5% declines from 2017, respectively. The number of persons with both incident and prevalent TB remained highest in the WHO South-East Asia and African regions. Decreases in the European region were on track to meet 2020 targets. Globally, among persons living with HIV, 862,000 incident TB cases occurred, and 1.8 million persons initiated TPT. Rifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant TB occurred among 3.4% of persons with new TB and 18% among persons who were previously treated for TB (overall, among 4.8% of persons with TB). The modest decreases in the number of persons with TB and the number of TB-related deaths were consistent with recent trends, and new and substantial progress was observed in increased TPT initiation among persons living with HIV. However, to meet the global targets for 2035, more intensive efforts are needed by public health partners to decrease TB incidence and deaths and increase the number of persons receiving TB curative and preventive treatment. Innovative approaches to case finding, scale-up of TB preventive treatment, use of newer TB treatment regimens, and prevention and control of HIV will contribute to decreasing TB.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Humanos , Incidência , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Organização Mundial da Saúde
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200017, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The trend toward stabilization regarding the AIDS epidemic in Brazil over the past decade hides a very complex scenario, where two-thirds of the Brazilian federative units exhibit AIDS standardized mortality rates (ASMR) significantly above the national average and/or in upward tendency. ASMR in Rio de Janeiro State remains virtually unchanged over the years; the state currently occupies the second position in the national ranking of this indicator. OBJECTIVE: To assess temporal trends in causes of death searching for differential profiles that could be useful for understanding mortality among patients with HIV in the state. METHODOLOGY: Causes of death were analyzed in any field of the death certificates from the Mortality Information System between 1999 and 2015 for individuals ≥ 15 years of age. Cardiovascular diseases, non-AIDS-related cancers, external causes, diabetes mellitus, and tuberculosis were established by the mention or not of their codes according to the 10th edition of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) in death certificates. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to describe odds ratios in relation to 1999 and adjusted mean annual variations. RESULTS: The results point to the emerging role of external causes and genitourinary diseases and the persistent role played by tuberculosis, differentially affecting AIDS mortality in the state, in a scenario of high mortality due to infectious diseases. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that tuberculosis remains a major cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Rio de Janeiro, highlighting the need for studies that identify individual-level factors impacting their survival, thus improving local HIV/AIDS control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 711: 134580, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000313

RESUMO

Trees can sequester air pollutants, and air pollution is associated with poor tuberculosis outcomes. However, the health impacts of urban trees on tuberculosis patients are unknown. To elucidate the effects of urban tree canopy on mortality during tuberculosis treatment, we evaluated patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis in California from 2000 through 2012, obtaining patient data from the California tuberculosis registry. Our primary outcome was all-cause mortality during tuberculosis treatment. We determined percent tree cover using 1 mresolution color infrared orthoimagery categorized into land cover classes, then linked tree cover to four circular buffer zones of 50-300 m radii around patient residential addresses. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate survival probabilities and Cox regression models to determine mortality hazard ratios, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical covariates. Our cohort included 33,962 tuberculosis patients of median age 47, 59% male, 51% unemployed, and 4.9% HIV positive. Tuberculosis was microbiologically confirmed in 79%, and 1.17% were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Median tree cover was 7.9% (50 m buffer). Patients were followed for 23,280 person-years with 2370 deaths during tuberculosis treatment resulting in a crude mortality rate of 1018 deaths per 10,000 person-years. Increasing tree cover quintiles were associated with decreasing mortality risk during tuberculosis treatment in all buffers, and the magnitude of association decreased incrementally with increasing buffer radius: In the 50 m buffer, patients living in neighborhoods with the highest quintile tree cover experienced a 22% reduction in mortality (HR 0.78, 95%CI 0.68-0.90) compared to those living in lowest quintile tree cover; whereas for 100, 200, and 300 m buffers, a 21%, 13%, and 11% mortality risk reduction was evident. In conclusion, urban tree canopy was associated with decreased mortality during tuberculosis treatment even after adjusting for multiple demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors, suggesting that trees might play a role in improving tuberculosis outcomes.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Árvores , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde
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